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- Zambion Kasparyan, 1993: 86. Type: Zambion monodon Kasparyan. By monotypy.
Differentiated from other genera of Tryphoninae by combination of both of the following characters: 1) unidentate mandibles (Fig. 22); 2) supra-antennal area with a medial horn (not a vertical lamella) slightly ventral to medial ocellus (Figs 16–21, 24–27). Zambion would most easily be mistaken for Ibornia Seyrig, but Ibornia has a supra-antennal vertical lamella instead of a horn and T1 and T2 are fused (not fused in Zambion).
Adult. Fore wing length 4.9 to 7.2 mm. Clypeus separated from supraclypeal area by a strong groove (most species) (Fig. 11) or weakly separated in Zambion hirtum Delobel (Fig. 10); strongly convex or moderately flat in profile; not divided into dorsal and ventral faces by a transverse line (most species) (Fig. 11) or divided (Fig. 12). Apical edge of clypeus not projecting ventroanteriorly in lateral view, truncate to slightly convex medially in anterior view, without a pair of medial denticles. Mandible unidentate (Fig. 22), outer face (anterior surface) basally flat and coarsely punctate (not inflated and impunctate as in Ctenochira). Glossa slightly to strongly elongated (Fig. 15). Posterior mandibular condyles separated by greater width than inner margins of eyes at level of clypeal foveae. Malar space 0.4 to 0.7 times basal width of mandible. Occipital carina present only dorsally (between inner margins of eyes), therefore not joining hypostomal carina, the latter not directed posteriorly into a tooth. Supra-antennal area with or without a glabrous depression, if present then just as a deep dimple directly ventral to medial ocellus, not an elongate groove as in Cosmoconus Förster. Supra-antennal area with a medial horn (Figs 16–21, 24–27). Vertex posterior to medial ocellus without a rounded, conical protuberance. Distance between inner edges of toruli 0.1 to 0.4 times width of one torulus.
Dorsal edge of pronotum (seen in dorsal view) strongly thickened laterally (Fig. 28). Epomia present only as a slight sharpening of ventroanterior ridge of pronotum (not crossing pronotal groove) (Figs 30–31). Notaulus weak (Fig. 29) or absent. Subtegular ridge slightly protruding laterally, not extending dorsally as a vertical lamina that nearly touches tegula, without a posterior longitudinal slot. Epicnemial carina not joined by an auxiliary carina that extends from anterior edge of mesopleuron. Vertical portion of epicnemial carina close to anterior edge of mesopleuron and dorsally curving anteriorly to meet anterior edge of mesopleuron (Figs 32–33). Longitudinal carinae of mesopleuron and mesoscutum (as in Ibornia) absent. Sternaulus weak and wide to 0.2 to 0.3 length of mesopleuron. Angular flange on posterolateral edges of mesoscutum and associated ‘axillary tongue’ both present and strongly angulate. Scutellum completely black (most species), completely yellow (Zambion hirtum and Zambion kasparyani) or black with yellow apically (Zambion monodon), lateral carinae present only basally or up to 0.5. Propodeum with all carinae present except anterior transverse carina completely absent in all species (Fig. 34), medial longitudinal carinae absent anteriorly in Zambion wahli and Zambion broadi and posterior transverse carina interrupted medially in the males of Zambion wahli and Zambion broadi. Posterior transverse carina angulate where it intercepts medial longitudinal carinae (Fig. 34). Foretibia with a strong tooth on apex of anterior side or tooth weak to absent. Trochantelli not fused on middle and hind legs. Hind tarsal claws stoutly pectinate in basal 0.4 to 0.6. Fore wing vein 3rs-m present. Cell 1 + 2Rs subrectangular or subrhombic, width not greater than 1.4 times height, petiolate anteriorly. Fore wing vein 2m-cu with an angulation (zig-zag) that is strong in most species (Figs 38–39) or weak (Fig. 7) and with one wide or two narrowly spaced bullae. Fore wing hyaline basally and infumate apically (Figs 38–39) or completely moderately infumate (Figs 7–8).
T1 gradually widening from anterior to posterior, 1.2 to 1.8 times as long as posterior width, with moderate anterolateral projections (as seen in dorsal view). Glymma present as a depression ventral to anterolateral projections. Dorsal longitudinal carinae of T1 present basally or extending up to 0.7 of segment. Dorsolateral longitudinal carinae of T1 present (most species) or absent; if present, not extending posterior to spiracle (Figs 40, 41) or extending up to 0.7 of segment, not bifurcated into two branches above and below spiracle. Spiracle of T1 just anterior to middle. T1 and T2 not fused. T2 without a postmedial transverse groove or grooves that delineate anterolateral corners. T2 to T4 completely yellow/orange, completely black, or black with yellow at posterior of each segment. Laterotergites wide (Fig. 42), of MS3 divided from tergite by a crease, of MS4 not divided. T7 and T8 not turned anteriorly under metasoma. Ovipositor straight, about equal to apical height of metasoma or a little shorter, carrying one egg (Figs 5, 45) or no eggs, dorsal valve tapered to a sharp point (Fig. 44). Ovipositor sheath in profile, widest basally, gradually tapering from base to apex, flexible from 0.3 to 0.6.
Body polished, face and supraclypeal area coarsely punctate (Figs 10–15); pronotum, mesopleuron and metapleuron with fine, sparse, but distinct punctures (Figs 30–33); all other body regions almost impunctate (Figs 34–37, 40–43). Body covered in dense setae, particularly long on supraclypeal area, shorter on pleura of mesosoma and metasomal tergites.
Mature larva. Unknown.
Egg. (Fig. 45): Stalk apical, anchor unknown, surface reticulate. Egg known only for Zambion monodon (holotype).
Unknown, but probably parasitoids of tenthredinoid sawflies (Hymenoptera) (see Introduction).
Afrotropical (Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia and Angola).
Zambion, Ibornia and Thibetoides are all closely related based on seven synapomorphies, especially the thickened dorsoposterior corner of the pronotum and the supra-antennal prominence (Bennett 2002). Kasparyan (1993) speculated that Zambion and Ibornia must be sister genera because of the unidentate mandibles and because they are both Afrotropical, but Bennett (2002) found that Ibornia and Thibetoides are sister taxa based on seven characters including the fusion of T1 and T2 and the ventral curving of T7 and T8 under the metasoma which makes Zambion the sister of these two genera.
Key to the world species of Zambion
- Bennett, A; Barnes, D; 2011: Revision of the world species of Zambion (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae) ZooKeys, 159: 19-48. doi
- Bennett A (2002) Cladistics of the Tryphoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) with a discussion of host use and the evolution of parasitism in the Ichneumonidae. PhD thesis, Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto, 366 pp.
- Kasparyan D (1993) Zambion, a new tryphonine genus from Africa (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 1: 86-88.