Avicularia avicularia

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Fukushima C, Bertani R (2017) Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01. ZooKeys (659) : 1–185, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2017-03-02, version 136796, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Avicularia_avicularia&oldid=136796 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Fukushima2017ZooKeys,
author = {Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri AND Bertani, Rogério},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01},
year = {2017},
volume = {},
issue = {659},
pages = {1--185},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.659.10717},
url = {http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10717},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2017-03-02, version 136796, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Avicularia_avicularia&oldid=136796 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01
A1 - Fukushima C
A1 - Bertani R
Y1 - 2017
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL -
IS - 659
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.659.10717
SP - 1
EP - 185
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2017-03-02, version 136796, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Avicularia_avicularia&oldid=136796 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.659.10717

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Fukushima2017ZooKeys">{{Citation
| author = Fukushima C, Bertani R
| title = Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2017
| volume =
| issue = 659
| pages = 1--185
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.659.10717
| url = http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10717
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-29

}} Versioned wiki page: 2017-03-02, version 136796, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Avicularia_avicularia&oldid=136796 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: ORDO
Familia: FAMILIA
Genus: Avicularia

Name

Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758: 622 (lectotype UUZM 61 and paralectotypes UUZM 62, UUZM 235 here designated, A. Fredrik leg., examined by photos); Fabricius 1775[1]: 438; 1787[2]: 346; 1793[3]: 424; De Geer 1778[4]: 313, pl. 38, fig. 8; 1783: 122, pl. 38, fig. 8; Latreille 1802[5]: 49; ICZN 1957[6]: 116.
  • Mygale avicularia: Latreille 1804[7]: 152, pl. LXII, fig. 1; 1806: 32; Walckenaer 1805[8]: 4; Hahn 1820[9]: 5, t. 3; 1833: 101, tab. 25, fig. 75; C. L. Koch 1841[10]: 73, tab. CCCXIII, fig. 737.
  • Mygale scoparia C. L. Koch, 1841: 54, fig. 725. First synonymized by F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896[11]: 741.
  • Eurypelma avicularia: C. L. Koch 1850[12]: 73; Simon 1864[13]: 67. Considered objective synonym per Raven 1985[14]: 146.
  • Avicularia avicularia: Simon 1892[15]: 171, fig. 120; F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1896[11]: 741, pl. 33, figs 10–11, pl. 34, fig. 19, pl. 35, fig. 13; Strand 1907a[16]: 224; Strand 1907b[17]: 89; Petrunkevitch 1911[18]: 49; ICZN 1928[19]: 395; Mello-Leitão 1923[20]: 320, 324, 376; Bücherl 1957[21]: 404, figs 91–91a; Valerio 1979[22]: 307, figs 7–10; Roewer 1942[23]: 253; Bonnet 1955[24]: 827; 1957[25]: 119; World Spider Catalog 2016[26].
  • Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907a: 220 (holotype, male, South America, perhaps Suriname, no further information, Coll. Kirschbaum, MWNH 418, examined by photo); Petrunkevitch 1911[18]: 50; 1939[27]: 286; Mello-Leitão 1923[20]: 377; Roewer 1942[23]: 254; Bonnet 1955[24]: 830; World Spider Catalog 2016[26]. Syn. n.
  • Avicularia ancylochira: Roewer 1942[23]: 253; World Spider Catalog 2016[26] (considered as the spelling apparently intended by Mello-Leitão, 1923).
  • Avicularia cuminamensis: Bonnet 1955[24]: 830 (invalid emendation).

Remarks

Avicularia velutina syntypes are two females from the forest of San Esteban, Venezuela, and a specimen from a mountain in North Venezuela (Simon 1889[28]). After a search on Simon’s collection at MNHN, it was found 4 specimens from Venezuela labeled as Avicularia velutina. One is an immature from San Esteban (MNHN–AR4888), but its carapace measurement (4.6 mm) is not compatible with the female used on description (13.8 mm). Other two, one male and one female (MNHN–AR4883), are from Puerto Cabello, a town very close to San Esteban, locality mentioned on the description and where recently was created a National Park. Despite the female having the carapace measurement (13.25 mm) compatible with the female used in the description (13.8 mm), its collection data is not exactly the same of the one of the syntype series. Adding to this, its pair on the vial is a male, not other female as described by Simon (1889)[28]. The other female found in collection is from Caracas (MNHN–AR4894), on North Venezuela, and it is smaller than the Puerto Cabello’s female. Thus, herein, we consider the syntypes of Avicularia velutina Simon, 1889 lost. However, considering we examined topotypes and that their characteristics match with those found in Avicularia avicularia, only with slight differences on coloration, we decide to establish Avicularia velutina Simon, 1889 as a junior synonym of Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).
Avicularia exilis holotype is clearly an Avicularia since it has well-developed scopula, anterior row of eyes procurved and tibial apophysis with a single branch having well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. The specimen has palpal bulb with developed prominence, leg IV longer than leg I, not grizzled guard-setae on palps and legs, and overall reddish brown coloration. These characteristics match Avicularia avicularia, which is found in Suriname, the probable type locality Avicularia exilis. Thus, we consider Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907 as junior synonym of Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).
Avicularia ancylochyra holotype has tarsi with well-developed scopula, anterior row of eyes procurved, no spines on legs, urticating setae of type II on abdomen dorsum, and abdominal pattern similar to Avicularia avicularia, Avicularia rufa, Avicularia juruensis, and Avicularia variegata stat. n. The leg IV is longer than leg I, it bears whitish legs rings (not vivid yellow) and type locality is in the state of Pará, Brazil. All these characters match Avicularia avicularia; therefore, we consider Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923 a junior synonym of Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).
Avicularia cuminami holotype has tarsal and metatarsal scopulae laterally expanded, anterior row of eyes procurve and type locality is state of Pará, Brazil. These characteristics match Avicularia avicularia; thus, we consider Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930 a junior synonym of Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).
Avicularia nigrotaeniata holotype is an immature male lacking spines on legs and with spatulated scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi. It has characteristics of Avicularia genus such as anterior row of eyes procurve and abdomen dorsum with lateral stripes and a black central longitudinal stripe. In Guyana, the type locality, Avicularia avicularia is the only species found. Thus, we consider Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940 a junior synonym of Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758).

