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Skvarla M, Fisher J, Dowling A (2014) A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): Histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records. ZooKeys 418 : 1–103, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-20, version 53347, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Skvarla, Michael J., Fisher, J. Ray AND Dowling, Ashley P. G.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): Histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records},
year = {2014},
volume = {418},
issue = {},
pages = {1--103},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.418.7629},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-20, version 53347, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): Histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records
A1 - Skvarla M, Fisher J
A1 - Dowling A
Y1 - 2014
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 418
IS -
UR -
SP - 1
EP - 103
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-20, version 53347, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.418.7629

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Skvarla2014ZooKeys418">{{Citation
| author = Skvarla M, Fisher J, Dowling A
| title = A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): Histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2014
| volume = 418
| issue =
| pages = 1--103
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.418.7629
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-11-30

}} Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-20, version 53347, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Trombidiformes
Familia: Cunaxidae


Armascirus Den Heyer, 1978Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Historical review

The first Armascirus was described by Kramer (1881)[1] as Scirus taurus. Berlese (1888)[2] described Scirus taurus var. bison. Banks (1894)[3] described Scirus quadripilis. Thor (1902)[4] transferred Scirus taurus to Cunaxa. Banks (1914)[5] described Cunaxa armata. Miller (1925)[6] reported Scirus quadripilis from Ohio. Womersley (1933)[7] reported Cunaxa taurus from Australia. Thor and Willmann (1941)[8] transferred Scirus taurus var. bison to Cunaxa and raised it to full species status, viz. Cunaxa bison and transferred Scirus quadripilis to Cunaxa; they also redescribed and figured Cunaxa armata, Cunaxa bison, Cunaxa quadripilis, and Cunaxa taurus. Baker and Hoffmann (1948)[9] synonymized Scirus quadripilis and Cunaxa armata with Cunaxa taurus; they followed Thor and Willmann (1941)[8] in placing Cunaxa taurus var. bison in Cunaxa but declined to recognize it as a species and instead kept it as a variety or subspecies of Cunaxa taurus. Zaher et al. (1975b)[10] collected Cunaxa taurus in Egypt. Chaudhri (1977)[11] described Dactyloscirus ebrius and Dactyloscirus fuscus from Pakistan. Den Heyer (1978a)[12] split Armascirus from Dactyloscirus and Cunaxa and raised the subfamily Cunaxinae to accommodate them, thus refining the definitions of all three genera; he transferred Cunaxa taurus and Cunaxa bison to the new genus Armascirus; and described Armascirus huyssteeni, Armascirus lebowensis, Armascirus limpopoensis, and Armascirus albiziae. Kuznetzov and Livshitz (1979)[13] redescribed and figured Cunaxa taurus and Cunaxa bison from Russia, either disagreeing with or being unaware of Den Heyer’s 1978 publication. Tseng (1980)[14] reported Armascirus taurus from Taiwan. Chaudhri (1980)[15] described Dactyloscirus fixus from Pakistan. Den Heyer (1980c)[16] erected the tribe Armascirini and made Dactyloscirus and Armascirus the sole representatives. Gupta and Ghosh (1980)[17] erected Indocunaxa, a monotypic genus with Indocunaxa smileyi as the type species. Liang (1983)[18] reported Armascirus taurus from China. Shiba (1986)[19] described Armascirus hastus and Armascirus multioculus. Michocka (1987)[20] described Dactyloscirus rafalskii from Poland. Armascirus mactator and Armascirus pluri were described by Muhammad and Chaudhri (1991b)[21]. Smiley (1992)[22] described Armascirus gimplei, Armascirus anastosi, Armascirus harrisoni, Armascirus heryfordi, Armascirus virginiensis, Dactyloscirus bakeri, and Dactyloscirus campbelli; he also transferred Armascirus bison to Dactyloscirus (which was later returned to Armascirus by Den Heyer and Castro 2008a[23]). Corpuz-Raros (1995)[24] described Armascirus garciai and Armascirus makilingensis from the Philippines. Hu (1997)[25] reported Armascirus bison and Armascirus taurus from China. Bashir and Afzal (2005)[26] described Armascirus satianaensis and Armascirus asghari. Corpuz-Raros and Gruezo (2007)[27] described Armascirus javanus. Corpuz-Raros (2008)[28] described Dactyloscirus bifidus. Bashir, Afzal, and Khan (2008)[29] described four species from Pakistan: Armascirus akhtari, Armascirus jasmina, Armascirus sabrii, and Armascirus gojraensis. Den Heyer and Castro (2008a)[23] synonymized Indocunaxa with Armascirus and transferred Dactyloscirus bison, Dactyloscirus campbelli, Dactyloscirus ebrius, Dactyloscirus fixus, Dactyloscirus fuscus, and Dactyloscirus rafalskii to Armascirus javanus. Corpuz-Raros (2008)[28] described Armascirus apoensis. Kaluz (2009)[30] described Armascirus cyaneus and Armascirus cerris from Central Europe Skvarla and Dowling (2012)[31] described Armascirus ozarkensis, Armascirus pennsylvanicus, and Armascirus primigenius. Den Heyer and Castro (2012)[32] described Armascirus brasiliensis and Armascirus bahiaensis. Kaluz and Vrabec (2013)[33] described Armascirus fendai and Armascirus masani.


