Avicularia rufa

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Fukushima C, Bertani R (2017) Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01. ZooKeys (659) : 1–185, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2017-03-02, version 136808, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Avicularia_rufa&oldid=136808 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Fukushima2017ZooKeys,
author = {Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri AND Bertani, Rogério},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01},
year = {2017},
volume = {},
issue = {659},
pages = {1--185},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.659.10717},
url = {http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10717},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2017-03-02, version 136808, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Avicularia_rufa&oldid=136808 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01
A1 - Fukushima C
A1 - Bertani R
Y1 - 2017
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL -
IS - 659
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.659.10717
SP - 1
EP - 185
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2017-03-02, version 136808, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Avicularia_rufa&oldid=136808 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.659.10717

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Fukushima2017ZooKeys">{{Citation
| author = Fukushima C, Bertani R
| title = Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2017
| volume =
| issue = 659
| pages = 1--185
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.659.10717
| url = http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10717
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-05-27

}} Versioned wiki page: 2017-03-02, version 136808, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Avicularia_rufa&oldid=136808 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: ORDO
Familia: FAMILIA
Genus: Avicularia

Name

Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Diagnosis

males and females of Avicularia rufa resemble Avicularia avicularia and female of Avicularia hirschii by the leg IV longer than leg I. Females of Avicularia rufa can be distinguished from those of Avicularia hirschii by the non-twisted spermathecae. Females and males of Avicularia rufa differ from those of Avicularia avicularia by having vivid yellow rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi combined with legs and palps with very grizzled guard-setae (Fig. 145) (from all morphotypes of Avicularia avicularia except 6 and 7, but these have intense green metallic sheen on carapace and legs, absent in Avicularia rufa).

Material examined

1 female, Brazil, Mato Grosso, between Vale de São Domingos [15°17'S, 59°03'W] (Vale de São Lourenço [sic]) and Pontes & Lacerda [15°12'S, 59°19'W], Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 14 December 2002, RGI 1963 (IBSP 10264) and 2 males and 1 immature female, Brazil, Mato Grosso, Operação Coatá col., 1–20 July 2002 (MCP 13592).