Diagnosis

Male and female of Avicularia avicularia resemble Avicularia rufa and female of Avicularia hirschii by having leg IV longer than leg I. Females of Avicularia avicularia can be distinguished from those of Avicularia hirschii by the non-twisted spermathecae. Males and females of Avicularia avicularia can be distinguished from those of Avicularia rufa by having whitish rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi (most morphotypes, Figs 36, 38–40) or pale yellow rings (morphotype 5, Fig. 41) combined with legs and palps with long guard-setae with homogeneous coloration (all morphotypes except 6 and 7, but these have intense green metallic sheen on carapace and legs, absent in Avicularia rufa).

Material examined

1 female, Brazil, Pará, Altamira, Paratipuã, Ponto 5, A. P. L. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 12 April 2009 (MNRJ 13995); 2 males and 1 female, Amapá, Macapá, Parque Zoobotânico (IEPA), C. Costa, P. Magno & C. A. Júlio col., 20 August 1996 (MNRJ 13659A).

Additional material

No further information: 1 juvenile female (MPEG 5140); 1 male, 1 female (IBSP 2419); 1 male, died in 27 October 1985 (IBSP IBA 414); 1 female (IBSP 8842); 1 female, IBAMA, died in January 2000, ref. 84526 (IBSP 8031); 1 immature male (IBSP 9916); 1 female (MNHN–AR Box 301); VENEZUELA: 1 juvenile female, no further information, Sullivan det. 2007 (AMNH Ve23); 1 female, no further information, Steve Brody coll. (AMNH Ve28); Bolívar: Hato La Vergareña (6°45'N, 63°30'W) 400–500 ft., 25 October 1954, J. J. Wurdack & N. G. L. Guppy col. (AMNH Ve22); Carabobo: Puerto Cabello [10°27'N, 68°00'W], 1 female, 1 male, no further information, Collection E. Simon (MNHN–AR 4883 Box 302); Distrito Capital: Caracas [10°29'N, 66°54'W], 1 female, no further information, Collection E. Simon (MNHN–AR 4894); Monagas: Caripito [10°06'N, 63°06'W], 1 female, 10 May 1942, Tropical Research Expedition, N. Y. Zoological Society, W. H. Beebe col. (AMNH Ve30); Trinidad and Tobago: no further information, 1 female (AMNH TR133); 1 female, M. Nieves col. (AMNH TR131); 1 male (AMNH TR129); probably from Port Spain sent in by T. H. G. Aigken [sic] (Aitken), 1 male, 1 immature male, Gertsch det. (AMNH TR130); 2 immatures, 3–4 instar group [sic], A. Bordes col., 1972 (AMNH TR tube); several spiderlings, A. Bordes col. (AMNH TR165); Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo: Freeport [10°26'N, 61°24'W], 1 female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 1 May 1966 (AMNH TR181); Diego Martin: Fort George [10°41'N, 61°32'W], POS, 1 male, M. Nieves col., June 1957 (AMNH TR147); Goodwood Park [10°41'N, 61°34'W] (Goodward Park [sic]), 5 miles NW of Port of Spain, 300 m elevation, 1 female, 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 1 May 1965 (AMNH TR143); 1 immature, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 30 September 1965, (AMNH TR176); Port of Spain [10°39'N, 61°31'W]: 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 1 May 1954 (AMNH TR136); 1 female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 18 September 1963 (AMNH TR126); 1 female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 16 July 1965 (AMNH TR139); 1 male, 1 female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 18 June 1968 (AMNH TR178); 1 male, R. S. Mathews col., April 1890 (AMNH 1.12); Rio Claro-Mayaro: La Horquette, Valley Road, 1 immature female, T. H. G. Aitken col., 6 April 1960, #78 (AMNH TR138); Maraval [10°41'N, 61°31'W], 3 males, 2 females, R. C. West col., 12 May 1981 (AMNH RW09, RW11, RW12, RW13, RW10, respectively); Mayaro Beach area [10°14'N, 61°00'W], 2 miles N of Plaisance, inside helicopter hangar, 2 juvenile females, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 20 December 1964 (AMNH TR182); under coconut husks, 2 males, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 22 March 1964 (AMNH TR157); 2 m elevation, 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 22 April 1964 (AMNH TR134); ex House, 2 m, 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 1 November 1964 (AMNH TR171); 1 juvenile female, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 5 September 1965 (AMNH TR167); 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 10 June 1966 (AMNH TR174); 3 m, 1 male, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col., 5 January 1966 (AMNH TR152); Saint George: Carenage [10°41'N, 61°35'W], 1 juvenile female, 29 April 1966, E. N. Kjellesvig-Waering col. (AMNH TR177); Nariva Swamp, bush bush forest [10°22'N, 61°02'W], Trinidad Regional Virus Lab., 1 juvenile female, T. H. G. Aitken col., 20 August 1962 (AMNH TR51); 1 male, T. H. G. Aitken coll., ex Boar, 12 February 1964 (AMNH TR156); 2 males, T. H. G. Aitken col., 29 September 1963 (AMNH TR132); Saddle Road (W61°, N10°), 1 juvenile T. H. G. Aitken col., May 1964 (AMNH TR166); Sangre Grande: Brigand Hill [10°29'N, 61°04'W], 1 juvenile female, L. N. Sorkin col., 21 July 1979, shed 31 July 79, 7 March 80, 10 February 81 and died 28 May 82 (AMNH TR141); Mount Harris [10°29'N, 61°06'W], 1 male, M. Nieves col., July 1959 (AMNH TR168); 1 male, M. Nieves col., June 1959 (AMNH TR151); 1 male, M. Nieves col., July 1959 (AMNH TR135); 1 female, 1 immature, M. Nieves col., July 1959 (AMNH TR145); Siparia: Fyzabad [10°10'N, 61°32'W] (Fyzbad [sic]), Bamboo stump, no. 226, 1 female, T. S. Jones col., 21 February 1945 (AMNH TR172); GUYANA: no further information, 1 female, 1914 (CAS13); 1 female, 2 immature males, 1914 (CAS12); Berbice Oriental-Corentyne: Canje (5°70'N, 57°50'W), Ikuruna River, forest savanna, 2 males, August−December 1961, G. Bentley col. (AMNH BG78, BG79); Lonsdale Village [6°11'N, 57°31'W] (Larsdale Village [sic]), 26 spiderlings, 19 juveniles, 2 females, E. B. Berbice col., 9 September 1946 (AMNH BG83); Cuyuni-Mazaruni: Bartica [6°24'N, 58°37'W], 15 milles above, Rio Moraballi and Rio Esequibo, 1 immature, R. W. G. Hingston col., labeled as Avicularia nigrotaeniata n. 43 (BMNH 1930.4.15.53); Kartabo [6°24'N, 58°37'W], 2 males, 1 female, captured in a small bush (AMNH BG42); 1 female, 1924 (AMNH BG73); 1 male, 1924 (AMNH BG93); 2 males, 1 female, Beebe col., “Avicularia surinamensis” det. Di Caporiacco (AMNH BG67); Demerara-Mahaica: Georgetown [6°48'N, 58°09'W], 1 small female, 7 immatures, J. Moral col., 1954 (AMNH BG82); 2 males, L. van Sertima col., 7 May 1991 (AMNH RW65, RW66); 2 immatures, A. McKee col., 19 April 1986 (AMNH RW64); Potaro-Siparuni: Tumatumari [5°15'N, 59°08'W], 1 male, 1 female, 5 August 1913, Acc 4435 (AMNH 1.9); 1 immature, August 1913, Acc: 4435 (AMNH 1.11); Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo Superior: Dadanawa [2°50'N, 59°31'W], Ishertor, 5 females, 2 immatures, in webbed holes in ground, Terry-Holden Expedition, 7–9 November 1937 (AMNH BG61); 2 females, 2 immature males, 1 immature, 1 spiderling, 7–9 November 1937, Terry–Holden Expedition, Snedigar & Hassler col. [hand note: original label and part of material in another jar] (AMNH BG76); SURINAME: no further information, 1 female, Box 306 3739 (MNHN–AR 4887); in house, 1 female, Geiskes col. (AMNH Su62); 1 male, Box 306 3739 (MNHN–AR 4887); 1 female, C. Heller col., December 1908, jar no.1632/08 (ZMB); Paramaribo: Paramaribo [5°49'N, 55°10'W], 1 male, Reed col., 29 June 1910, Acc 3792 (AMNH Su60); 2 females, H. Heyde col., 30 July 1980 (AMNH RW61, RW62); 1 female, 1 immature, 7 March 1939, Geiskes col. (AMNH Su59); 1 female, C. Heller col., 16 June 1908, jar no.1136/08 (ZMB); Agronomic Station, 1 male, V. Doesburg col., August 1962 (AMNH Su101); Marowijne: Langamankondre [5°42'N, 54°01'W], 1 female, B. Malkin col., 15–30 August 1965 (MZUSP 10861); 7 females, 1 male, 5 immature males, 8 juveniles, 1 spiderling, B. Malkin col., 15–30 August 1965 (AMNH Su97); Para: no further information, 1 female, C. Heller col., 13 March 1909, jar no. 541/09 (ZMB); 1 female and 1 immature male, C. Heller col., 10 March 1909, jar no. 541/09 (ZMB); 1 female, C. Heller col., February 1908, jar no. 684/08 (ZMB); Brokopondo: Kabelstation [4°54'N, 55°08'W] Riheroever [?, unreadable], in bromeliad, 1 juvenile female, Gerskes col., 25 September 1938 (AMNH Su63); in a house, 1 female, Gerskes col., 26 September 1938 (AMNH Su62); FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne: Camopi [3°09'N, 52°20'W], Yanioré, high Oyapock, 100 to 150 m, en amont de Saut, 1 male, Mission E. Aubert de La Rüe col., February 1949 (MNHN–AR 4886); Cayenne [4°55'N, 52°19'W], 1 female, “Avicularia anthracina” det. E. Simon, Milinon (MNHN–AR 155h-77); 1 male, “Avicularia anthracina” det. E. Simon (MNHN–AR 1719-79); 1 male, J. Moonen col., February 1992 (AMNH RW60); Table Du Mahury [4°52'N, 52°16'W], 1 female, J. Geay col.; 1902 (MHNP 3089); Montabo [4°56'N, 52°18'W], (Bordat Montabo [sic]) 1 immature male, Expedição Instituto Butantan col., 4 July 1955 (IBSP 3458); 1 female, Expedição Instituto Butantan col. (IBSP 3379); 1 female, Dr. Hoge col., 5 July 1951, in nest (IBSP 3377); Montsinery [4°53'N, 52°30'W], Emerald Jungle Village, 1 female, 3 males, J. Moonen col., 12 August 1998 (AMNH RW57, RW56, RW58, RW59, respectively), RW59 and RW58 on lodge roof beam; 1 female, R. C. West col., April 1999 (AMNH RW55); Saint-Georges-de-l’Oyapock [3°53'N, 51°48'W] (Oyapock [sic]), 1 male, F. Geay, 1900 (MNHN–AR 1293); Sinnamary [5°22'N, 52°57'W] (Linamany [sic]), 1 female, 1 male, 1 juvenile female, Expedição Instituto Butantan col. (IBSP 3396, IBSP 3398, IBSP 3397); Saint Laurent du Maroni: Saint Laurent du Maroni [5°29'N, 54°01'W] (du Maroni [sic], ?), 1 female, Gambey col. (MNHN–AR 4901); Saint Jean [5°24'N, 54°4'W] (Saint-Jean-du-Maroni [sic]), 1 male, 1 spiderling, R. Benoit col., March–April 1914 (MNHN–AR 4896); BRAZIL: Amapá: no further information, 1 male, F. Baia col., ref. 65469 (IBSP 8846); 2 males, 2 females, Dr. Hoge col., 4 August 1966 (IBSP 3760); Macapá [0°02'N, 51°04'W], Fazendinha, 1 male, 1 immature male, Dr. Hoge col., 4 August 1965 (IBSP 3736); 1 juvenile female, P. Magno col., October 1997 (MNRJ 12923); 1 male (MNRJ 12912); 6 males, C. Costa, P. Magno & C. A. Júlio col., 20 August 1996 (MNRJ 13659); Parque Zoobotânico (IEPA), 2 immatures, P. Magno, C. E. Alvarenga & C. Costa col., October 1995 (MNRJ 13653); Pacoval [0°33'N, 51°03'W], 1 male, Dr. Hoge col., 21 January 1966 (IBSP 3755); 1 female, 2 juvenile females, Dr. Hoge col., 26 September 1966 (IBSP 3795, IBSP 3797); Serra do Navio [1°38'S, 52°16'W], 1 male (IBSP 3685); 3 males, K. Lenko col., 8 November 1957 (IBSP 3490); Paredão Pacoval, 1 male, Dr. Hoge col., 4 March 1965 (IBSP 3704); 1 female, March 1985 (MNRJ 13526); 1 juvenile female, 7 immatures, 1 spiderling, March 1985 (MNRJ 13597); Laranjal do Jari [1°05'N, 53°13'W], Cachoeira do Santo Antônio, Rio Jari, 2 juvenile females, J. A. P. Barreiros col., 18–24 February 2003 (MPEG 0174); Amazonas: Fazenda São Francisco, 300 km subindo o Rio Negro, 1 male, G. Ilutseh col., 27 May 1982 (IBSP 4814); Pará: no further information, 1 female, J. C. Branner col., 1881 (CAS); Altamira [3°11'S, 52°12'W], trilha caverna clinas, Ponto 2, 1 female, A. P. L. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 10 April 2009 (MNRJ 13993); Ponto 2 , Cararaô, 2 females, A. P. L. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 10 April 2009 (MNRJ 13994, MNRJ 1400); Ponto 5, Paratipuã, 1 female, A. P. L. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 12 April 2009 (MNRJ 13995); Acampamento do Juruá, 2 females, 2 immatures, A. J. Cardoso, C. F. B. Haddad & M. Gordo col., 03–18 December 1986 (ZUEC); Ananindeua [1°21'S, 48°22'W], 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 30 January 1975 (MPEG 5399); BR 316, Km 06, R. F. da Silva col., 1 male, 10 November 1996 (MPEG 5127); Socêgo [sic], Bacia do Sol, 1 female, 1 immature, March 1956 (IBSP 3781); Barcarena [1°34'S, 48°35'W], Ilha das Onças, Rio Piramanha, 2 males, E. Santos col., 19–20 April 2003 (MPEG 0172); Belém [1°27'S, 48°30'W], 3 females, 1 juvenile female, P. Cerveira col., refs 63979, 63999 (IBSP 8849, IBSP 8854, IBSP 8853, IBSP 8855, respectively); 1 juvenile female, Eq. Resgate de Fauna col., ref. 55334-3 (IBSP 8571); 1 female, 2 males (IBSP 3578); 1 immature male, 4 females (IBSP 3772); 1 male, 2 females and 1 immature (IBSP 3780); 1 male, 1 female, 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3770); 3 females, 1 immature, 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3771); 2 females, 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3779); 1 male, R. Cerqueira col., 1972 (ZUEC); 1 male, F. Lima col., 18 April 1989 (MCP 2702); 1 immature female, W. França col., 30 March 1987 (MCP 2697); 1 male, 2 January 2003 (MPEG 1108); C. Galeno col., 1 immature, June 1998 (AMNH RW14); Bairro de Souza, 1 male, L. M. Cunha col., 07 March 2005 (MPEG 5147); Base Aérea, 1 male, 1 female (IBSP 3687); Bragança, 1 immature, 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3777); campus de Pesquisa, 1 juvenile, J. Dias col., 30 March 1992 (MCP 2695); CPATU (em dendê), 2 males, Izaías col., 15 February 1984 (MPEG 135); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 03 November 1977 (MPEG 5089); EMBRAPA in dendê area, 1 female, 3 juveniles, 1 spiderling, October–November 1981, H. N. da Cunha col. (MNRJ 13012); Instituto Agronômico do Norte (IAN), 1 immature male, 1 female, 4 immatures, A. R. Hoge col., 29 October to 5 December 1958 (IBSP 3672); IPEAN, 1 male, J. Bushell col., 23 May 1967, Exline–Peck collection (CAS); Mocambo, 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 14 November 1977 (MEPG 3074); Mocambo, Parque Regional de Manutenção, Parque Ambiental de Belém, CPPTU, 1 male, M. A. S. de Azevedo & J. N. Ferreira col., 31 March 2005 (MPEG 5155); Serraria, IPAN, 1 male, P. Waldir col., 06 December 1966 (MPEG 5107); Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA), 1 female, W. C. Carrasco col., 08 July 2004, F18 A43 B3 (MPEG 5295); 1 juvenile female, Mara col., 15 June 2005, F4 A18 B3 (MPEG 14221); 1 female, 14 June 2004 (MPEG 5188); Vila Ajutei, 1 male, Augusto Côrrea col., 14 July 2002 (MPEG 0170); Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, campus de pesquisa [01°27'S, 48°26'W], 1 male, W. França col., 04 June 1984 (MPEG 5120); 1 male, Jarilson col., June 2009 (MPEG 5299); 1 male, J. Dias col., 16 June 1986 (MPEG 5126); 1 female, D. F. Candiani col., April 2006 (MPEG 5300); 1 female, M. C. Santos-Costa col., 02 March 2005 (MPEG 5221); 1 male, L. S. Carvalho col., 18 Abril 2006 (MPEG 5098); 1 male, A. B. Bonaldo col., 24 July 2002 (MPEG 227); 1 male, D. F. Candiani col., 22 Abril 2004 (MPEG 5094); 1 male, 08 April 2002 (MEPG 5117); 1 male, 31 March 2009 (MPEG 5632); 1 male, 11 April 2005 (MPEG 5141); 2 males, D. F. Candiani col., 12 July 2004 (MPEG 5281); 1 male, A. B. Bonaldo col., 12 July 2002 (MPEG 160); 2 immatures, 25 May 1912, Bluntschli-Peyer coll. (AMNH 1.27, AMNH 1.3); 1 immature, Bluntschli-Peyer col., 25 June 1912, (AMNH 1.18); Icoaraci [1°18'S, 48°28'W], 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 10 March 1977 (MEPG 3082); 1 juvenile female, R. F. da Silva col., 05 July 1984, (MPEG 5131); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 8 July 1977 (AMNH RW15); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 18 May 1977 (AMNH RW18); 1 female, R. F. da Silva, 8 April 1977 (AMNH RW16); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 8 July 1977 (AMNH RW17); Outeiro [1°16'S, 48°28'W], 1 juvenile female, R. F. da Silva col., 13 July 1978 (MEPG 5096); Universidade Federal do Pará (01°28'S, 48°27'W), 1 female, C. Castro col., 24 June 2005 (MPEG 4820); 1 male, L. T. Miglio col., 15 September 2002 (MPEG 1109); Utinga [1°25'S, 48°24'W], 1 immature, Oliveira & Wygodzinsky col., 10–21 November 1963 (AMNH 1.2); Belém, Ilha de Cotijuba (01°14'S, 48°35'W), 1 female, 27 August 2003 (MPEG 4701); 1 female, Cotijuba 0011 (MPEG 5291); 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 17 March 1977 (MPEG 3073); 