Gnathosoma. Pedipalps 5-segmented, end in a strong claw, and extend beyond the subcapitulum by at least the last segment. Apophysis between the genua and tibiotarsi, which tapers to a point, usually present; this apophysis shorter in males than in females. Basifemora complemented with a simple seta; telofemora with a spine-like seta. These two segments fused, although a line remains visible and they can thus be differentiated. Subcapitulum complemented with 6 pairs of setae (hg1–4 and 2 pairs of adoral setae). It can be covered by integumental papillae which are either randomly distributed or form a polygonal, reticulated pattern.
Idiosoma, dorsal. Female dorsal idiosoma with at least one sclerotized plate that bears 2 pairs of setose sensillae (at and pt) and 2 pairs of simple setae (lps and mps). 0–4 other major plates and platelets may also be present. All plates, if present, covered by integumental papillae that form a reticulated pattern. Integument between the plates is striated. 7 pairs of setae, c1–2, d1–h1, present. Each seta, when not on a major plate or platelet, surrounded by a minute platelet that is only slightly larger than the setal socket. Cupule im present, usually laterad or in the proximity of e1. Dorsal idiosoma of males is similar except a single large plate complemented with c1–2, d1–e1 present.
Idiosoma, ventral. Coxae reticulated in the same manner as the dorsal plates. Coxae I–II often fused; Coxae III–IV often fused. Setal formula of coxae I–IV in males 3-1-3-3 (including the paracoxal seta), in females 3-2-3-3 (including the paracoxal seta). Genital plates each bear 4 setae; 2 pairs of genital papillae visible underneath the plates. Anal plates bear 1 pair of setae (ps1). 2 pairs of setae (ps2 and h2) associated with but do not occur on the anal plates. Cupule ih present in close proximity to h2. Integument between plates striated and bears 5–7 pairs of additional setae. The ventral idiosoma of males similar except the coxae are much more extensive. A sclerotized aedeagus is often visible in association with the genital plates. Legs comparatively long, at least ? the length, and often longer than the body. Famulus on tarsi I normally shaped. Tarsi are constricted apically, resulting in large tarsal lobes. Trichobothrium on leg tibia IV present. Ambulacral claws occur on either side of a 4-rayed empodium.

Key to adult female Armascirus

(modified from Kaluz and Vrabec 2013[33])
Dactyloscirus bifidus Corpuz-Raros, 2008 is transferred to Armascirus as it posessess a spine-like seta on the pedipalpal basifemora.
Armascirus gojraensis and Armascirus sabrii appear to be nymphs based on the leg setal counts given in the original descriptions. Having not seen the type material, however, they are retained within the key. Caution should be exercised if these species are reached.

Key to adult male Armascirus

(modified from Kaluz and Vrabec 2013[33])

Taxon Treatment

  • Skvarla, M; Fisher, J; Dowling, A; 2014: A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): Histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records ZooKeys, 418: 1-103. doi


