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- Selenops insularis Keyserling 1881: 311, pl. 11, Fig. 28 (♀, examined).
- Selenops insularis:Petrunkevitch 1920: 31, Figs 21–25 (♀, ♂).
- Selenops insularis:Muma 1953: 24, Figs 37–40 (♂, ♀).
- Selenops insularis:Alayón-García 2005: 13, Figs 2–5 (♂, ♀).
Female holotype: Puerto Rico (MCZ, examined).
Other material examined
CUBA: taken on dead twig, excellent protective resemblance, N. Banks, 2♀ (MCZ). Havana: N. Banks, 1♀ (MCZ); 1♂ (MCZ). Banes: Oriente, 103.VIII.1955, A.F. Archer, 1♀, 1 imm. (AMNH). Santa Marta: San Francisco, 1.III.1944, C. Vascos (AMNH). Santiago de Las Vegas: N. Banks, 2♀ (MCZ); 1♀ (MCZ). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Azua: Padre las Casas, 24.XII.2002, D. Veloz, 1♀, 1p♂, 1♂ (MNHNSD). Provincia Barahona: 6 km from Cabral, 22.IV.1979, JAD, DGR, on Coccothrinax, 1♀ (MNHNSD, A-104);CoralSol Resort, 18°03.512'N, 71°06.718'W, 29.VI.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, concrete fencepost by walkway near light, 1♀, 8 imm. (EME sel_537-545); CoralSol Resort, 18°03.512'N, 71106.718'W, 11.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, under rook at forest edge near beach, 1p♂ (EME sel_567); CoralSol Resort, 18°03.512'N, 71°06.718'W, 12.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, in bathroom, 1♂, (CAS sel_564); CoralSol Resort, 18°03.512'N, 71°06.718'W, 13.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, under baseboard near roof, under bark of stump, guarding eggs, 2♀ (CAS sel_561, 563); CoralSol Resort, 18°03.512'N, 71°06.718'W, 14.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, bromeliad, 2♀ (EME sel_575-576); CoralSol Resort, 18°03.512'N, 71°06.718'W, 15.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, on wall, 1♂, 1 imm. (EME sel_573-574); CoralSol Resort, 18°03.512'N, 71°06.718'W, 2.VIII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, in bed, 1 imm. (EME sel_588); CoralSol Resort, 18°03.512'N, 71°06.718'W, 3.VIII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, on egg sac, 1 imm. (EME sel_587); San Rafael Beach 18.01.761 N, 71.08.201 W, 14.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, under bark, 2 imm. (EME sel_559-560); Carretera El Higuero-Polo, 18°00.251'N, 71°18.838'W, ~466 m, 26.XI.2004, S. Crews, under bark, SCC04_083, 2 imm. (EME sel171, 173). Hato Major: near Los Haiteses, 1 km S of El Valle, 10.VII.2006, E. Fernandez, 1 imm. (MNHNSD sel_555). Independencia: Isla Cabritos, La Descubierta, Lago Enriquillo, 1.VIII.1981, E. Marcano, 1♀ (MNHNSD); Lago Enriquillo, 18°33.685'N, 71°41.835'W, 16.VII.2006, -11 m, L. Mahler, in bathroom, near trail under rock, 4 imm. (EME sel_569-572, 599); La Descubierta, El Azufrade, north margin of Lago Enriquillo, 18°33.75'N, 71°41.853'W, -15 m, 26.XI.2004, S. Crews, under rocks along trail to lake, SCC04_084, 1♀, 1 imm. (CAS sel_184,187). La Altagracia: Punta Cana, Punta Cana Resort, 5-8.