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 26 December 1977 (MEPG 3030); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 11 September 1977 (MPEG 3056); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 11 September 1977 (MPEG 3057); Icoaraci,1 female, 01 July 2002 (MPEG 1111); Belém, Ilha de Jutuba [1°14'S, 48°31'W], 2 males, 3 females, R. F. da Silva col., 30 June 1977 (MPEG 3047, MPEG 3046, MPEG 3045, MPEG 3034, MPEG 3033, respectively); Belém, Ilha do Mosqueiro [1°06'S, 48°23'W], 1 female, 1 immature male, P. Cerveira col., December 1990, ref. 63979 (IBSP 7884, IBSP 7883); 1 male, M. L. Mocambira col., 15 December 1989 (MCP 2699); 2 juvenile females, B. Mascarenhas & team col., 19–25 April 1998 (MPEG 5392, MPEG 5395); Belém, Ilha Nova [2°12'S, 49°27'W], 2 males, 2 females, R. F. da Silva col., 20 June 1977 (MPEG 3040, MPEG 3043, MPEG 3071, MPEG 5090); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 24 June 1977 (MPEG 3041); Belém, Ilha de Paquetá [1°16'S, 48°32'W], 2 females, R. F. da Silva col., 15 November 1977 (MPEG 3025, MPEG 3023); 1 juvenile female, R. F. da Silva col., 28 May 1977 (MPEG 5088); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 15 September 1977 (MPEG 3052); 1 male, 1 female, R. F. da Silva col., 19 June 1977 (MPEG 3078, MPEG 3062); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 15 May 1977 (AMNH RW21); 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 20 May 1977 (AMNH RW22); 1 immature male, R. F. da Silva col., 15 November 1977 (AMNH RW20); 1 juvenile female, R. F. da Silva col., 26 November 1977 (AMNH RW19); Belém, Ilha de Tatuoca [1°12'S, 48°30'W], 1 female, 23 March 1978 (MPEG 5105); 2 males, EPA col., August 1969 (MZUSP 10849); Belém, Ilha de Urubuoca [1°19'S, 48°27'W], 1 female, 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 28 July 1977 (MEPG 3036, MPEG 3313, respectively); Belterra [3°08'S, 55°03'W], 1 male, 18 December 2003 (MPEG 4703); Rio Assuá [?, unreadable], 1 female, H. Sioli col., May 1952 (IBSP 3130); Benevides [1°21'S, 48°14'W], Pratinha, Estrada do Açucareiro, 1 female, O. Cunha col., 19 February 1975 (MPEG 141); Breves [1°40'S, 50°28'W], Corcovado, 1 male, Expedição CDZ col., 18–19 October 1965 (IBSP 5688); Castanhal [1°17'S, 47°55'W], 1 female, O. Feassi col., Ref. 52599 (IBSP 8863); Ilha de Marajó [0°58'S, 49°35'W], 1 male, 1 female, 16 immatures, Instituto Agronômico col., 15 June 1966 (IBSP 3787, IBSP 3786, respectively); Santo André, 1 male, June–September 1912, Bluntschli-Peyer (AMNH 1.23); Cachoeira do Arari [1°0'S, 48°57'W], Jabuti, 1 female, L. Macambira col., 12 December 1990 (MPEG 0138); Itaituba [04°16'S, 55°59'W], 1 female (MZUSP 27659); Itupiranga [5°08'S, 49°19'W], campus avançado da UFPA, 3 females, 2 immatures, A. R. Hoge & P. Villela col., December 1971 (IBSP 4097); Jacareacanga [07°15'S, 57°26'W], 1 immature male (IBSP 3538); (Jacare-acanga [sic]), 1 spiderling, M. Alvarenga col., December 1968 (AMNH 1.20); Aproeste, km 350 da Transamazônica, 1 female, B. V. Rodrigues & N. Abrahim col., 27 October 2009 (MPEG 15640); Jatobal [5°08'S, 56°51'W], 3 males, January 1975 (IBSP 7896); Juruti [2°09'S, 56°05'W], Ferrovia Km 07, 1 immature female, A. C. Lima & F. E. Pimenta col., 17 Maio 2007, JURU 006 0286 (MPEG 15635); Ferrovia km 36, 1 female, A. Lima & F. Pimenta col., 24 May 2007, JURU 0060268 (MPEG 15636); Platô Capiranga, Linha 168E (02°28'22.1"S, 56°12'29.4"W), 1 male (MPEG 15639); Juruti, Acampamento Barroso (02°28'10.5"S, 56°00'3.5"W), 1 male, D. F. Candiani col., 07 August 2004, ref. JURU002 0044 (MPEG 2000); 2 males, 1 female, D. R. Santos-Souza col., 12 July 2002, ref. JURU 002 0084 (MPEG 2003, MPEG 2006, respectively); 1 female, D. F. Candiani col., 12 July 2002, ref. JURU 002 0083 (MPEG 2009); Juruti, Acampamento Mutum (01°36'44.77"S, 56°11'39.2"W), 1 juvenile female, 1 immature male, D. F. Candiani and D. R. Santos-Souza col., 03 August 2004, ref. Juruti 2004 (MPEG 15634); Marabá [5°22'S, 49°07'W], Transamazônica, 3 males, J. Navas col., 15 March 1975 (IBSP 4190); 1 female, M. F. Torres col., 14 September 1985 (MPEG 4231); 1 male, P. Tumma col., 8 October 1973 (IBSP 2495); Melgaço, Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, FLONA Caxiuanã [2°01'S, 51°39'W], 1 female, A. B. Bonaldo col., 21–30 November 2000 (MPEG 1923); Mocajuba [2°34'S, 49°30'W], Praia do Imbaubal, 1 male, 17 June 1984 (MPEG 5104); Monte Alegre [1°59'S, 54°04'W], Lagoa Grande, 1 immature, P. de Biasi col., 10 March 1979, ref. 24.434 (IBSP 4408); Óbidos [1°54'S, 55°31'W], 1 female, E. Garbe col., 1920 (MZUSP 10856, old collection number 556); Oriximiná [1°45'S, 55°51'W], 1 immature male, 1 March 1968, EPA col. (MZUSP 10850); 1 immature, in pineapple, EPA col., 13 January 1968 (MZUSP 10854); Porto Trombetas [1°28'S, 56°22'W], 1 male (IBSP 8847); Ourém [1°29'S, 47°10'W], Patauateua, 1 juvenile female, D. D. Guimarães col., 06 December 2002 (MPEG 213); Paragominas [3°00'S, 47°21'W], Fazenda Brejeiro, 1 male, C. Junqueira Netto col., 5 October 1970, ref. 5741 (IBSP 84); Canindé [2°33'S, 46°30'W] (Canindé, Maranhão [sic]), 1 immature female, May to August 1965, J. Carvalho col. (AMNH 1.16); Rio Cuminá Mirim [1°14'N, 55°52'W], As Pedras, 1 female, 1 immature, EPA col., 29 September to 4 October 1969 (MZUSP 1085); Rio Tocantins [02°04'S, 49°18'W], Ilhas das Cobras, Castanheira, 