Iridopelma hirsutum

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Bertani R (2012) Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae). ZooKeys 230 : 1–94, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.230.3500. Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-23, version 27967, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Iridopelma_hirsutum&oldid=27967 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Bertani2012ZooKeys230,
author = {Bertani, Rogério},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)},
year = {2012},
volume = {230},
issue = {},
pages = {1--94},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.230.3500},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/3500/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-23, version 27967, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Iridopelma_hirsutum&oldid=27967 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)
A1 - Bertani R
Y1 - 2012
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 230
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.230.3500
SP - 1
EP - 94
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-23, version 27967, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Iridopelma_hirsutum&oldid=27967 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.230.3500

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Bertani2012ZooKeys230">{{Citation
| author = Bertani R
| title = Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2012
| volume = 230
| issue =
| pages = 1--94
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.230.3500
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/3500/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-01-21

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-23, version 27967, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Iridopelma_hirsutum&oldid=27967 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Theraphosidae
Genus: Iridopelma

Name

Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock 1901[1]:550; Smith 1993[2]:15, f. 1–10; Peters 2000[3]:34, f. 73–74; 2003[4]:209, f. 843–844; Platnick 2012[5].
  • Avicularia hirsuta: Simon 1903[6]:960; Petrunkevitch 1911[7]:50; Roewer 1942[8]:254; Bücherl 1957[9]:404, f. 93–93a; Schmidt 1986[10]:61, f. 109–110; 1993:102, f. 326–327; 2003:200, f. 574–575.
  • Typhochlaena pococki Mello-Leitão 1923[11]:333 (superfluous new name for Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901).
  • Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão 1945:170; Bücherl et al. 1971[12]:126, f. 44. syn. n.

Diagnosis

Males resemble those of Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n. by leg I longer than leg IV (leg IV/I length = 0.84, SD = 0.05). Can be further distinguished by narrow embolus ending in a curved tip (Figs 81–83) and by a pattern present on the abdomen dorsally (Fig. 100). Female resembles Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n. by diverging spermathecae twisted in apical portions (Figs 87–88). It differs by brown carapace and legs, and an obvious abdominal pattern (Fig. 99).

Types

Lectotype female (herein designated) a dissected adult female and 4 paralectotypes, 1 male, 3 immatures fom Pernambuco, Brazil, Royal Soc, H. N. Ridley (BMNH 1889-8-9-19) examined. Remarks: Smith (1993)[2] considered the male from Igarassu, collected by Ramage (BMNH 1888-47) to be the species type. However, he overlooked that Pocock (1901)[1] explicitly indicated in the original description the types as those from Pernambuco. Furthermore, Pocock (1901)[1] described both female and male, whereas Ramage’s material consists only of a single male.

