Pachistopelma bromelicola

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Bertani R (2012) Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae). ZooKeys 230 : 1–94, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.230.3500. Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-23, version 27963, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Pachistopelma_bromelicola&oldid=27963 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Bertani2012ZooKeys230,
author = {Bertani, Rogério},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)},
year = {2012},
volume = {230},
issue = {},
pages = {1--94},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.230.3500},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/3500/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-23, version 27963, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Pachistopelma_bromelicola&oldid=27963 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)
A1 - Bertani R
Y1 - 2012
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 230
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.230.3500
SP - 1
EP - 94
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-23, version 27963, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Pachistopelma_bromelicola&oldid=27963 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.230.3500

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Bertani2012ZooKeys230">{{Citation
| author = Bertani R
| title = Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2012
| volume = 230
| issue =
| pages = 1--94
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.230.3500
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/3500/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-01-21

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-23, version 27963, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Pachistopelma_bromelicola&oldid=27963 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Theraphosidae
Genus: Pachistopelma

Name

Pachistopelma bromelicola Bertani, 2012 sp. n.Wikispecies linkZooBank linkPensoft Profile

Diagnosis

Males and females differ from those of Pachistopelma rufonigrum by the incrassate metatarsus IV with stiff bristles (Fig. 66) and blackish color of the legs (Figs 54–57).

Etymology

The specific name refers to the lifestyle habits of this species, bromeliad endemism.

Types

Holotype male (MNRJ 06241), Brazil, State of Bahia, Elísio Medrado, RPPN Jequitibá (12°52'3.20"S, 39°28'9.09"W), R. Bertani, C.S. Fukushima and R.H. Nagahama, 07 October 2007, collected at night, found immature inside bromeliads, matured in captivity in May 2010; Paratype female (MNRJ 06242), same data.
Additional material examined. BRAZIL: Sergipe: Areia Branca, Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana [10°44'S, 37°22'W], inside bromeliads, 4 males, R. Bertani, A. D. Brescovit, A. B. Bonaldo, September 1999 (IBSP 10010, 9789, 9832, 8716); 5 females, same data (IBSP 10216, 10463, 10399, 10035, 10748); 3 immatures, same data (IBSP 8644, 8599, 8525); 1 female, 1 immature, A. C. M. Fernandes, 12 November 1996 (IBSP 11762); Barra dos Coqueiros [10°54'S, 37°01'W] 1 immature, without collector, 20 February 1994 (IBSP 8087); 2 males, without data (IBSP Ref. 79901); Brejo Grande [10°25'S, 36°28'W], 1 female, no collector data, 26 October 1998 (IBSP 8085); Nossa Senhora da Gloria [10°13'S, 37°25'W], 1 female, S. Lucas, 1980 (IBSP 7892); 1 male, 1 female, same data (IBSP 7893); 1 female, same data (IBSP Ref. 28482); Pirambú [10°40'S, 36°52'W], 1 immature, without collector, 19 February 1998 (IBSP 8088); Poço Redondo [9°47'S, 37°41'W], 1 female, S. Lucas, August 1980 (IBSP 4712); Santo Amaro das Brotas [10°46'S, 37°03'W], inside bromeliad, 1 female, A. V. Alcântara, 09 September 1978 (MZSP 10846); 1 female, 2 immatures, no collector data, 7 October 1978 (MZSP 10842); 1 female, 2 immatures, no collector data, 2 June 1979 (MZSP 10843); 1 female, no collector data, 11 November 1978 (MZSP 10841); 14 females, 6 immatures, no collector data, 23 March 1978 (MZSP 10847); 1 female, no collector data, 02 July 1979 (MZSP 10845). Bahia: Acajutiba [11°39'S, 38°01'W], 2 females, 10 immatures, E. Boaventura, 18 April 1991 (MZSP 32179, col. Bock. 699–710); Camaçari, Praia do Jacuípe [12°42'S, 38°07'W], 1 male, L. Stabile, 7 September 2006 (IBSP 12991); Elísio Medrado, RPPN Jequitibá (12°52'3.20"S, 39°28'9.09"W), inside bromeliads, 2 males, 3 females, R. Bertani, R. H. Nagahama, C. S. Fukushima, 7 October 2007 (MZSP 36881); 1 female, 4 immatures, inside bromeliads, M. A. Freitas, April 2010 (MZSP 36882); Jeremoabo, [10°03'S, 38°20'W], 1 male, A. J. Silva, November 1989 (MZSP 32177, col. Bock. 770); 1 male, A. J. Silva (MZSP 32175, col. Bock. 787); 1 male, A. J. Silva, 15 July 1989 (MZSP 32172, col. Bock. 786); 1 male, A. J. Silva, 28 October 1989 (MZSP 32178, col. Bock. 792); 1 male, 2 females, A. J. Silva, December 1988 (MZSP 32169, col. Bock. 837–839); 3 females, A. J. Silva, 28 October 1999 (MZSP 32166, col. Bock. 827–829); 1 male, 7 females, 2 immatures, A. J. Silva, December 1988 (MZSP 32163, col. Bock. 840–849); 2 males, 6 females, 1 immature, A. J. Silva, 16 January 1989 (MZSP 32170, col. Bock. 861–869); 2 males, 14 females, 1 immature, A. J. Silva, 29 June 1989 (MZSP 32171, col. Bock. 711–713, 716, 748–755, 768–769, 772–774); 2 males, 8 females, 1 immature, A. J. Silva, December 1988 (MZSP 32167, col. Bock. 850–859); 6 females, A. J. Silva, 16 January 1989 (MZSP 32165, col. Bock. 880–884); 2 males, 6 females, A. J. Silva, 16 January 1989 (MZSP 32168, col. Bock. 870, 872–875, 877–879); 5 females, A. J. Silva, 28 October 1989 (MZSP 32164, col. Bock. 830, 832, 834–836); Maracás [13°25'S, 40°26'W], 1 female, Werner, November 1965 (IBSP 7889); Mata de São João, RPPN Sapiranga (12°34'0.58"S, 38°02'3.38"W), inside bromeliads, 2 females, 1 immature, R. Bertani, R. H. Nagahama, C. S. Fukushima, 1 October 2007 (MNRJ 06243); Minuim [9°50'S, 38°05'W], 1 male, without colector, 06 June 1987 (MZSP 32176, col. Bock. 714); Salvador, Itapoã [12°57'S, 38°21'W] 1 male, 1 female, A. Travassos, 1951 (IBSP 2369); inside bromeliads, 2 immatures, Vanzolini and Rebouças, December 1962 (MZSP 10840); 1 immature, same data and colectors (MZSP 10863); 1 male, 1 female, 1 immature, Vanzolini, 3 June 1963 (MZSP 4992); Ondina [13°00'S, 38°30'W], 1 female, T. B. Nunes, December 1982 (IBSP 7905); Santa Brigida [9°43'S, 38°07'W], 1 female, J. P. Carvalho, 23 October 1987 (MZSP 32174, col. Bock. 789).