1 female, A. J. da Silva col. (MPEG 5100); Rio Trombetas [1°28'S, 56°22'W], 3 males, 2 females, 1 immature male, F. Palinger col., (IBSP 8762, IBSP 8761, IBSP 8759, respectively); Jacaré, 3 males, female, Expedição CDZ col., 20 September to 13 October 1965 (IBSP 5687); Santarém [2°26'S, 54°41'W], 1 female, E. Garbe col. (MZUSP 10864, old collection number 557); 1 male, G. Puorto col., December 1996 (IBSP 8578); Fazenda Taperinha, 1 female, EPA col., 1–11 February 1968 (MZUSP 10859); 1 female, 1–11 February 1968, E.P.A. col. [handwritten label], or Manaus, Lenko col., 12 September 1962, forest [museum label] (MZUSP 10858); Santo Antônio do Tauá [1°09'S, 48°07'W], Uxitena, 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 07 April 1977 (MPEG 3076); Tomé-Açu [2°25'S, 48°09'W], Roda D’Água (capoeira), 1 female, J. Dias col., 19 June 1994 (MEPG 143); UHE Tucuruí [3°46'S, 49°40'W], Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col.: 2 males, 1 female, ERF col., 1984, IBA 243 (IBSP 7898); 1 female, ERF col., ref. 48286 (IBSP 8845); 1 female, ERF col., 1984, ref. IBA 383 (IBSP 7880); 1 male, ERF col.,1984, ref. IBA 1002 (IBSP 7879); 1 female, ERF col., 1984, ref. 47607 (IBSP 7882); 2 females, ERF col., 1984, ref. IBA 283 (IBSP 7887); 1 female, ERF col., ref. IBA 600 (IBSP 8851); 1 female, ERF col., ref. CB-1 (IBSP 8568); 1 female, ERF col., (IBSP IBA 380); 1 female, born in capitivity, died in 06 July 1993 (IBSP IBA 083-43); 1 female, ERF col., IBA 599 (IBSP 8850); 1 female, ERF col., 12 December 1984 (IBSP 4832); 1 female, ERF col., ref. 34C XXXV (IBSP 8857); 1 male, ERF col., ref. 48286 (IBSP 8848); 1 male, ERF col., ref. 47607 (IBSP 8573); 1 male, ERF col., 18 November 1986, IBA 860 (IBSP 4925-B); 2 males, ERF col., ref. CB-1 (IBSP 8579); 1 male, ERF col.(IBSP 8575); 2 females, ERF col. (IBSP 8843); 1 male, ERF col., ref. B5677 (IBSP 8580); 1 male, ERF col., 4 June 1987, IBA 277 (IBSP 8566); 1 female, ERF col., 1984, ref. IBA 283 (IBSP 7888); 1 female, ERF col., August 1984, ref. IBA 734 (IBSP 7877); 1 female, ERF col., ref. IBA 283 (IBSP 8862); 1 male, in bromeliad in a tree (21 m from the soil), C. Pantoja col., 28 June 1984 (IBSP 7916); 1 male, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., 1984, IBA 292 (IBSP 7885); 1 male, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., 1984, ref. 47607 (IBSP 7881); picada do Inajá, A3, lote 8, 1 female, B. Mascarenhas col., 20 June 1980 (MZUSP 9480); Base 4, Bravo, 1 female, Operação Resgate Faunístico col., 12 December 1984 (IBSP 4832); Vila Bravo, 1 female, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., ref. XXXVII-87 base 4 (IBSP 8844); Vila Cisipé, 1 male, Equipe Resgate de Fauna col., ref. 47607 (IBSP 8572); Ilha de Tocantins, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col.: 1 female, ref. IBA 389 (IBSP 8861); 1 female, ERF col., ref. IBA 599 (IBSP 8569); 1 female, 2 June 1986, ERF col., ref. IBA 1013 (IBSP 8852); 1 female (IBSP ref. IBA 283); Breu Branco [3°45'S, 49°33'W], 1 male, died 20 February 1986 (IBSP CB1 - XV); 1 male, Equipe de Resgate de Fauna col., ref CBI V (IBSP 8565); Vigia [0°51'S, 48°08'W] (Vigia de Nazaré [sic]), Hospital UBSO IV, 1 male, 03 July 2005 (MPEG 5189); UBS V, 1 male, J. F. Maia col., 30 August 2005 (MPEG 5144); Maranhão: São Luís [2°31'S, 44°18'W], 1 female, G. R. Ristan Filho col., 29 February 1996, ref. 78226 (IBSP 8244); 1 female, ref. 78226 (IBSP unnumbered); Bacabal [4°13'S, 44°47'W], Lago Verde, 1 female, R. Neto col., 03 February 1983 (MPEG 5106); Palmeirândia [2°40'S, 44°54'W], 1 female, Dr. Hoge, Pedro and Joaquim col., 7–30 May 1962 (IBSP 3622); Fazenda São Luís, 1 female, 1 immature male, Dr. Hoge, Pedro & Joaquim col., 7–30 May 1962 (IBSP 3621); São Bento [2°41'S, 44°49'W], 1 immature male, 1 female, Dr. Hoge, Pedro & Joaquim col., 7–30 May 1962 (IBSP 3623, IBPS 3618); Mato Grosso: Alta Floresta [9°52'S, 56°05'W], 1 male, F. Palinger col. (IBSP 8768); PERU: Madre de Dios: Cuenca Rio Los Amigos [12°34'S, 70°06'W], 1 male (UA 003/2005); 1 female (UA 042/2006); 1 female (UA 007/2005); Aguajal [12°15'S, 69°16'S], CICRA, 1 female, 21 March 2006 (UA 041/2006); 1 male (UA 005/2005); 1 male (UA 002/2005); Puerto Maldonado [12°36'S, 69°41'W], 15 km East, Rio Madre de Dios, Albergue Lodge Cuzco Amazônico, 200 m, 1 female, G. C. Hunter col, 8 June 1983 (CAS10); La Cachuela (12°33'S, 69°11'W), 1 male and 2 females, H.–W. Auer col., September–October 2013 (MUSM–ENT 0506819); Tambopata [12°34'S, 69°11'W], 1 female, R. Bennett col., August 1994, in silk retreat on palm trees (AMNH RW47); Reserva Tambopata–Candamo [12°59'S, 69°36'W], Albergue Explorer’s Inn, 1 male and 1 female, K. J. N. Villa leg., 2005 (MZUSP 70948); BOLIVIA: Beni: Yucumo [15°08'S, 67°02'W], Aserradero Chaparina, 7 km from Yucumo, path to San Borja, prov. J. Ballivian, 1 male, J. Peñaranda col., 9 July 1991 (MNRJ 06918); 1 female, same data (MNRJ 06919); Pando: Manuripi, Camalho 15 km northwest Puesto Castañero, Chivé [12°23'S, 68°34'W], bosque alto, 1 female, F. Guerra col., 30 September 1991 (MNRJ 06916); La Paz: Iturralde [12°54'S, 67°45'W], Estância El Dorado, UMSA, Instituto de Ecologia, 1 immature male, S. Beck col., 28 February 1984 (MNRJ 06917); Santa Cruz: San Antonio del Parapeti [20°01'S, 63°13'W], 1 male, B. Malkin col., 24–25 May 1985 (AMNH Bo01).