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, S. Crews, on trees at night, 1♀, 1♂, 5 imm. (CAS sel_530-536); Parque del Este, Boca de Yuma, 18°21.875'N, 68°37.080'W, ~23 m, 29-30.XI.2004, S. Crews, under bark, SCC04_089, 6 imm. (EME sel_191-194,197, 199). Monti Cristi: El Morro, 19°89233'N, 71°65688'W, 22.VII.2006, 20-40 m, L. Mahler, under rock beside road, 1 imm. (EME sel_581); El Morro, 19.89233°N, 71.65688°W, 8.X.2006, 20-40 m, S. Crews, under rocks, bark, SCC06_069, 1♀, 2 imm. (EME sel_612-613, 617). Provincia Pedernales: Oviedo, 22.V.1999, K.P.M. Chapa, 1♂ (MNHNSD, A-65); Oviedo, house of Y. Arias, 25.X.2003, S. Crews, 1 imm. (EME sel_020); Oviedo, Fondo de Mamá Cocoño, 17°48.817'N, 71°26.514'W, 342', 25.X.2003, S. Crews, S. Kanwischer, dry forest under bark, on dry, dead trees, SCC03_021, 1♀, 1 imm. (CAS sel_018-019); Parque Nacional de Jaragua, 17.81205°N, 71.44276°W, 3.VIII.2006, L. Mahler, under bark, 1♀ (EME sel_586). Provincia Peravia: Baní, Río Nizao, 18°16.915'N, 70°12.101'W, ~52 m, 27.XI.2004, S. Crews, under bark, SCC04_087, 1♂, 3 imm. (MNHNSD sel_176-179); road from Baní to Manaclar, past La Laguna, 18°21.343'N, 70°21.077'W, ~251 m, 27.XI.2004, S. Crews, under bark of Bursera, SCC04_086, 1 imm. (EME sel_175). Puerto Plata: Puerto Plata, entrance to Loma de Isabel, ranger's station, 19°46'41.9" N, 70°42'01.1" W, 7.X.2006, 96 m, S. Crews, under bark, on trees at night, SCC06_068, 6 imm. (EME sel_597, 602, 605, 607-609). Sosúa: 19.78041°N, 70.50755°W, 25.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, under bark, 1 imm. (EME sel_578). Samaná: Las Terrenas, 19.32364°N, 69.53108°W, 27.VII.2006, sea level, L. Mahler, under bark near beach, 1♀, 3 imm. (EME sel_577, 591, 593-594). San Cristóbal: Engombe, farm of Autonomous University, 18°27.360'N, 70°00.306'W, down dirt road near cocoa field, S. Crews, L. Lopez, D. Veloz, under bark of Acacia along road, SCC03_023, 1♀, 1♂, 6 imm. (CAS sel_010-017); Santo Domingo: 15.I.1985, C. Mateo, 1♀ (MNHNSD, A-80); Jardin Botanic, 18-22.III.1984, H., L. Levi, 1♀ (MCZ). HAITI: Grand'Anse: Whler. 1♂, 1♀ (MCZ). Jacmel: St. Cyr, 18°14'16.6"N, 72°31'41.2"W, 23.X.2006, sea level, S. Crews, on dry forest trees, landscape around a house, at night, SCC06_078, 1♀, 1♂, 1p♂, 5 imm. (CAS sel_657-660, 662-665). Petionville: 26.VII.1958, Slazell, 1♀ (AMNH). Port Au Prince: 1♀ (MCZ). JAMAICA: Kingston: VI.1912, C.J. Brues, 1♀ (MCZ); 1.III.1935, Blackweller, Chapin, 1♀ (USNM). PUERTO RICO: 30.IV.1905, L. Warneke, 3♂ (AMNH); Santuvee, 30.VIII.1968, R. Gil, in house, 1♀ (FSU). Arecibo: Arenalejos, Carretera 657, km 1.9, 18°25'15.9"N, 66°40'35.2"W, 141 m, saw several egg sacs, 7.VI.2006, S. Crews, A. Puente-Rolón, M. Nevaraez, under bark of Krugiodendrum ferreum, and Bursera simaruba, SCC06_035, 1♀, 2 imm. (EME sel_394-396); between Barceloneta and Arecibo, Bosque Cambalacheo, 18°27'07.0"N, 66°35'49.9"W, 9.VI.2006, S. Crews, O. Monzon, under bark of Bursera and surrounding trees, dry forest, SCC06_041; 1♂, 1 imm. (EME sel_419-420). Ceiva: Los Corchos, 18°12'13.8"N, 65°40'06.5"W, sea level-3 m, 8.VI.2006, S. Crews, O. Monzon, SCC06_040, 1 imm. (EME sel_417). Ciales: Bosque Fronton, Carretera 146, km 16.3 Interior Camino Maximo Nuñez, Sector Los Gonzalez, 18°18'33.8" N, 66°32'42.8" W, ~21 m, 15.VI.2006, A. Puente-Rolón, in house, SCC06_060, 1♂ (CAS sel_503). Coamo: Baños de Coamo, night collecting, wire fence and bark, 2.IV.1990, H.L. Levi, 1♀, 1♂, 2 imm. (MCZ); Baños de Coamo, 18°02'19.4"N, 66°22'27.0"W, ~78 m, 11.VI.2006, S. Crews, A. Puente-Rolón, under