Additional material

BRAZIL: no further data: 1 female, 1 immature (IBSP 2157); 1 female (IBSP 3170); 7 immatures, G. Raidar col., 14 May 1951 (IBSP 2620); 1 female (IBSP 4368); 2 males (MZUSP 22501); 2 females (IBSP 1393); Amapá: Serra do Navio [1°38'N, 52°12'W], 2 immature males (IBSP 3703); Amazonas: Rodovia Transamazônica, km 530, 1 male, 23 October 1975 (IBSP 7895); Transamazônica Humaitá–Porto Velho, 1 immature, Dr. A. H. Hoge col., ref. 4102, July 1972 (IBSP 4102); Barcelos [0°57'S, 62°55'W], Parque Nacional do Jaú, Lago do Miratuca, 1 female, R. Andriazze, W. L. S. Costa & L. Aquino col., 14 July 1993 (INPA 4884); Boca do Jacaré [5°45'S, 63°41'W], Rio Solimões, 1 female (IBSP 3110); Boca do Tefé [3°19'S, 64°43'W], Rio Solimões, 1 female (IBSP 3104); 2 females, 1 immature male (IBSP 3099); 1 female, 3 immatures (IBSP ref.189); 1 male (IBSP 3101); 1 female (IBSP 3103); 1 immature male (IBSP 3102); 2 immatures (IBSP 3100); Boca do Tefé [3°19'S, 64°43'W], Rio Solimões, 5 females, 1 male, 2 immatures males, 5 immatures (IBSP 3104, IBSP 3099, IBSP ref. 189, IBSP 3103, IBSP 3101, IBSP 3102, IBSP 3100); Cucuí [1°11'N, 66°49'W], 1 juvenile female, P. Serveira col., November 1975, ref.17.595 (IBSP 2569); Humaitá [7°30'S, 63°01'W], 1 female, in silk retreat in a palm tree (IBSP 7932); 1 male, 4 females, L. R. Latorre col., November 1981, ref. 40348 (IBSP 4686, IBSP 4687); pottery and pineapple crop, 1 male, 1 juvenile female, 1 immature male, 2 immatures, Dr. A. R. Hoge col., July 1972, IB 24.8.72 (IBSP 4099); Transamazônica, km 86, 1 male, 23 July 1972 (IBSP 4100); Puruzinho, Rio Madeira [6°52'S, 62°05'W], 1 female, EPA col., 4 December 1975 (MZUSP 27610); Rio Negro [3°09'S, 59°57'W], 2 males, 1 female, A. McKee col., 19 April 1989 (AMNH RW67, AMNH RW25, AMNH RW27); 2 females, A. McKee col., 29 June 1988 (AMNH RW29, AMNH RW28); 1 immature male, R. Mascarino col., 18 September 1996 (AMNH RW30); Tapera [0°55'N, 67°26'W], Rio Negro, 1 immature male, EPA col., 4 November 1972, P. E. Vanzolini col., 722574 (MZUSP unnumbered); Tefé [3°20'S, 64°43'W], 1 male, 1 female, De Mathan col. (MNHN–AR 4903); 3 females, 1 immature (IBSP 193); 2 immature females, 2 immatures (IBSP 184); Pará: Belém [1°27'S, 48°30'W], IAN, 1 immature male (IBSP 3123); Belterra [3°07'S, 55°03'W], 1 female, 15 March 2003 (MPEG 4800); Itaituba [4°16'S, 55°59'W], Rio Maropa, 1 male, W. G. Ravem col., ref. 41844 (IBSP 8576); 1 female, dead 25 April 1990 (IBSP ref. 41.844); Óbidos [1°54'S, 55°31'W], Igarapé Jaramacaru, Campos do Ariramba, 1 immature male, EPA col., 24 January 1960 (MZUSP 14873); São Félix do Xingu [6°37'S, 51°58'W], 1 male, 1 female, G. Whitaker col., July 1980, ref. 28300 (IBSP 4562); Tomé-Assu [2°25'S, 48°09'W] (Thomé Assu [sic]), Rio Acará Mirim, 1 female (IBSP 3105); Tucuruí [3°46'S, 49°40'W], 1 female, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., Ref. IBA 218 (IBSP 8574); Vila Bravo, 1 female, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., ref. B410-12C (IBSP 8577); Acre: Rio Branco [9°58'S, 67°48'W], Catuaba, 1 immature male, A03, April 1996 (IBSP unnumbered); Marechal Thaumaturgo, Terra Indígena Jaminawa-Arara, Rio Bagé, Aldeia Buritizal, [8°56'S, 72°47'W], 1 immature, 02 September 2000, 9AM, Coleção de Simone Ladeia Andrade (MZUSP 70947); Rondônia: Candeias do Jamari, UHE Samuel [8°45'S, 63°27'W], 1 female, W. Bokerman col., June 1989 (AMNH RW24); Jaru [10°26'S, 62°28'W], Santa Cruz da Serra, 2 females, Expedição Polo Noroeste col., 23–27 December 1964 (MZUSP 11065); Monte Negro [10°14'S, 63°17'W], 1 immature male, 1 female, 1 juvenile female, R. Bertani & P. I. da Silva Junior col., 22 July to 03 August 2002 (IBSP 10042, IBSP 10218, IBSP 10945, respectively); Núcleo Avançado de Pesquisa de Monte Negro, 1 male, L. M. A. Camargo col., June 2002, ref. 89431 (IBSP 1028); 1 juvenile female, L. M. A. Camargo col., 06 April 2002, ref. 89430 (IBSP 10205); Porto Velho [8°43'S, 63°53'W], 1 male, G. Insley col., 31 August 1973, ref. 12732 (IBSP 2454); 1 male, G. Insley col., 9 October 1973, ref. 12922 (IBSP 2483); Santa Luzia d’Oeste [11°54'S, 61°46'W], 1 immature female, R. Moterani col., July 1999 (IBSP 9538); Mato Grosso: Alto Xingu [7°16'S, 52°36'W], 1 male, H. Schulze col., 21 October 1964 (IBSP 3693); Barra do Bugres [15°03'S, 57°10'W], Cia Paulista de Ferro Ligas, 1 immature, 26 July 1971, ref. 7624 (IBSP 4103); 1 immature, A. Cerrutti col., November 1984 (MNRJ 12942); Chapada dos Guimarães [15°26'S, 55°44'W], UHE