Female

Redescription. MNRJ 13995. Carapace: 19.39 long, 17.68 wide, 5.5 high. Chelicera: 8.40 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 14.66, 8.55, 11.65, 10.56, 8.25, 53.67. II: 14.04, 8.15, 10.56, 10.22, 3.55, 46.55. III: 13.55, 8.20, 10.55, 10.66, 3.11, 46.01. IV: 17.56, 8.65, 14.65, 13.66, 8.12, 62.64. Palp: 10.42, 8.65, 8.76, -, 8.62, 36.45. Midwidth: femora I–IV= 3.45, 3.21, 4.05, 3.50, palp= 2.56; patellae I–IV= 3.66, 3.55, 3.15, 3.50, palp= 3.05; tibiae I–IV= 3.37, 2.56, 3.26, 3.17, palp= 2.62; metatarsi I–IV= 2.45, 2.35, 2.40, 2.35; tarsi I–IV= 2.61, 2.65, 2.53, 2.30, palp= 2.55. Abdomen: 26.37 long, 17.56 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 2.99 long, 1.62 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 2.04 basal, 1.71 middle, 4.07 distal; width 2.73, 2.3, 1.72, respectively.
Carapace: 1.10 times longer than wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.
Fovea: deep, straight, 2.27 wide.
Eyes: eye tubercle 1.30 high, 2.62 long, 3.52 wide. Clipeus: 0.53. Anterior eye row procurve, posterior slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.73, ALE 0.85, PME 0.26, PLE 0.74, AME–AME 0.57, AME–ALE 0.48, AME–PME 0.27, ALE–ALE 2.35, ALE–PME 0.58, PME–PME 2.15, PME–PLE 0.14, PLE–PLE 2.86, ALE–PLE 0.38; AME–PLE 0.60.
Maxilla: length to width 1.86. Cuspules: 164 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.07 long, 3.46 wide, with 82 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Labio-sternal groove swallow, flat, with two slightly separate, large sigilla.
Chelicera: basal segment with 11 teeth in row and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 9.07 long, 8.08 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, posterior and middle rounded, anterior small, all less than one diameter from margin.
Legs: Formula: IV I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.16. Clavate trichobothria: 2/3 distal tarsi I–IV. Scopulae: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate; IV with a few sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 2/3 distal; IV 1/3 distal. IV divided by rows of setae.
Type II urticating hairs: 0.62–0.69 long, 0.017–0.019 wide.
Spermathecae (Fig. 21): two completely separated, not-twisted and long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth as wide as its base width and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.
Color pattern (Fig. 36): carapace brown with brown short body setae with green sheen. Carapace border with long reddish brown setae with pink sheen. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae brown, slightly darker than ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae with green sheen and reddish brown guard-setae with homogeneous dark coloration on anterior legs and guard-setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex on posterior legs. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with long reddish brown guard-setae with pink sheen grouped on lateral dorsal anterior areas and dark short body setae. Ventral abdomen brown.

Male

Redescription. MNRJ 13659A. Carapace: 17.23 long, 16.81 wide, 4.9 high. Chelicera: 7.2 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 15.4, 8.6, 11.8, 11.7, 6.9, 54.4. II: 14.8, 7.7, 11.7, 11.5, 6.7, 52.4. III: 13.2, 6.7, 10.2, 11.5, 6.6, 48.2. IV: 16.2, 7.9, 14.7, 15.6, 6.9, 61.3. Palp: 9.4, 5.3, 7.0, –, 2.9, 24.6. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.0, 2.8, 3.4, 3.1, palp= 2.2; patellae I–IV= 3.1, 3.1, 2.8, 3.2, palp= 2.3; tibiae I–IV= 2.3, 2.2, 2.2, 2.6, palp= 2.2; metatarsi I–IV=1.7, 1.6, 1.5, 1.8; tarsi I–IV= 2.0, 1.9, 1.8, 1.6, palp= 2.2. Abdomen: 19.83 long, 13.39 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.75 long, 0.80 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 2.82 basal, 2.04 middle, 3.56 distal; width: 1.88, 1.55, 1.15, respectively.
As in female, except:
Carapace: 1.03 times longer than wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous.
Fovea: deep, straight, 1.70 wide.
Eyes: eye tubercle 1.60 high, 2.23 long, 3.33 wide. Clypeus 0.22 wide. Eyes size and interdistances: AME 0.71, ALE 0.77, PME 0.27, PLE 0.700, AME–AME 0.62, AME–ALE 0.48, AME–PME 0.22, ALE–ALE 2.24, ALE–PME 0.78, PME–PME 1.99, PME–PLE 0.12, PLE–PLE 2.58, ALE–PLE 0.46, AME–PLE 0.51.
Maxilla: length to width: 2.13. Cuspules: 157 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.73 long, 2.40 wide, with 94 cuspules.
Chelicerae: basal segment with 10 teeth in row and some small teeth on promargin. Sternum: 8.58 long, 7.35 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, all rounded and large, less than one diameter from margin.
Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.13. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate, III scopulate in distal 2/3; IV, in distal 1/3. IV divided by wide row of setae.
Type II urticating hairs: 0.94–1.09 long, 0.020–0.025 wide.
Palp (Figs 28–31): globous bulb with small subtegulum and developed prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 4.99 long in retrolateral view, about 3.0 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view (Fig. 323). Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal width 0.49, 0.21, 0.07, respectively. Tegulum: 2.66 long, 1.72 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, with well-developed rounded process on retrolateral lobe, bearing thick setae (Fig. 32).
Tibial apophysis (Figs 33–35): single branch on prolateral leg I, with well-developed base and grouped spiniform setae distally. Male metatarsus I touches retrolaterally tibial apophysis’ setae when folded.
Color pattern: carapace brown with brown short body setae with green and golden sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae brown, slightly darker than ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae with green sheen and reddish brown guard-setae with homogeneous dark coloration on anterior legs and guard-setae with darker base and contrasting whitish apex on posterior legs. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with long reddish brown guard-setae with pink sheen and dark short body setae. Ventral abdomen brown.