Description

Holotype male (MNRJ 06241). Carapace 11.6 long, 11.4 wide, chelicerae 5.3. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 9.8, 6.0, 7.6, 8.0, 4.6, 36.0. II: 9.5, 5.4, 7.1, 7.7, 4.1, 33.8. III: 8.5, 4.7, 7.2, 7.6, 4.1, 32.1. IV: 11.0, 5.4, 9.5, 10.7, 4.2, 40.8. Palp: 7.3, 4.2, 5.6, –, 2.3, 19.4. Mid-widths (lateral): femora I–IV = 2.4, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, palp= 1.7; patellae I–IV = 2.2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, palp = 1.7; tibiae I–IV = 2.0, 1.9, 1.9, 2.1, palp = 1.7; metatarsi I–IV = 1.3, 1.2, 1.2, 1.4; tarsi I–IV = 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, palp = 1.3. Abdomen 13.9 long, 9.4 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.2 long, 0.4 wide, 0.4 apart; PLS, 2.2 basal, 1.1 middle, 1.5 distal; mid-widths (lateral), 1.0, 0.7, 0.6, respectively. Carapace: length to width 1.01; Fovea 1.1 wide. Eyes: tubercle 0.3 high, 1.2 long, 1.9 wide. Anterior eye row slightly procurved, posterior slightly recurved. Eye sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.4, ALE 0.4, PME 0.2, PLE 0.4, AME–AME 0.3, AME–ALE 0.3, AME–PME 0.2, ALE–ALE 1.5, ALE–PME 0.3, PME–PME 1.1, PME–PLE 0.2, PLE–PLE 1.6, ALE–PLE 0.3, AME–PLE 0.5. Ratio of eye group width to length 2.1. Maxillae: length to width: 1.6. Cuspules: 130–150 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.2 long, 1.9 wide, with ca. 90 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on the anterior third center. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, with two sigilla. Chelicerae: basal segments with eigth teeth decreasing in size from distal to basal portion. Sternum: 5.6 long, 4.7 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, small, ellipsoid, less than one diameter from margin. Scopula: tarsi I–IV fully scopulate, IV divided by four wide row of setae. Metatarsi I 4/5 scopulate; II 2/3 scopulate; III 1/2 distal scopulate; IV 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by five wide row of setae. Tibial spur 0.8 high, 1.4 wide; with numerous spiniform setae on tip (Fig. 51). Metatarsus I straight. Urticating hairs type II (0.63 to 1.0 long, 0.012 to 0.016 wide) on the abdomen dorsum. Palp: embolus 2.9 long, with a 45° curvature to the retrolateral side. Embolus basal, middle and distal width of 0.3, 0.2 and 0.08, respectively. Tegulum 1.0 long, 1.8 wide. (Figs 46–48). Cymbium: two subequal lobes, the prolateral one triangular in shape. Spiniform process 0.3 long, 0.4 wide on the apex (Fig. 49). Color pattern: carapace and chelicerae dark brown, covered with golden hairs. Legs and palps black, longer hairs with distal half light brown. Coxae, labium, maxilla and sternum black. Longitudinal stripes on dorsum of femora, patellae, tibiae and metatarsi inconspicuous. Distal femora, patellae, tibiae and metatarsi without rings. Abdomen dorsum orange with long reddish hairs. Abdomen ventrally grayish (Fig. 57).