Rio Manso, 1 female, Faunal Rescue Team of Furnas col., 2000 (IBSP 9087); 1 female, H. N. da Cunha col., December 1976 (IBSP 13805); Rio Kuluene (Koluene [sic]) [13°22'S, 52°59'W], 1 immature male, J. M. C. Carvalho col., 1947 (MNRJ 13.773); Lagoa Ipavu [12°7'S, 53°26'W] (Lagoa Ipavi [sic]), 1 immature male, 1 juvenile female, P. Vanzolini col., 1965 (MZUSP E3474 C3918); Nova Mutum [13°49'S, 56°05'W], 1 female, R. K. Ribeiro col., 06–15 July 2001 (IBSP 10929); Parque Nacional Xingu [11°59'S, 54°00'W], 1 male, C. Andreatta col., March 1968 (IBSP 39A); 2 immatures, Alvarenga & Werner col., November 1961 (AMNH 1.19); São José do Rio Claro [13°25'S, 56°42'W], 2 males, M. Caleffo col., June 1997 (IBSP 10309); Sinop [11°52'S, 55°29'W], 1 immature, 4 March 1977, ref. 20109 (IBSP 4455); Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade [15°00'S, 59°57'W] (Villebela [sic]), Rio Serra Azul, 1 male, Dr. Hoge col., 27 June 1962 (IBSP 3614); Maloca Feia, 1 female, Dr. Hoge, Pedro & Joaquim col., 27 June 1962 (IBSP 3615); Between Vale de São Domingos [15°17'S, 59°03'W] ([sic] Vale de São Lourenço) and Pontes & Lacerda [15°14'S, 59°19'W], UHE Guaporé, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col.: 1 juvenile female, 17 May 2002, RGI 074 (IBSP 10274); 1 juvenile female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 18 May 2002, RGI 086 (IBSP 10253); 1 juvenile female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 14 September 2002, RGI 1871 (IBSP 10262); 2 females, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col.,1 October 2002, RGI 2527, RGI 2528 (IBSP 10241, IBSP10242, respectively); 2 females, 5 juvenile females, 3 immature males, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 03 October 2002, RGI 2299, RGI 2516, RGI 2313, RGI 2518, RGI 2300, RGI 2314, RGI 2517, RGI 2315, RGI 2316, RGI 2302 (IBSP 10232, IBSP 10224, IBSP 10246, IBSP 10226, IBSP 10233, IBSP 10247, IBSP 10225, IBSP 10248, IBSP 10249, IBSP 10235, respectively); 1 female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 05 October 2002, RGI 1871 (IBSP 10220); 1 immature female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 7 October 2002, RGI 1871 (IBSP 10230); 1 female, 2 juvenile females, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 08 October 2002, RGI 1773, RGI 1774, RGI 1775 (IBSP 10275, IBSP 10279, IBSP 10278, respectively); 1 immature, S2, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 8 October 2002 (IBSP unnumbered); 2 females, 1 juvenile female, 1 immature male, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 14 October 2002, RGI-, RGI 1962, RGI 1964, RGI 1966 (IBSP 10256, IBSP 10263, IBSP 10255, IBSP 10257, respectively); 1 female, Operação Coatá, I. Knysak col., 01 December 2002, RGI 2526 (IBSP 10240); 1 immature male, 03 December 2002, RGI 2301 (IBSP 10234); U.H.E. Guaporé [15°16'S, 59°04'W], Operação Coatá, 2 females, 1 juvenile female, 4–14 October 2002 (MCP 13595); 1 immature male, 2 immatures, Operação Coatá, 14 October 2002 (MCP 13598); 4 immatures, Operação Coatá, 10 June 2002 (MCP 13593); 3 females,1 immature female, Operação Coatá, 14 February 2002 (MCP 13596, MCP 13599); 1 immature, Operação Coatá, 01–07 September 2002 (MCP 13555); 2 immature males, 1 female, Operação Coatá, 4–14 December 2002 (MCP 13594); 1 female, 1 immature, Operação Coatá, 14 December 2002 (MCP 13597); Xingu, Suia-Missu [11°39'S, 51°25'W] (Tuiã Missu [sic]), 5 immatures, Whytaker col., 05 February 1980, ref. 27055 (IBSP 4523); ECUADOR: Napo: Puerto Napo [1°01'S, 77°43'W], 25 km east, Selva Aliñahuí, 450 m, 1 juvenile female, E. S. Ross col., March 1992 (CAS 9); PERU: Madre de Dios: Iñapari [10°57'S, 69°34'W], Esperanza, 2 females, 4 immature males, 245 m a.s.l., average temperature 32.4°C, J. Morant Araque col., 22 September 1992 (MUSM); Junin: Rio Tambo [11°10'S, 74°14'W], Shevaja, in short palm trees, 3 females, P. Hocking col., 12 October 2011 (MUSM); 300 m a.s.l., in palm trees, 1 female, P. Hocking col., 23 October 2010 (MUSM); 1 female, P. Hocking col., October 2010 (MUSM–ENTO 504260); 1 female, H. Bassler col., February 1928 (AMNH Pe121); Cusco: Cashiriari (11°52'S, 72°39'W), 1 female, S. Córdova col., 25 November 1997 (MUSM–ENTO); Cusco [department or city?], Timpia Rio Urubamba [12°28'S, 72°29'W], 1 female, P. Hocking & L. Campos col., March 2009 (MUSM–ENTO 500676); BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz: San Ignácio de Velasco [16°22'S, 60°55'W], 1 female (IBSP 3552).