Additional material examined

BRAZIL: Ceará: Fortaleza [3°43'S, 38°32'W], 1 male, H. A. Braga, 10 April 1947 (IBSP 3505); 1 male, M. P. Paiva, 16 November 1960 (IBSP 3555); 2 males, 1 female, D. Rocha (IBSP 3362); 1 immature, same collector (IBSP 3361); Rio Grande do Norte: Parnamirim [5°54'S, 35°15W], 1 male, C. A. Almeida, 9 April 1973 (IBSP 2741); 1 male, F. Kawata, November 2007 (IBSP 14685); Paraíba: 1 male, A. R. Roman, October 1980 (IBSP 4658); 1 immature, M. Ihering (MNRJ 42344); Cabedelo, Ilha da Restinga [7°00'S, 34°50'W], 1 female, P. F. L. Duarte, 12 November 1978 (IBSP 8082); João Pessoa [7°08'S, 34°51W], 2 males, P. F. L. Duarte (IBSP 9758); Campus da U.F.P.B., 1 male (IBSP 8077), 1 female, Robson and Paula, 29 September to 3 October (IBSP8079), 1 female, B. M. Grisi, 23 August 1977 (IBSP 8076), 1 male, P. F. L. Duarte, 30 November 1979 (IBSP 8078), 1 female, Carrocinha, 17 September 1976 (MNRJ 13778), 1 male, P. F. L. Duarte, 1976 (MNRJ 13745), 1 immature, P. F. L. Duarte, 5 May 1977 (MNRJ 13549); Pernambuco: 1 male, P. F. L. Duarte (IBSP 9757); Camocim de São Félix [8°21'S, 35°45'W], 1 immatue, Vera Lúcia, 25 November 1969 (IBSP 8081); Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Sucupira [8°06'S, 34°58'W], 1 immature, J. M. Arcanjo, 21 May 1969, on bromeliads (IBSP 3986A); Igarassu [7°50'S, 34°54'W], 1 male, G. A. Ramage (BMNH 1888-47); Olinda [8°00'S, 34°51'W], 2 females, 8 immatures, A. T. Coelho, 1963, on bushes (IBSP 8080); Recife [8°03'S, 34°52'W], 1 female, M. F. Santos, May 1985 (IBSP 2741); Rio Formoso, Reserva Biológica de Saltinho (8°43'5.99"S, 35°10'7.08"W), 1 male, R. Bertani, D. R. M. Ortega and R. H. Nagahama, 9 August 2006, at night, with retreat made with silk and two leaves, 1 m above the ground (MZSP 36884); 1 female, same colectors, 8 August 2006 (MZSP 36885); 1 female, same collectors, 10 August 2006, at night, on a leaf 0.5 m above the ground (MZSP 36886); 1 immature, same collectors, 9 August 2006, at night in palm tree, inside retreat made with silk and two leaves, 1 m above the ground (MZSP 36887), 2 immatures, 12 May 1969 (MNRJ 13721); Alagoas: Coruripe, Barragem da Fazenda Capiatã I, Usina Coruripe [10°08'S, 36°10'W], 1 male, E. C. Santos and R. C. T. Aquino (ex MUFAL 269), October 2004 (IBSP 12583), Murici, Estação Ecológica de Murici, Ufal (9°15'1.86"S, 35°51'0.17"W), 200 m a.s.l., 1 female, R. Bertani, D. R. M. Ortega and R. H. Nagahama, 17 August 2006, at night, inside reatreat made with silk and two leaves, 1 m above the ground (MNRJ 06249); 1 immature, same colectors, 12 August 2006, at night, in a web built between two Heliconia leaves (MNRJ 06250); (9°14'1.73"S, 35°50'1.61"W), 575 m a.s.l., 1 female, same collectors, 16 August 2006, at night in a wall of an abandoned house (MNRJ 06251); 1 female, same data (MNRJ 06252); without locality (Cidade Universitaria), 1 male, M. N. Marques, 11 May 1980 (MNRJ 13782).

Redescription

Female (MNRJ 06249) from Murici, state of Alagoas, Brazil. Carapace 15.0 long, 14.4 wide, chelicerae 9.0. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 13.4, 7.6, 10.4, 9.6, 5.3, 46.3. II: 12.3, 7.0, 8.8, 9.3, 4.9, 42.3. III: 10.4, 6.0, 8.0, 8.6, 4.6, 37.6. IV: 12.6, 6.2, 10.5, 10.9, 4.7, 44.9. Palp: 9.4, 5.2, 6.2, –, 6.2, 27.0. Mid-widths (lateral): femora I –IV = 2.8, 2.8, 3.1, 2.8, palp = 2.2; patellae I–IV = 2.9, 2.8, 2.7, 2.7, palp = 2.4; tibiae I–IV = 2.7, 2.5, 2.5, 2.6, palp = 2.3; metatarsi I–IV = 2.2, 2.2, 1.8, 1.6; tarsi I–IV = 2.2, 2.2, 2.0, 2.3, palp = 2.5. Abdomen 21.5 long, 16.0 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.8 long, 0.7 wide, 0.4 apart; PLS, 2.3 basal, 1.6 middle, 2.5 distal; mid-widths (lateral), 1.9, 1.4, 0.9, respectively. Carapace: length to width 1.04. Fovea: shallow, 2.3 wide. Eyes: tubercle 0.6 high, 2.4 long, 2.8 wide. Clypeus 0.6. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior straight. Eye sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.6, ALE 0.6, PME 0.4, PLE 0.6, AME–AME 0.6, AME–ALE 0.5, AME–PME 0.3, ALE–ALE 2.0, ALE–PME 0.7, PME–PME 1.6, PME–PLE 0.08, PLE–PLE 2.1, ALE–PLE 0.4, AME–PLE 0.4. Ratio of eye group width to length 2.0. Maxillae: length to width: 2.1. Cuspules: 90–100 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.1 long, 2.2 wide, with 70–90 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on the anterior third. Labio-sternal groove deep, narrow, sigilla not evident. Chelicerae: basal segments with ten teeth decreasing in size from distal to basal portion. Sternum: 6.9 long, 6.2 wide. Legs: leg formula: I=IV II III. Scopula: tarsi I–III fully scopulate, IV basal half divided by row of 6–7 setae. Metatarsi I–II 4/5 scopulate; III 2/3, IV 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by three wide row of setae. Urticating hairs type II (0.53 to 0.61 long, 0.015 wide) on abdomen dorsum. Genitalia: paired diverging spermathecae tapering from the basally to the apex, folding on medially and with a strong constriction forming two (more rarely one or three) distal lobes (Figs 87–88). Color pattern: carapace, chelicerae, legs and palps brown with light brown setae, except for femora, patellae and tibiae of leg I-II and patellae and tibiae of leg III, blackish ventrally and prolaterally and tibiae and metatarsi of leg IV, darkened ventrally. Sternum, coxae, labium, maxillae black. Longitudinal stripes on dorsum of femora, patellae, tibiae and metatarsi whitish, more conspicuous on the patellae. Distal femora, patellae, tibiae and metatarsi with white rings. Tarsi with a dorsal “U” shaped orange stripe. Abdomen dorsum brown with long light brown setae; a longitudinal large darker stripe on its center. Ventrally black (Fig. 99).