Description

Paratype female (MNRJ 06242). Carapace 15.7 long, 14.8 wide, chelicerae 7.3. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 10.1, 6.7, 7.6, 6.7, 4.0, 35.1. II: 9.2, 6.5, 6.6, 6.6, 3.8, 32.7. III: 8.9, 5.6, 6.7, 7.0, 3.9, 32.1. IV: 11.0, 6.5, 9.7, 9.8, 4.1, 41.1. Palp: 7.2, 5.1, 4.8, –, 4.9, 22.0. Mid-widths (lateral): femora I–IV = 2.8, 3.1, 3.4, 3.4, palp = 2.2; patellae I–IV = 2.9, 2.8, 3.0, 3.0, palp=2.3; tibiae I–IV = 2.7, 2.6, 2.8, 3.1, palp = 2.3; metatarsi I–IV = 2.0, 1.9, 2.0, 2.4; tarsi I–IV = 1.9, 1.9, 1.9, 1.9, palp = 2.0. Abdomen 17.4 long, 13.3 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.7 long, 0.8 wide, 0.6 apart; PLS, 2.6 basal, 2.1 middle, 2.3 distal; mid-widths (lateral), 1.4, 1.1, 0.9, respectively. Carapace: length to width 1.06. Fovea 1.6 wide. Eyes: tubercle 0.3 high, 1.8 long, 2.6 wide. Anterior eye row straight, posterior slightly recurved. Eye sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.5, ALE 0.5, PME 0.3, PLE 0.4, AME–AME 0.4, AME–ALE 0.3, AME–PME 0.3, ALE–ALE 1.7, ALE–PME 0.4, PME–PME 1.3, PME–PLE 0.2, PLE–PLE 2.0, ALE–PLE 0.4, AME–PLE 0.5. Ratio of eye group width to length 2.4. Maxillae: length to width: 1.7. Cuspules: 150–200 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.0 long, 2.7 wide, with ca. 150 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on the anterior third. Labio-sternal groove without evident sigilla. Chelicerae:basal segments with eleven teeth decreasing in size from distal to basal portion.Sternum: 7.4 long, 6.4 wide. Urticating hairs on abdomen dorsum lacking. Genitalia: paired long, uniform, weakly sclerotized spermathecae with a slight curvature in their middle (Fig. 50). Color pattern: as in male, except abdomen dorsum black with sparse long reddish hairs, ventrally black (Fig. 56).

Distribution

Brazil: States of Sergipe and Northern State of Bahia, mainly in coastal regions (Fig. 68).

Sexual dimorphism

The cephalic region of female and immatures is very low in profile when compared with those of male, and abdomen is dorso-ventrally flattened in the former (Fig. 34). The eye tubercle is very low in female (Fig. 36) and immature, and first ocular row is straight (Fig. 37). Males have a more developed eye tubercle, the anterior ocular row is slightly procurved. Immatures and adult males have urticating hair type II on abdomen dorsally, which becomes lost in adult females.