bark of fence posts, SCC06_048, 2♀ (CAS sel_462-463); Coamo Springs, 5-7.VI.1915, 1♀ (AMNH); Fajardo: Seven Seas Public Beach, 18°22'03.7"N, 65°38'04.9"W, sea level–2 m, 8.VI.2006, dry coastal forest, under bark, S. Crews, O. Monzon, SCC06_039, 2♀, 3 imm. (EME sel_405, 407, 409, 411, 415). Hormigueros: 9.III.1962, A. Velez, 1♀, imms. (AMNH). Humacao: Barrio Collores, 11.VI.2006, S. Vega, under bark of mahogany, SCC06_051, 3♀, 1♂, 1p♂, 3 imm. (CAS sel_470-471, 473-475, 477-479); Isla Mona: Sardinera, IX.2006, A. Puente-Rolón, 3♀, 1p♂, 3 imm. (EME sel_838-844); VIII.1944, H. Beatty, 3♀, 1♂, 1 imm. (MCZ). Jayuya: Gripiñas, Rt. 527, coffee, bananas, 30.III.1990, H.L. Levi, 1♂; 5.IV.1944, Semalles, 1♀ (MCZ). Manuabo: Mariani Creek, 18°00'29.7" N, 65°52'17.0" W, ~34 m, 11.VI.2006, S. Crews, A. Puente-Rolón, under bark, SCC06_050, 1 imm. (CAS sel_467). Maricao: Bosque Estatl de Maricao, 18°08'51.2" N, 66°59'35.0" W, ~700-800 m, 10.VI.2006, S. Crews, A. Puente-Rolón, under rocks, SCC06_045, 2♀, 2 imm. (EME sel_435, 438, 442); Hacienda Juanita, old coffee plantation, night collecting, 600 m, 1-2.IV.1989, H.L. Levi, 1♀, 1♂ (MCZ). Mayaguez: VIII.1935, K.H. Bartlett, 1♀ (MCZ); IV.1963, J.L. Colón, 1♀ (AMNH); 15.II.1962, D. Pabon, 1♀ (AMNH). Quebradillas: Merendero de Guajataca, 18°29'23.7"N, 66°56'59.4"W, ~ 46 m, 9.VI.2006, S. Crews, O. Monzon, under bark of Bursera, Casuarina, sea grape, SCC06_043, 2♀, 2♂, 5 imm. (CAS sel_423-426, 428-432). Sabana Grande: Susúa State Forest, 18°04'15.0"N, 66°54'31.6"W, ~207 m, 10.VI.2006, S. Crews, A. Puente-Rolón, dry serpentine forest, under rocks, SCC06_046, 2♀, 1♂, 4 imm. (EME sel_443, 445, 448-449, 451-453). San German: II.1963, E. Lopez, 1♂, imms. (AMNH). San Jaun: 26-27.V.1915, 1♀. Toa Baja: Bosque Media Luna, PR-2, km 21-6, 14.VI.2006, M. Nevaraez, under bark of Bursera, SCC06_058, 1 imm. (EME sel_461). Vieques: Entrada Caño Hondo NR, Puerta Mosquito, 18°06'11.0" N, 65°27'05.5" W, sea level, 19.VI.2006, S. Crews, E. Bermudez, Acacia wetland, SCC06_061, 1 imm. (EME sel 507); entrance to Caño Hondo NR, off road 997, km 5, 18°06'47.6"N, 65°27'13.0"W, ~6 m, 19.VI.2006, S. Crews, E. Bermudez, under bark, SCC06_062, 2♀, 1 imm. (CAS sel_509-511); Ruinas Central Playa Grande, 18°05'43.2"N, 65°31'13.2"W, ~26 m, 19.VI.2006, S. Crews, E. Bermudez, under bark, SCC06_064, 2 imm. (EME sel_519-520); Laguna Kiani, 18°07'02.2"N, 65°33'41.4"W, ~24 m, 19.VI.2006, S. Crews, E. Bermudez, under bark, on boardwalk, SCC06_065, 1♀, 1♂, 3 imm. (CAS sel_522-526). UNITED STATES: Florida: Dade Co., Elliot Key, 27.XII.1982, H.V. Weems, 3♀ (FSU); Dade Co., Matheson Hammock, 20.VI.1964, T.J. Walker, on tree trunk in dense mesic hammock, 1♀, 1♂ (FSU); Monroe Co., Tavernier, 7.III.1964, H.L. Levi, 1♂, 1 imm. (MCZ); 15 miles NE of Key Largo, 15.VI.1974, J.B. Heppner, under bark, 1♀ (FSU); Key Largo, under bark, 26.III.1957, H.V. Weems, Jr., 1♂, 3♀ (AMNH); Monroe Co., Key Largo, 26.III.1957, H.V. Weems, under bark, 1♀, 2♂ (FSU); Stock Island, 12.V.1961, H.V. Weems, under dead Eugenia species in hammock, 1♀ (FSU); Plantation Key, 29.II.1936, 1♂ (AMNH); Key West, 24.VI.1934, E.L. Pierce, Jr., 1♀ (AMNH); Key West, 1.VII.1935, 1♂ (AMNH); Washington DC: on bananas, 1♀ (MCZ).