Redescription

Male (MZSP 36884) from Rio Formoso, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Carapace 10.4 long, 10.0 wide, chelicerae 5.7. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 13.2, 5.8, 10.9, 11.0, 5.3, 46.2. II: 11.9, 5.3, 9.7, 9.6, 4.9, 41,4. III: 9.8, 4.5, 7.6, 8.3, 3.9, 34.1. IV: 11.7, 4.7, 10.2, 11.0, 4.3, 41.9. Palp: 7.1, 3.9, 5.3, –, 2.2, 18.5. Mid-widths (lateral): femora I–IV = 1.8, 1.7, 2.0, 1.8, palp = 1.3; patellae I–IV = 1.8, 1.9, 1.7, 1.9, palp = 1.6; tibiae I–IV = 1.5, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, palp = 1.5; metatarsi I–IV = 1.1, 1.0, 1.1, 1.1; tarsi I–IV = 1.1, 1.3, 1.2, 1.1, palp = 1.4. Abdomen 11.2 long, 7.6 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.4 long, 0.5 wide, 0.2 apart; PLS, 2.3 basal, 1.1 middle, 1.7 distal; mid-widths (lateral), 0.8, 0.6, 0.5, respectively. Carapace: length to width 1.01. Fovea: shallow, 1.6 wide. Eyes: tubercle 0.4 high, 1.6 long, 2.1 wide. Clypeus 0.5. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior straight. Eye sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.5, ALE 0.5, PME 0.4, PLE 0.5, AME–AME 0.6, AME–ALE 0.3, AME–PME 0.1, ALE–ALE 1.3, ALE–PME 0.5, PME–PME 1.2, PME–PLE 0.08, PLE–PLE 1.3, ALE–PLE 0.3, AME–PLE 0.4. Ratio of eye group width to length 2.0. Other characters as in female, except: maxillae: length to width: 2.1. Cuspules: 75–80 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.2 long, 1.6 wide, with 50 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on the anterior third center. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, with two sigilla. Chelicerae: basal segments with eigth teeth decreasing in size from distal to basal portion. Sternum: 5.0 long, 4.7 wide. Legs: leg formula: I IV II III. Scopula: tarsi I–IV fully scopulate, IV divided by three row of setae. Metatarsi I 4/5 scopulate; II 2/3 scopulate; III 1/2 distal scopulate; IV 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by three wide row of setae. Tibial spurs. Legs: I, single, 0.6 long, 1.1 wide, with numerous spiniform setae on its tip (Fig. 85); II, single, without elevation, formed by numerous spiniform setae (Fig. 86). Urticating hairs type II (0.88 to 0.95 long, 0.015 wide) on abdomen dorsum. Palp: embolus 2.6 long, with a 60° curvature to the retrolateral side. Embolus basal, middle and distal width of 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05, respectively. Tegulum 1.1 long, 1.5 wide. (Figs 81–83). Cymbium: spiniform process 0.8 long, 0.4 wide on the apex (fig. 84). Color pattern as in female, except for legs dorsally and ventrally brown with light brown setae; coxa I with distal ventro-retrolateral margin, II with distal half and III–IV completely brown with light brown setae; dorsum of abdomen with a longitudinal stripe of reddish urticating hairs (Fig. 100).

Distribution

Brazil: From state of Ceará southwards to the state of Alagoas (Fig. 169).