Color pattern ontogeny

Brownish juveniles lacking metallic sheen, black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles and abdomen dorsum reddish, with dorsal central longitudinal black stripe disconnected from transversal black stripes (Figs 37, 44, 47). When mature, both males and females lose this pattern.

Distribution

Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil (states of Amapá, Pará, Maranhão, Amazonas, Mato Grosso), and populations in Peru and Bolivia (Fig. 50). Possibly, on an opposite pattern to Avicularia rufa, Avicularia avicularia is rarer in western Brazil, the area connected to the region where occur Avicularia avicularia in Peru and Bolivia. This disjunct distribution pattern of Avicularia avicularia can be better understand only after sampling or having access to material from poorly sampled areas such as western Amazon (near Brazil-Peru-Colombia border), and Bolivia and Peru as a whole.

Natural history

Stradling (1994)[29] studied distribution and behavioral ecology of a population of Avicularia avicularia in Trinidad. The author reported that retreats were found in different situations on vegetation and in human constructions. He found first eight instars specimens predominantly between leaves of low-growing plants (especially in Heliconia Linnaeus), holding edges of leaves together with silk to create retreat. After this life stage, Stradling (1994)[29] noted spiders tended to build their retreats in more elevated structures, not incorporating leaves in retreat. Stradling (1994)[29] recorded capture of katydids, cockroaches, scarabs and lizards by Avicularia avicularia and also observed courtship behavior with males maturing in beginning of rainy season, in May and June. Females lay the eggsac in May, and after an incubation period ranging from 29 to 62 days, about 125 spiderlings hatch (Stradling 1994[29]).
Bates (1863)[30] observed a scene similar to the one depicted by Merian (1705)[31] in Cametá, state of Pará, Brazil. He observed Avicularia avicularia specimen actively feeding on a small bird inside its webbed retreat on a tree, and also the existence of another small bird inside the spider’s retreat.
F. O. Pickard-Cambridge (1896)[11] observed that adults constructed their retreat in “almost any locality which offered a more or less vacant cylindrical space”, including hollow stumps of Açai palm, folded leaves of bananas, in the hollow center of a pineapple plant and among the palm-leaf thatch of native houses.
Villa (2004)[32] observed in areas at Tambopata district in Peru retreats of Avicularia avicularia built on trunks and in axils of palm tree Attalea butyracea (Mutis ex L.f.) Wess. Boer and also in Heliconia psittacorum L. plant. The reproduction period in that area is in September and October (Villa 2004[32]).

Variation

Specimens of Avicularia avicularia show different patterns of coloration which seems to be correlated with their geographical distribution. However, genitalic and somatic characters are very homogeneous along the distribution of the species. Variations among different populations concerning color patterns are, herein, discussed. We do not consider the detected differences sufficient to elevate each morphotype to species status. Nonetheless, we do not discard the possibility of they corresponding to criptic species. In order to establish more accurate limits in Avicularia avicularia, it is necessary to employ multiple approaches, considering molecular, ecological, behavioral and geographic data.
Besides body coloration, there is urticating setae variation. Females of morphotype 5 have urticating setae with developed barbs along almost all lengths (Fig. 17), different from the other morphotypes (Fig. 16). However, as we had only access to three specimens it is not possible to make more considerations about it.

Table 2. Avicularia avicularia morphotypes: characteristics and geographical distribution.
Morpho 1 (Fig. 36) Morpho 2 (Fig. 38) Morpho 3 (Fig. 39) Morpho 4 (Fig. 40) Morpho 5 (Fig. 41) Morpho 6 (Figs 42–46) Morpho 7 (Figs 47–49)
Occurrence area (Fig. 51) Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago Brazil: states of Pará, Maranhão and Mato Grosso Venezuela Peru: department of Madre de Dios. Bolivia: departments of Santa Cruz, La Paz and Beni. Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago Brazil: states of Pará and Amapá.
Overall aspect brownish brownish brownish brown reddish greyish greyish light brownish
Legs and palps guard-setae discrete grizzled or not grizzled discrete grizzled or not grizzled discrete grizzled or not grizzled not grizzled discrete grizzled or not grizzled very grizzled very grizzled
Legs and palps short body setae brown with very intense green sheen brown with discrete golden sheen brown with golden sheen brown with green and pink sheen brown with very intense green sheen brown with very intense green sheen brown with discrete golden sheen
Leg rings whitish whitish whitish whitish pale yellowish whitish whitish
Females: abdomen, guard-setae, color reddish with pink sheen reddish brown reddish brown reddish brown reddish brown, gradually lightening from base to tip orange brownish, with whitish tip
Females: posterior legs, guard-setae color vivid red vivid red reddish vivid red greyish greyish vivid orange
Males: abdomen, guard-setae, color dark brownish dark brownish dark brownish dark brownish dark brownish dark brownish, some with whitish tip dark brownish, some with whitish tip

Remark

Valerio (1979)[22] reported the presence of Avicularia avicularia in Costa Rica (Fig. 19). In fact, the male palpal bulb and spermathecae illustrated by the author are compatible with Avicularia species. However, the specimens from Costa Rica reported by Valerio (1979)[22] were examined and are more similar to Avicularia purpurea than to the larger species of Avicularia. See discussion in Avicularia glauca taxonomy.

Taxon Treatment

  • Fukushima, C; Bertani, R; 2017: Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera01 ZooKeys, (659): 1-185. doi

Images

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