This species is most similar in habitus to Selenops bocacanadensis sp. n., but the females can be easily distinguished by the copulatory organs in that in Selenops insularis the genital openings occur along a small v-shaped opening (Figs 119–120). The male is most similar to Selenops trifidus, but can be distinguished by the copulatory organs in that the dorsal branch of the RTA of Selenops insularis widens distally, and is longer anteriorly, and the MA is slender throughout (Figs 121–122).
It is likely this species isn't established in Jamaica, as both records were from Kingston, a major shipping port, and are quite old. Recent searching in Jamaica turned up no specimens of this species. Muma (1953) mentioned that the females of this species are variable, but he did not elaborate. There is some variation in size in both males and females, but none was noticed in the copulatory organs of the many specimens examined. Muma (1953) suggested that some variants may be females of Selenops trifidus. Given the isolation of that species on Navassa Island, I believe this to be unlikely.
Male (sel_657): Color:carapace uniform dusky yellow to brown; sternum dusky yellow; chelicerae with a tan central area enclosed by brown; maxillae dusky yellow; labium brown, lightening distally; abdomen dorsally light grey to tan with a pair of small dark median spots and black laterocaudal festoon; ventrally dusky with light longitudinal stripes; legs dusky yellow, darkening to brown-grey distally, annulations not visible. Carapace: 0.88 times longer than broad. Eyes:AER nearly straight; PER slightly recurved; PME larger than AME, PLE largest, ALE smallest; eye diameters, AME 0.30, ALE 0.10, PME 0.33, PLE 0.40; interdistances AME-PME 0.15, PME-ALE 0.20, ALE-PLE 0.40. PME-PME 1.45. ALE-ALE 2.40; ocular quadrangle AME-AME 0.50, PLE-PLE 2.48; clypeus 0.08 high. Mouthparts:chelicerae with stout setae medially and anteriorly; maxillae longer than broad, with tuft of conspicuous setae distally; labium distally rounded. Sternum:as long as broad, posteriorly indented. Legs:leg I much shorter than legs II, III and IV; leg formula 2314; scopulae present on tarsi I-IV and metatarsi of legs I and II; tarsi I-IV with strong claw tufts; pr claw per foot slightly toothed; spination: leg I, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–0–1, d 1–2–0, rl 1–0–1, v 2–2–2–2; Mt pr 1–1–0, rl 1–1–0, v 2–2; leg II, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–1–0, rl 1–1–0, d 1–1–0, v 2–2–2–2; Mt pr 1–1–0, rl 1–0–0, v 2–2; leg III, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–0–1, rl 1–0–1, v 2–2; Mt pr 1–1–0, rl 1–1–0, v 2–2; leg IV, Fm pr 1–1–0, d 1–1–1, rl 0–1–1; Ti pr 1–1–0, v 2–2–0, rl 1–1–0; Mt pr 1–1–0, rl 1–0–0, v 2–0–1. Abdomen:without terminal setal tufts. Pedipalp:Fm, spination d 0–1–3; cymbium oval to angular in ventral view, slightly angled posterolaterally; conductor arising from short, straight stalk anteromedially, pointing laterally, curving retrolaterally around cymbium, reconnecting to bulb forming circular space between two conductor connections; embolus long, slender, curved, beginning at 6 o'clock, terminating at 12 o'clock; MA arising at 3 o'clock, directed anteriorly, narrow, sinuous, tip rounded, curved to form small single hook; two tibial apophyses, ventral apophysis curves ventrally, slightly smaller than lateral apophysis, rounded terminally; lateral apophysis curves away from then back toward cymbium, widening distally, longer anteriorly; tibial apophyses extend at least 1/6th length of cymbium in ventral view (Figs 121–122). Dimensions: Total length 9.45. Carapace length 4.50, width 5.13. Sternum length 2.75, width 2.75. Abdomen length 4.95, width 3.10. Pedipalp: Fm 1.50, Pt 0.30, Ti 0.55, Ta 1.20, total 3.55. Leg I: Fm 5.75, Pt 1.85, Ti 5.75, Mt 5.50, Ta 2.20, total 21.05. Leg II: Fm 6.75, Pt 2.00, Ti 6.75, Mt 6.00, Ta 2.25, total 23.75. Leg III: Fm 6.25, Pt 1.75, Ti 6.60, Mt 5.75, Ta 2.00, total 22.35. Leg IV: Fm 5.90, Pt 1.75, Ti 5.00, Mt 5.00, Ta 1.85, total 19.50.