Spermathecae variation

Typical spermatheca diverges and tapers from base to apex, folds after its middle and has a strong constriction forming two distal lobes (Figs 87, 119, 121). More rarely, there is one lobe on both (Figs 88, 120) spermathecae or even three lobes (Fig. 122). Relative length and width vary, mainly in smaller specimens (Figs 119–122). However, even small spermathecae are already folded after their middle.

Natural history

Individuals of Iridopelma hirsutum are known to inhabit remnants of Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Of eight specimens collected in Reserva Biológica de Saltinho, state of Pernambuco, and Estação Ecológica de Murici, state of Alagoas, six were found inside or close to retreats on leaves and two adult females were walking on the inner walls of an abandoned house (Fig. 106). They normally build a retreat with two leaves connected with silk threads (Figs 101, 102, 104–105) on different plants such as Piperaceae, Melastomataceae, Palmae (Fig. 101), “Guapeba” (Sapotaceae) (Fig. 105) and other not identified (Figs 102, 104). Ocasionally, they can be found with retreats in a single leaf, as in rolled Heliconiaceae leaf (Fig. 103). Retreat was above ground 0.5 to 1.0 m, but this was affected by collector’s inability to search for specimens high in the vegetation. No adult males or females with eggsacs were found in the excursion period (August).

Color pattern ontogeny

Juveniles have most of the carapace, chelicerae and legs metallic green (Figs 95–96). Coxae, trochantera, basal femora dorsally and parts of the chelicerae are light brown. The abdomen is black with a light central longitudinal large spot having zigzag edges and a longitudinal central black stripe over a more reddish area. The sternum, coxae, labium and abdomen are ventrally black. As the juveniles mature, the metallic green coloration changes to brown (Fig. 97) and the central spot on dorsal abdomen becomes totally reddish (Fig. 98). In the adult females, parts of the abdominal pattern remain, the longitudinal central black stripe is broader, and the reddish area becomes inconspicuous (Fig. 99). Adult males also retain an abdominal pattern, and the reddish area is normally conspicuous (Fig. 100).

Remarks

Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945, holotype female from Brazil, Paraíba, Mumbaba, Aristóteles Silva, collected in coconut tree (MNRJ 2328), examined. The specimen is an aviculariine female with first eye row procurved and spermathecae having a single fold and bilobed at distal portion. These characters agree with Iridopelma and spermathecae shape is typical of Iridopelma hirsutum. Therefore, Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is transferred to Iridopelma and considered a junior-synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.

Taxon Treatment

  • Bertani, R; 2012: Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) ZooKeys, 230: 1-94. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.230.3500

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Pocock R (1901) Some new and old genera of South American Aviculariidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 7: 540-555. doi: 10.1080/03745480109443359
  2. 2.0 2.1 Smith A (1993) Taxonomy focus. Journal of the British Tarantula Society 9: 13-18.
  3. Peters H (2000) Tarantulas of the World: Kleiner Atlas der Vogelspinnen - Band 2. Published by the author, 162 pp.
  4. Peters H (2003) Tarantulas of the World: Amerika’s Vogelspinnen. Published by the author, Wegberg, Germany, 328 pp.
  5. Platnick N (2012) The world spider catalog version 12.5. American Museum of Natural History. Available from: http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/catalog , doi: 10.5531/db.iz.0001 [accessed June 2012].
  6. Simon E (1903) Histoire naturelle des araignées. Paris, Librarie Encyclopédique de Roret, 2: 669-1080.
  7. Petrunkevitch A (1911) A synonymic index-catalogue of spiders of North, Central and South America with all adjacent islands, Greenland, Bermuda, West Indies, Terra del Fuego, Galapagos, etc. Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 29: 1–791. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/1135 doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.23819
  8. Roewer C (1942) Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940. Bremen, 1: 1-1040.
  9. Bücherl W (1957) Sôbre a importância dos bulbos copuladores e das apófises tibiais dos machos na sistemática das aranhas caranguejeiras (Orthognatha). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 29: 377-416.
  10. Schmidt G (1986) Vogelspinnen: Lebensweise, Bestimmungsschlüssel, Haltung und Zucht. Albrecht Philler Verlag, Minden, West Germany.
  11. Mello-Leitão C (1923) Theraphosoideas do Brasil. Revista do Museu Paulista 13: 1-438.
  12. Bücherl W, Timotheo-da-Costa A, Lucas S (1971) Revisão de alguns tipos de aranhas caranguejeiras (Orthognatha) estabelecidos por Cândido de Mello-Leitão e depositados no Museu Nacional do Rio. Memórias do Instituto Butantan 35: 117-138.

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