Other References

  1. Kramer P (1881) Scirus. Arch. Natura. 81:17, t. 3; fig. 9.
  2. Berlese A (1888) Acari Austro-Americani quos collegit Aloysius Balzan. Bullettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana 20: 171–222.
  3. Banks N (1894) New American Acarina. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 21: 209–222.
  4. Thor S (1902) Zur Systematik der Acarinenfamilien Bdellidae Koch, 1842, Grube 1859, Eupodidae Koch, 1842 und Cunaxidae Sig Thor, 1902. Verhandllungen der kaiserlich-kongiglichen zoologish-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 159–165.
  5. Banks N (1914) New Acarina. Journal of Entomology and Zoology 6: 55–66.
  6. Miller A (1925) An introductory study of the Acarina, or mites, of Ohio. Bulletin of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Number 386, 85–172.
  7. Womersley H (1933) On some Acarina from Australia and South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, Trans. 57: 108–112.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Thor S, Willmann C (1941) Eupodidae, Penthalodidae, Penthaleidae, Rhagidiidae, Pachygnathidae, Cunaxidae. In: Thor S Willmann C (Eds) Das Tierreich, Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichung der rezenten Tierformen. Lieferung 71a. Walter De Gruyter and Co, Leipzig, 164–175.
  9. Baker E, Hoffmann A (1948) Acaros de la familia Cunaxidae. Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas Mexico 5(3–4): 229–273.
  10. Zaher M, Soliman Z, El-Bishlawy S (1975b) Studies on population dynamics of soil predaceous prostigmatid mites in Giza, Egypt. Zeitschrift fur angewandte entomologie 79: 440–443.
  11. Chaudhri W (1977) Descriptions of the mites of the Family Cunaxidae (Acarina) from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science 14(2–3): 41–52.
  12. Den Heyer J (1978a) Four new species of Armascirus gen. nov. (Prostigmata: Acari) from the Ethiopian Region. Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 41(2): 217–239.
  13. Kuznetzov N, Livshitz I (1979) Predatory mites of the Nikita Botanical Gardens (Acariformes: Bdellidae, Cunaxidae Camarobiidae). Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Nikitskogo Botanicheskogo Sada 79: 51–105.
  14. Tseng Y (1980) Taxonomical study of the mite family Cunaxidae from Taiwan (Acarina: Tromoidiformes). Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum 33(3-4): 253–277.
  15. Chaudhri W (1980) Studies on the biosystematics and control of mites of field crops, vegetables and fruit plants in Pakistan, second annual report. University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 80.
  16. Den Heyer J (1980c) A new classification system for the family Cunaxidae (Actinedida: Acarida). Publications of the University of the North Series A 23: 1–12.
  17. Gupta S, Ghosh S (1980) Some prostigmatid mites (Acarina) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 77: 189–213.
  18. Liang G (1983) Notes on four species of mite (Acarina: Cunaxidae) in China. Natural Enemies of Insects 5(3): 104–107.
  19. Shiba M (1986) The mites of family Cunaxidae (Acarina: Prostigmata) in Japan II. Genera Armascirus Den Heyer and Dactyloscirus Berlese. Matsuyama Shinonome Tanki Daigaku kenkyu ronso 17: 151–163.
  20. Michocka S (1987) Mites (Acari) of the Bdellidae and Cunaxidae families in Poland. Monografie Fauny Polski 14: 1–127.
  21. Muhammad T, Chaudhri W (1991b) Two new cunaxid mites of the genus Armascirus (Acarina: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist 13(1–2): 50–55.
  22. Smiley R (1992) The predatory mite family Cunaxidae (Acari) of the world with a new classification. Indira Publishing House, West Bloomington, Michigan, 356 pp.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Den Heyer J, Castro T (2008a) A new Neotropical genus of the family Cunaxidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Bdelloidea). Zootaxa 1843: 35–46.
  24. Corpuz-Raros L (1995) Philippine predatory mites of the family Cunaxidae (Acari). 2. Genera Armascirus Den Heyer and Dactyloscirus Berlese. The Philippine Agriculturist 78(2): 159–173.
  25. Hu S (1997) Cunaxid mites recorded in China. Journal of Ninbo Teachers College 15(1): 56–59.
  26. Bashir M, Afzal M (2005) New cunaxid mites of the genus Armascirus from Punjab-Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 42(3–4): 117–121.
  27. Corpuz-Raros L, Gruezo W (2007) Two new species of predatory mites of the family Cunaxidae (Acari) from Java, Indonesia. Asia Life Sciences 16(2): 175–181.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Corpuz-Raros L (2008) Additional species of Cunaxidae and first report of the subfamily Neobonzinae (Cunaxidae, Acari) from the Philippines. Asia Life Sciences 17(1): 71–89.
  29. Bashir M, Afzal M, Khan B (2008) Genus Armascirus (Acari: Prostigmata: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan. Belgian journal of Zoology 138(2): 115–127.
  30. Kaluz S (2009) Two new Palearctic mite species of the family Cunaxidae (Acari: Prostigmata). Zootaxa 2198: 27–40.
  31. Skvarla M, Dowling A (2012) Some New Armascirine Cunaxids (Acari: Prostigmata: Cunaxidae) from the Eastern United States. Zootaxa 3194: 1–34.
  32. Den Heyer J, Castro T (2012) New Neotropical cunaxinae species (Acari: Prostigmata: Cunaxidae). Zootaxa 3265: 22–42.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Kaluz S, Vrabec M (2013) Two new species of Armascirus (Acari: Prostigmata: Cunaxidae) from Slovakia. Zootaxa 3734(2): 141–155. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3734.2.3