Spermathecae variation

As Pachistopelma rufonigrum, the typical spermatheca is weakly sclerotized, long, tapering apically, without constrictions or lobes, and slightly curved inwards (Figs 61–62). Shorter spermathecae (Figs 63–65) can be found, as well as almost straight ones (Fig. 64) and a few are curved outwards (Fig. 65). In the paratype female (MNRJ 06242), one spermatheca is curved inwards whereas the other is curved outwards (Fig. 50). Spermathecae of Figs 62–64 are from specimens of same population.

Natural history

As with Pachistopelma rufonigrum, all specimens examined and labeled with field data indicate they were found inside bromeliads, which agrees with field observations (Dias et al 2000; Dias and Brescovit 2003[3], 2004 – all misidentified as Pachistopelma rufonigrum). In my own field observations in Parque Nacional de Itabaiana, Areia Branca, state of Sergipe (September 1999); RPPN Sapiranga, Mata de São João, state of Bahia (October 2007) and RPPN Jequitiba, Elísio Medrado, state of Bahia (October 2007) specimens were found only inside bromeliads. The habitat in Itabaiana consists of white sandy soils with scattered shrubs, cactus and bromeliads, and is very similar to restinga vegetation (Dias and Brescovit 2003[3]), found in coastal region which is a typical enviroment for Pachistopelma rufonigrum in Rio Grande do Norte state (Santos et al. 2004[4]). Bromeliad phytotelma is a source of water, food and retreat for a variety of animal species (Frank and Lounibos 2009[5]), and in restinga regions they are a key resource for the local fauna (Santos et al. 2002[6]; 2003[7]a, b). I failed to find Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n. in parts of Parque Nacional de Itabaiana covered with Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. In RPPN Sapiranga, Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n. was found in restinga area, inside Hohenbergia stellata bromeliads. Some of these bromeliads were very close to a house and were used in garden decoration. Inside two bromeliads we found an eggsac, protected by a retreat, in October 2007. In a region covered with Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, in RPPN Jequitiba, they were found close to a house located relatively far from forest shade. Other specimens were colected inside bromeliads in a caatinga (a xeric shrubland and thorn forest) region in Jeremoabo (R. A. Sanfilippo pers. comm.). Therefore, Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n. is distributed over contrasting environments, from rainforest to xeric caatinga and restinga. An element in common among these populations is the obligatory bromelicolous habits.

Color pattern ontogeny

The color pattern is similar to Pachistopelma rufonigrum, mainly in early instars. However, the lateral black stripes of abdomen dorsum are almost always connecting with the longitudinal central stripe (Figs 52–53) whereas in Pachistopelma rufonigrum they normally do not connect (Figs 41–43). Larger individuals have dark legs and dark-brown carapace, and abdominal pattern is conspicuous (Fig. 54). In subadults, abdomen is very dark, lacks a pattern, or is inconspicuous (Fig. 55). Adult female is almost completely black, except for some brown setae over carapace (Fig. 56). Adult male is also completely black, but with many long whitish setae on legs, carapace and chelicerae. Abdomen is black with long red setae (Fig. 57).

Original Description

  • Bertani, R; 2012: Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) ZooKeys, 230: 1-94. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.230.3500

Other References

  1. Dias S (2004) Color pattern changes in Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 21: 153–154. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0101-81752004000100025&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en doi: 10.1590/S0101-81752004000100025
  2. Dias S, Brescovit A, Santos L, Couto E (2000) Aranhas em bromélias de duas restingas do estado de Sergipe, Brasil. Biologia Geral e Experimental 1: 22–24. http://www.biologiageralexperimental.bio.br/temas/aranhas/1.pdf
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Dias S, Brescovit A (2003) Notes on the behavior of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 20: 13–17. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-81752003000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en doi: 10.1590/S0101-81752003000100004
  4. Santos R, Almeida M, Tinoco L, Martins L, Maia M (2004) Biogeography and conservation of the bromeliad tarantula Pachistopelma rufonigrum (Araneae, Theraphosidae) in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 54: 153-157.
  5. Frank J, Lounibos L (2009) Insects and allies associated with bromeliads: a review. Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews 1: 125-153. doi: 10.1163%2f187498308X414742
  6. Santos R, Almeida M, Nunes J (2002) Notes on the association of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 (Theraphosidae) with phytotelm bromeliads in eastern Rio Grande do Norte State, NE-Brazil. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 52: 122-124.
  7. Santos R, Almeida M, Nunes J, Tinoco L, Martins, L (2003) Bromeliads as a keystone resource for the scorpion Tityus neglectus in eastern Rio Grande do Norte State. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 53: 256-258.

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