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- Iridopelma Pocock 1901:549; Raven 1985:119; Smith 1993:15, f. 1–10; Platnick 2012.
- Avicularia: Simon 1903:960 (in part: Avicularia hirsuta); Schmidt 1986:61, f. 109–110.
- Typhochlaena: Mello-Leitão 1923:332 (in part: Typhochlaena pococki, superfluous new name).
Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 by original designation.
Males of Iridopelma species differ from those of other aviculariines in the presence of tibial spurs on both leg I (Fig. 85) and II (Fig. 86). Females differ from those of all other aviculariines, except Avicularia and Typhochlaena, in that the anterior eye row is strongly procurved. Iridoplema further differs from Typhochlaena in that the most distal PLS segment is digitiform; from Avicularia in possessing spermatheca lacking an accentuated curvature medially.
Carapace longer than wide, cephalic region moderately raised. Cephalic and thoracic striae conspicuous. Fovea straight, shallow or deep. Chelicerae without rastellum. Eye tubercle raised (Fig. 91), wider than long. Clypeus narrow (Fig. 92). Anterior eye row procurved (Fig. 92). Labium wider than long, with 40–200 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on the anterior third center. Maxillary lyra absent. Maxilla subrectangular, anterior lobe distinctly produced in to conical process, inner angle bearing (75–150) cuspules. Sternum wider than long (Fig. 93). Posterior angle not separating coxae IV. Three pairs of sigillae, all rounded, less than one diameter from margin. Leg formula: I=IV II III (all females, males of Iridopelma vanini sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n. andIridopelma zorodes) or I IV II III (males of Iridopelma hirsutum and Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n.). Clavate trichobothria on the distal 2/3 of tarsi I–IV. STC of males and femalewithout teeth. Tarsi I–III fully scopulated, IV divided by a band of setae or scopula integral. Scopulae of tarsi and metatarsi I–II extended very laterally giving them a spatulate appearance. Femur IV without retrolateral scopula. Legs lacking spines. Posterior lateral spinneret distally elongating, digitiform (Fig. 94). Stridulatory setae absent. Cymbium with two subequal lobes, the prolateral one triangular in shape. Male spur on tibia I (Fig. 85) and II (Fig. 86). Male metatarsus I straight. Male palpal bulb globose narrowing abruptly forming a long slender embolus, 1.8 times (Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n.) (Figs 156–158), 2.4–2.7 times (Iridopelma hirsutum, Iridopelma zorodes) (Figs 81–83, 107–109) or 3.3 times (Iridopelma vanini sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n.) (Figs 127–129, 134–136) longer than tegulum length, with curvature of roughly 60° (Iridopelma hirsutum) (Fig. 83), 90° (Iridopelma katiae sp. n.) (Fig. 136), 105° (Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n.) (Fig. 158), 115° (Iridopelma zorodes) (Fig. 109) or 135° (Iridopelma vanini sp. n.) (Fig. 129) to retrolateral side; keels absent, tegulum without prolateral depression. Paired straight spermathecae ending in two or three lobes (Iridopelma hirsutum, Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n., Iridopelma vanini sp. n., Iridopelma marcoi sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n.) (Figs 87–88, 161, 132, 166, 139), or a single lobe (Iridopelma zorodes) (Fig. 112); with a single apical fold (Iridopelma hirsutum, Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n.) (Figs 87–88, 161), double folded (Iridopelma marcoi sp. n., Iridopelma vanini sp. n.) (Figs 166, 132), or without folds (Iridopelma zorodes, Iridopelma katiae sp. n.) (Figs 112, 139). Cymbium with well developed spiniform process (Fig. 84). Type II urticating hair on abdomen dorsum of males and females (most species), or absent in adult females (Iridopelma marcoi sp. n.). Color pattern ontogeny present.
Male Iridopelma marcoi sp. n. are currently unknown.
Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 (Figs 81–106, 119–122, 169), Iridopelma zorodes (Mello-Leitão, 1926) (Figs 107–118, 123–126, 169), Iridopelma vanini sp. n. (Figs 127–133, 150–152, 169), Iridopelma katiae sp. n. (Figs 134–149, 153–155, 169), Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n. (Figs 156–165, 169), Iridopelma marcoi sp. n. (Figs 166–169).
Distribution and habitat
Brazil: Northeastern, from Reconcave region in state of Bahia northwards. Few records for states of Para and Tocantins (Fig. 169). Specimens of Iridopelma spp. are mostly found in Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Figs 101–105). Some species occur in drier, open environments such as “cerrado” (Fig. 168), “caatinga” and “campo rupestre” (Figs 145–146). A single record is known from the Amazon.
Iridopelma hirsutum and Iridopelma zorodes build retreats connecting leaves with silk threads (Figs 101–105). Iridopelma katiae sp. n. make retreats inside bromelids (Figs 147–149). Habitat preference of other Iridopelma species is in need of confirmation.
Color pattern ontogeny
Iridopelma hirsutum, Iridopelma zorodes and Iridopelma katiae sp. n. color pattern changes dramatically from juvenile to adult stages. Data is insufficient for Iridopelma vanini sp. n., Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n. and Iridopelma marcoi sp. n.
Key to species of Iridopelma
(Male Iridopelma marcoi sp. n. is unknown)
- Bertani, R; 2012: Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) ZooKeys, 230: 1-94. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.230.3500
- Pocock R (1901) Some new and old genera of South American Aviculariidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 7: 540-555. doi: 10.1080/03745480109443359
- Raven R (1985) The spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 182: 1–180. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/955
- Smith A (1993) Taxonomy focus. Journal of the British Tarantula Society 9: 13-18.
- Platnick N (2012) The world spider catalog version 12.5. American Museum of Natural History. Available from: http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/catalog , doi: 10.5531/db.iz.0001 [accessed June 2012].
- Simon E (1903) Histoire naturelle des araignées. Paris, Librarie Encyclopédique de Roret, 2: 669-1080.
- Schmidt G (1986) Vogelspinnen: Lebensweise, Bestimmungsschlüssel, Haltung und Zucht. Albrecht Philler Verlag, Minden, West Germany.
- Mello-Leitão C (1923) Theraphosoideas do Brasil. Revista do Museu Paulista 13: 1-438.