Female

Redescription. IBSP 10264. Carapace: 17.53 long, 17.69 wide, 4.26 high. Chelicera: 7.70 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 15.59, 8.80, 11.42, 9.78, 6.41, 51.63. II: 14.52, 8.76, 10.23, 9.58, 6.86, 49.95. III: 13.61, 7.99, 10.21, 10.37, 6.14, 48.32. IV: 17.59, 8.68, 15.93, 14.81, 6.67, 63.68. Palp: 10.20, 6.51, 7.18, –, 7.48. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.69, 3.18, 3.42, 3.68, palp= 2.85; patellae I–IV= 3.44, 3.41, 3.36, 3.78, palp= 2.96; tibiae I–IV= 2.89, 3.18, 3.02, 3.24, palp= 2.80; metatarsi I–IV= 2.61, 2.51, 2.82, 2.73; tarsi I–IV= 2.89, 2.93, 2.95, 3.05, palp= 2.95. Abdomen: 24.70 long, 17.11 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.73 long, 1.44 wide, 0.4 apart; PLS, 3.31 basal, 1.56 middle, 3.78 distal; midwidths 2.44, 2.06, 1.61, respectively.
Carapace: 0.99 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.
Fovea: deep, slightly recurved, 3.52 wide.
Eyes: eye tubercle 1.61 high, 2.71 long, 3.39 wide. Clypeus 0.18. Anteriore eye row procurve. Posterior eye row slightly recurve. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.78, ALE 0.87, PME 0.32, PLE 0.76, AME–AME 0.56, AME–ALE 0.42, AME–PME 0.22, ALE–ALE 2.13, ALE–PME 0.56, PME–PME 2.15, PME–PLE 0.18, PLE–PLE 2.90, ALE–PLE 0.28, AME–PLE 0.64.
Maxilla: length to width: 1.69 longer than wide. Cuspules: 100–200 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.02 long, 3.41 wide, with 133 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flattened, without evident sigilla.
Chelicera: basal segment with 10 teeth in a row and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 7.75 long, 7.45 wide. Sigilla: rounded posterior, less than one diameter from margin; other sigilla not evident.
Leg: Formula: IV I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.23. Clavate trichobothria: distal 2/3 tarsi I–IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I fully scopulate; II 4/5; III 1/3 and IV 1/2 distal scopulate. IV divided by a row of setae.
Type II urticating setae: 0.50–0.58 long, 0.013–0.019 wide (measured from IBSP 10233).
Spermathecae (Fig. 128): two completely separated, not-twisted long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth as wide as its base width and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.
Color pattern (Fig. 145): carapace brown with golden short body setae with sligthtly purple sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae darker than ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae having pink sheen and brown long guard-setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and and metatarsi vivid yellow (Fig. 300). Abdomen with long greyish brown guard-setae grouped on lateral and dorsal anterior areas and dark short body setae (Fig. 302). Abdomen venter brown.

