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Tragardh (1905) described Scirus inermis. Berlese (1916) erected Dactyloscirus as a subgenus of Scirus to accommodate Scirus (Dactyloscirus) eupaloides. He also described Scirus dorcas but failed to recognize that they were congeneric. Oudemans (1922) described Rosenhofia machairodus. Halbert (1923) redescribed and figured Scirus inermis from Ireland. Sellnick (1926) transferred Scirus inermis to Cunaxa. Vitzthum (1931) raised Dactyloscirus to full generic status but later (1940-43) treated it as a subgenus. Thor and Willmann (1941) again elevated Dactyloscirus to generic status and designated Dactyloscirus eupaloides as the type specimen; they also transferred Cunaxa inermis and Scirus dorcas to Dactyloscirus. Baker and Hoffmann (1948) regarded Dactyloscirus as a senior synonym of Cunaxa. Smiley (1975) synonymized Rosenhofia with Dactyloscirus. Zaher et al. (1975b) reported Dactyloscirus inermis from Egypt (though they called it Cunaxa inermis). Den Heyer (1978a) split Armascirus from Dactyloscirus and Cunaxa and raised the subfamily Cunaxinae to accommodate them, thus refining the definitions of all three genera. Den Heyer (1979a) described Dactyloscirus condylus and Dactyloscirus dolichosetosus. Den Heyer (1980c) erected the tribe Armascirini and made Dactyloscirus and Armascirus the sole representatives. Gupta and Ghosh (1980) described Cunaxoides nicobarensis. Dactyloscirus pataliputraensis was described by Gupta (1981). Liang (1986) described Dactyloscirus humuli from China. Shiba (1986) described Dactyloscirus mesonotus. Michocka (1987) reported Dactyloscirus inermis from Poland. Smiley (1992) transferred Cunaxoides nicobarensis to Dactyloscirus (though see discussion below) and described Dactyloscirus mansoni, Dactyloscirus johnstoni, and Dactyloscirus poppi. Gupta (1992) described Dactyloscirus bengalensis. Corpuz-Raros (1995) described Dactyloscirus philippinensis, Dactyloscirus rosarioae,? and Dactyloscirus agricolus. Inayatullah and Shahid (1996) described Dactyloscirus illutus, Dactyloscirus minys,? and Dactyloscirus orsi. Swift (1996) described Dactyloscirus hoffmannae and Dactyloscirus smileyi from the Hawaiian Islands. Hu (1997) reported Dactyloscirus inermis and Dactyloscirus humuli from China. Bashir and Afzal (2006a) described Dactyloscirus imbecillus and Dactyloscirus manzoori. Bashir, Afzal, and Akbar (2005) described Dactyloscirus kahrorensis. Corpuz-Raros (2008) described Dactyloscirus discocondylus and Dactyloscirus trifidus. Skvarla and Dowling (2012) described Dactyloscirus pseudophilippinensis. Den Heyer and Castro (2012) described Dactyloscirus saopauloensis.
Gnathosoma. Pedipalps 5-segmented, extend beyond the subcapitulum by at least the last segment, and end in a strong claw. An apophysis between the genua and tibiotarsi usually present. This apophysis long or short and generally ends in a bulbous, hyaline tip; it can, however, end in a tapering point as in Armascirus. This apophysis approximately equal between males and females or shorter in males. Basifemora and telofemora complemented with spine-like setae; these two segments fused, although a line remains visible and they can thus be differentiated. Subcapitulum complemented with 6 pairs of setae (hg1–4 and 2 pairs of adoral setae) and covered by integumental papillae that are either randomly distributed or form a polygonal, reticulated pattern.
Idiosoma, dorsal. Female dorsal idiosoma has at least one sclerotized plate that bears 2 pairs of setose sensillae (at and pt) and 2 pairs of simple setae (lps and mps). 0–4 other major plates and platelets present. All plates, if present, covered by integumental papillae that form a reticulated pattern. Integument between plates striated. 7 pairs of setae (c1–2, d1–h1) present. Each seta, when not on a major plate or platelet, surrounded by a minute platelet only slightly larger than the setal socket. Cupule im present, usually laterad or in the proximity of e1. Dorsal idiosoma of males similar except a single large plate complemented with c1–2, d1–e1 present.
Idiosoma, ventral. Coxae I and II often fused; coxae III and IV often fused. Setal formula for coxae I–IV 3-3-3-3 (including paracoxal seta). Genital plates each bear 4 setae; 2 pairs of genital papillae visible underneath the plates. Anal plates bear 1 pair of setae (ps1). 2 pairs of setae (ps2 and h2) associated with, but do not occur on, anal plates. Cupule ih present in close proximity to h2. Integument between plates striated and bears 5–7 pairs of additional setae. Ventral idiosoma of males similar except the coxae much more extensive. A sclerotized aedeagus often visible in association with the genital plates. Legs comparatively short, generally not exceeding ? the length of the body. Famulus on tarsi I enlarged and ends in a tri-tipped prong. Tarsi constricted apically, resulting in large tarsal lobes. Trichobothrium on leg tibia IV present. Ambulacral claws occur on either side of a 4-rayed empodium.
Key to adult female Dactyloscirus
(modified from Skvarla and Dowling 2012)
Smiley (1992) transferred Cunaxoides nicobarensis to Dactyloscirus as Dactyloscirus nicobarensis (Gupta & Ghosh, 1980). However, later in the same work he attributes the same holotype (No. 3146/17) and same description (viz. Gupta and Ghosh 1980:191) to Cunaxoides nicobarensis Gupta & Ghosh, 1980. The original description and illustration by Gupta and Ghosh clearly state the species in question has three pedipalpal segments, which precludes it from being assigned to Dactyloscirus. Smiley illustrated a Dactyloscirus with 5-segmented pedipalp “after Gupta and Ghosh 1980” when discussing Dactyloscirus nicobarensis, though it looks like nothing in the publication. Because of this Dactyloscirus nicobarensis (Gupta and Ghosh 1980) is declared nomen dubium.
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