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- Zambion monodon Kasparyan, 1993: 86.
Zambion monodon can be distinguished from all other Zambion spp. by having the mesopleuron approximately half black (dorsally) and half yellow (ventrally) (Fig. 5) (all other species are concolourous on mesopleuron – either all brown to black or all yellow to orange). Zambion monodon is unusual in Zambion in that it lacks the ventral transverse carina of the propodeum extending from the metasomal foramen to the pleural carina (Fig. 36). The only other species of Zambion that lacks this carina is Zambion kasparyani, but the latter species has a mesopleuron that is completely yellow to orange (Fig. 46).
Adult. Female (based on holotype only – see comments below). Fore wing length 7.2 mm. Clypeus separated from supraclypeal area by a strong groove (Fig. 11). Malar space 0.5 times basal width of mandible. Supraclypeal area 2.0 times as wide as high (Fig. 11), dorsomedially without a short, narrow, longitudinal lamella between the antenna. Supra-antennal horn moderately long and triangular in dorsal view (Fig. 17), about equal in length to width of pedicel at midheight in lateral view (Fig. 25). Ocello-ocular distance 1.4 times ocellar diameter. Gena 0.6 times transverse diameter of the eye. Antennal flagellum with 37 segments.
Notaulus present, but weak. Epicnemial carina medially curving slightly away from anterior edge of mesopleuron near ventral corner of pronotum (intermediate between Zambion rogeri shown in Fig. 32 and Zambion wahli shown in Fig. 33). Scutellum with lateral carinae 0.4 length of scutellum. Medial longitudinal carinae of propodeum complete and strong anterior to posterior transverse carina (Fig. 3). Carina extending from pleural carina to spiracle complete (Fig. 36). Posterior transverse carina of propodeum with lateral abscissa roughly straight, joining pleural carina at about 0.4 distance from posterior end of pleural carina to propodeal spiracle (Fig. 36). Ventral transverse carina extending from metasomal foramen to pleural carina absent (Fig. 36). Fore tibia with a strong apical point on dorsal surface. Hind femur 3.4 times as long as medial width (Fig. 1). Hind tarsal claw pectinate to about 0.5. Angulation of fore wing vein 2m-cu strong (Fig. 1).
Tergite 1 of metasoma 1.7 times as long as apical width. Dorsal longitudinal carinae of T1 extending posterior to spiracle (0.6 length of tergite), dorsolateral longitudinal carinae extending about half way to spiracle (0.3 distance of T1) (Fig. 41 of male, similar to female).
Yellow. Legs and metasoma become slightly darker yellow apically/ posteriorly. Scape, pedicel except apically, supra-antennal area except orbits ventral to medial ocellus, vertex, gena dorsal to ventral edge of eye, occiput, apex of mandibles, pronotum dorsal to furrow, mesoscutum, dorsal half of mesopleuron except subtegular ridge and scutellum except basolaterally black/ dark brown. Apex of pedicel, flagellum and distal tarsomere of hind leg brown. Entire membrane of fore wing moderately infumate (Fig. 5). Body covered with dense golden setae.
Male (based only on single male paratype noted by Kasparyan 1993): As female except fore wing length 7.0 mm. Malar space 0.4 times basal width of mandible. Width of supraclypeal area 1.7 times medial height. Ocello-ocular distance 1.2 times ocellar diameter. Gena 0.7 times transverse diameter of eye. Lateral abscissa of posterior transverse carina of propodeum joining pleural carina at 0.3 distance from posterior end of pleural carina. (Both antennae missing or incomplete).
Holotype: ♀, Label 1: ZAMBIA, Kitwe, Chati, 27.3.1979, K. Löyttyniemi leg. Label 2: window trap with Eucalyptus. Label 3: Holotypus Zambion monodon Kasparyan. Label 4: coll. Dept. Agr. Forest. Zool. Univ. Helsinki. [MZH]. Condition: intact except missing distal tarsomere of right foreleg and left mid leg detached and glued to top locality label. Paratypes: ♂, same data as holotype, except 8.iii.1979; ♀ same data except 15.iii.1979. (♀ paratype strongly damaged by Dermestidae).
Zambion monodon appears related to Zambion kasparyani and Zambion hirtum on the basis of the similar moderately long, triangular-shaped supra-antennal horn (Figs 16, 17, 47). Within this grouping, Zambion monodon and Zambion kasparyani both lack the ventral transverse carina of the propodeum (Figs 36, 48). Outgroup comparison with Ibornia and Thibetoides spp., reveals that this character varies between species within these two genera as well, therefore its polarity (and phylogenetic utility) in Zambion is unclear. Zambion monodon is the only species of Zambion for which the egg is known. Kasparyan (1993) stated that the dermestid damaged paratype was a female. Because the metasoma posterior to T3 is missing, it is difficult to confirm the sex; however, the length of T1 (1.8 times posterior width) and ocellar-ocular distance (1.2 times ocellar diameter) suggest that this specimen may be a male based on comparison with the dimensions of these structures in the female holotype and male paratype.
- Bennett, A; Barnes, D; 2011: Revision of the world species of Zambion (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae) ZooKeys, 159: 19-48. doi
- Kasparyan D (1993) Zambion, a new tryphonine genus from Africa (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 1: 86-88.