Male

Description.
MCP 13592 (larger specimen). Carapace: 14.15 long, 14.45 wide, 3.3 high. Chelicera: 6.6 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 13.56, 7.50, 11.67, 11.46, 7.55, 51.74. II: 13.02, 7.16, 11.14, 11.15, 6.45, 48.92. III: 13.44, 6.45, 10.55, 11.46, 6.66, 48.59. IV: 18.14, 7.35, 14.16, 13.55, 8.15, 61.65. Palp: 3.62, 3.45, 8.51, –, 3.54, 19.12. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.62, 3.07, 2.65, 5.56; palp= 2.16; patellae I–IV= 3.50, 3.15, 2.56, 2.66, palp= 2.42; tibiae I–IV= 2.66, 2.25, 2.26, 2.46, palp= 2.15; metatarsi I–IV= 1.67, 1.75, 1.70, 1.13; tarsi I–IV= 2.12, 2.15, 2.26, 2.33. palp= 2.16. Abdomen: 19.07 long, 13.05 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.90 long, 0.98 wide, 0.2 apart; PLS, 2.70 basal, 1.40 middle, 2.95 distal; midwidths 1.50, 1.40, 1.16 respectively.
As in female, except:
Carapace: 0.98 times longer than wide.
Fovea: 2.55 wide.
Eyes: eye tubercle 1.3 high, 2.56 long, 3.00 wide. Clypeus 0.34. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.75, ALE 0.80, PME 0.28, PLE 0.50, AME–AME 0.58, AME–ALE 0.37, AME–PME 0.19, ALE–ALE 1.92, ALE–PME 0.63, PME–PME 1.92, PME–PLE 0.11, PLE–PLE 2.39, ALE–PLE 0.31, AME–PLE 0.52. Ratio of the eye group width to length 1.84.
Maxilla: length to width: 1.94. Labium: 1.79 long, 2.45 wide, with 109 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third.
Chelicera: basal segment with 12 teeth in a row and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 7.72 long, 6.44 wide. Sigilla: anterior rounded, middle fusiform, both less than one diameter from margin.
Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.19. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I–II 3/4; III 1/2, IV 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by a bald area.
Type II urticating setae: 1.01–1.11 long, 0.021–0.023 wide.
Palp (Figs 131–134): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 4.38 long in retrolateral view, about 3 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal width, 0.45, 0.24, 0.12, respectively. Tegulum: 2.68 long, 1.57 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, having a well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe, bearing thick setae (Fig. 135, 139–141).
Tibial apophysis (Figs 136–138): single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.
Coloration (Fig. 146): abdomen with long greyish brown guard-setae homogeneously distributed and dark short body setae. Abdomen venter brown.

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles (Fig. 142) and abdomen dorsum reddish, with dorsal central longitudinal black stripe disconnected from transversal black stripes (Fig. 143). When mature, both males and females lose this pattern (Figs 145–146).

Distribution

Brazil (states of Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Acre, Rondônia and Mato Grosso), Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia (Fig. 50).

Natural history

In northern region of Brazil, such as in state of Rondônia, specimens are commonly found in babaçu palms (Fig. 148). They build their retreats in palm axis or using underside of the palms leaves (Figs 149–150, 152). They can also build retreats over larger tree bark (Fig. 151) or inside bromeliads (Fig. 147). Specimens are usually found on human-made structures, such as on houses and other buildings (Fig. 153).

Taxon Treatment

  • Fukushima, C; Bertani, R; 2017: Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01 ZooKeys, (659): 1-185. doi

Images

Other References

  1. West R, Marshall S, Fukushima C, Bertani R (2008) Review and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) with notes on the Aviculariinae. Zootaxa 1849: 35–58.
  2. Ayroza G, Ferreira I, Sayegh R, Tashima A, da Silva Junior P (2012) Juruin: an antifungal peptide from the venom of the Amazonian Pink Toe spider, Avicularia juruensis, which contains the inhibitory cysteine knot motif. Frontiers in Microbiology 3(324): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00324
  3. Bertani R (2012) Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae). Zookeys 230: 1–94. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.230.3500