Holotype female: Color:carapace (holotype) dark red-brown, some white setae (recent) dark red-brown to yellow-brown to brown, typically darker in cephalic area, with white setae; sternum (holotype) transparent brown (recent) light orange-brown, darker around border; chelicerae (holotype) dark brown (recent) orange-red-brown; maxillae (holotype) dark brown, lightening distally (recent) light orange-brown, lightening distally; labium (holotype) dark brown, lightening distally (recent) light brown lightening distally; abdomen dorsally (holotype) uniform brown (recent) pale cream to grey, two dark small dots in center, sometimes smaller dark flecks, dark laterocaudal festoon prominent; ventrally (holotype) grey-brown (recent) yellow-grey with two yellow rectangular areas medially, lots of yellow flecks on grey background; legs (holotype) orange-brown (recent) slightly lighter than carapace, annulations prominent on femora, legs darkening from patella distally. Carapace:0.91 times longer than broad; fovea longitudinal, broad, very shallow. Eyes:AER nearly straight; PER slightly recurved; PME larger than AME, PLE largest, ALE smallest; eye diameters, AME 0.28, ALE 0.10, PME 0.33, PLE 0.50; interdistances AME-PME 0.15, PME-ALE 0.10, ALE-PLE 0.50. PME-PME 1.68. ALE-ALE 2.60; ocular quadrangle AME-AME 0.60, PLE-PLE 2.75; clypeus 0.07 high. Mouthparts:chelicerae with a few stout setae medially and anteriorly; maxillae longer than broad, with tuft of conspicuous setae distally; labium distally rounded. Sternum:as long as broad, posteriorly indented. Legs:leg I only slightly shorter than II and III; leg formula 2314; scopulae present on all 4 tarsi and on metatarsi I and II, and distally on tibia I and II; tarsi I-IV with strong claw tufts; pr claw per foot slightly toothed; spination: leg I, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–0; Ti d 0, v 2–2–2; Mt v 2–2; leg II, Fm pr 1–0–0, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–0; Ti v 2–2–2; Mt v 2–2; leg III, Fm pr 1–0–0, d 1–1–1, rl 1–0–1; Ti v 2–2–0; Mt v 2–2; leg IV, Fm pr 1–0–0, d 1–1–1, rl 0–0–1; Ti v 1–1; Mt v 2–1. Abdomen:without terminal setal tufts. Pedipalp:claw with 9 teeth. Epigyne:lateral lobes come into contact medially, genital openings located at margins of medial v-shaped opening, epigynal pockets present; internally, ducts extend posterolaterally, terminally coiled, rounded, fertilization ducts located laterally, directed anteriorly, posterodorsal fold large, heavily sclerotized, quadrangular, covering most of internal ducts (Figs 119–120). Dimensions: Total length 11.30. Carapace length 5.55, width 6.10. Sternum length 2.75, width 2.75. Abdomen length 3.73, width 3.24. Pedipalp: Fm 1.00, Pt 0.75, Ti 0.75, Ta 1.00, total 3.50. Leg I: Fm 5.50, Pt 2.40, Ti 5.00, Mt 3.75, Ta 1.75, total 18.40. Leg II: Fm 6.00, Pt 2.00, Ti 5.75, Mt 3.75, Ta 1.75, total 19.25. Leg III: Fm 6.30, Pt 2.00, Ti 5.00, Mt 4.00, Ta 1.75, total 19.05. Leg IV: Fm 5.50, Pt 1.75, Ti 4.00, Mt 4.00, Ta 1.80, total 17.05.
This species is very common and widespread. From historical records, it seems to travel easily on bananas. It is found under bark and rocks, in houses, on plants, often occurring in areas with other species of Selenops (Figs 189, 206). The female guards the white, disc-shaped egg sac. One egg sac had 87 eggs and never hatched. Another egg sac had 42 offspring inside.
Found in the Greater Antillean islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Mona and Puerto Rico. It has historically been collected in Jamaica (see Remarks). It is also found in southern Florida (Map 12).
- Crews, S; 2011: A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean ZooKeys, 105: 1-182. doi
- Keyserling E (1881) Neue Spinnen aus Amerika. III. Verhandllungen der kaiserlich- kongiglichen zoologish-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 31:269-314.
- Muma M (1953) A study of the spider family Selenopidae in North and Central America and the West Indies. American Museum Novitates 1619:1-55.
- Alayón-García G (2005) La familia Selenopidae (Arachnida: Araneae) en Cuba. Solenodon 5:10-52.