Canacidae

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Mathis W, Marinoni L (2012) A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil. ZooKeys 162 : 59–92, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2012-01-05, version 20344, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Canacidae&oldid=20344 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Mathis2012ZooKeys162,
author = {Mathis, Wayne N. AND Marinoni, Luciane},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil},
year = {2012},
volume = {162},
issue = {},
pages = {59--92},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.162.2370},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/2370/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-01-05, version 20344, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Canacidae&oldid=20344 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil
A1 - Mathis W
A1 - Marinoni L
Y1 - 2012
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 162
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.162.2370
SP - 59
EP - 92
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-01-05, version 20344, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Canacidae&oldid=20344 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.162.2370

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Mathis2012ZooKeys162">{{Citation
| author = Mathis W, Marinoni L
| title = A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2012
| volume = 162
| issue =
| pages = 59--92
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.162.2370
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/2370/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-08-23

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-01-05, version 20344, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Canacidae&oldid=20344 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Familia: Canacidae

Name

JonesWikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Canacenae Jones 1906[1]: 170, 198 [as a subfamily of Ephydridae, incorrect formation of the family-group name]. Type genus: Canace Haliday 1837.
  • Canaceidae. Hendel 1916[2]: 297 [incorrect formation of the family-group name]. Wirth 1951[3]: 245–275 [revision]; 1975: 1–5 [Neotropical catalog]; 1987: 1079–1083 [North American manual].
  • Canacidae. Enderlein 1935[4]: 235. Mathis 1982[5]: 1–29 [classification]. Buck 2006[6]: 391–392 [familial status]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 1–84 [world catalog].
  • Tethinidae Hendel 1916[2]: 297; 1917: 45. Type genus: Tethina Haliday. Foster 1976b[8]: 1–4 [Neotropical catalog]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 1–27 [world catalog]. McAlpine 2007[10]: 42 [synonymy].
  • Canaceinae. Hendel 1913[11]: 93 [as a subfamily of Ephydridae, incorrect formation of the subfamily-group name].
  • Canacinae. Enderlein 1914[12]: 326 [as a subfamily of Ephydridae]. Malloch 1933[13]: 4 [as a subfamily of Ephydridae]. Mathis 1982[5]: 2 [as a subfamily of Canacidae, phylogeny]. McAlpine 2007[10]: 43 [review, diagnosis, status]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 11–27 [world catalog].
  • Nocticanace Malloch 1933[13]: 4. Type species: Nocticanace peculiaris Malloch, by original designation. Wirth 1951[3]: 269–274 [revision]; 1975: 2–3 [Neotropical catalog]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 20–24 [world catalog].
  • Paracanace Mathis and Wirth 1978[14]: 524. Type species: Paracanace hoguei Mathis and Wirth 1978[14], by original designation. Mathis 1989[15]: 600–603 [review of Caribbean and nearby fauna]; 1992: 10 [world catalog]; 1997: 140–148 [review of hoguei group]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 24–24 [world catalog].
  • Canace, in part, of authors. Wirth 1975: 1 [Neotropical catalog].
  • Paracanace oliveirai. Mathis and Wirth 1978[14]: 524 [generic combination, key], 527 [key]. Mathis 1992[16]: 10 [world catalog]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 24 [world catalog].
  • Procanace Hendel 1913[11]: 93. Type species: Procanace grisescens Hendel, by original designation. Mathis 1988[17]: 329–333 [first record of genus from Western Hemisphere]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 25–27 [world catalog].
  • Procanace dianneae Mathis 1988[17]: 330 [United States. Virginia. Westmoreland: Westmoreland State Park (banks of Potomac River); figs. of ♂ terminalia; HT ♂; USNM]; 1989: 606–607 [review]; 1992: 11 [world catalog]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 25 [world catalog].
  • Tethinidae Hendel 1916[2]: 297 [as a family]; 1917: 45. Type genus: Tethina Haliday. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 1–27 [world catalog]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 40–66 [world catalog].
  • Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel 1934[18]:38. Type species: Rhicnoessa fulva Hendel, original designation. Malloch 1935[19]:93 [discussion]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]:11–13 [world catalog]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 43–46 [world catalog].
  • Tethina insularis Aldrich 1931: 395 [(United States) Wake Island; HT ♀, USNM (41629)].
  • Rhicnoessa insularis. Hendel 1934[18]: 44 [key], 48 [generic combination, citation].
  • Dasyrhicnoessa insularis. Hardy and Delfinado 1980[20]: 371–373 [generic combination, citation, figs. of head, wing, ♂ and ♀ terminalia, Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Frigate Shoal, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Canton Island, and Palmyra Island]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 12 [world catalog]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 44–45 [world catalog].
  • Tethina lasiophthalma Malloch 1933[13]: 17 [Marquesas. Hivaoa: Tahauku; HT ♂, BPBM]. Munari 1988[21]: 48 [synonymy with Rhicnoessa ferruginea Lamb].
  • Dasyrhicnoessa lasiophthalma. Sasakawa 1974[22]: 2 [generic combination]. Steyskal and Sasakawa 1977[23]: 394 [Oriental catalog]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 606–608 [revision, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, figs. of ♂ terminalia]. Munari and Evenhuis 2000[25]: 145 [synonymy].
  • Dasyrhicnoessa ferruginea of authors, not Lamb 1914 [misidentification]. Woodley and Hilburn 1994[26]: 53 [citation, Bermuda]. Munari and Evenhuis 2000[25]: 145 [citation].
  • Dasyrhicnoessa freidbergi Munari 1994[27]: 20 [Cameroon. Kribi (beach, Rt. N7); HT ♂, TAU]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 12 [world catalog]. Munari and Evenhuis 2000[25]: 145 [synonymy].
  • Tethina Haliday, in Curtis 1837[28]: 293 (as a subgenus of Opomyza; published in synonymy; first made available by use in Haliday 1838[29]: 188). Type species: Opomyza (Tethina) illota Haliday 1838[29], by subsequent monotypy (Haliday 1838[29]: 188). Sturtevant 1923[30]: 5–7 [discussion of synonymy, listing of Nearctic species]. Thompson and Mathis 1981[31]: 86 [citation, nomenclature]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 13–19 [world catalog]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 608–630 [revision of Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico species]. Sabrosky 1999[32]: 32, 304 [citations, nomenclature]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 48–66 [world catalog].
  • Rhicnoessa Loew 1862[33]: 174. Type species: Rhicnoessa cinerea Loew, by monotypy. Loew 1865[34]: 34–39 [revision]. Williston 1908[35]: 292, 296 [fig. of head, key]. Collin 1911[36]: 234 [probable synonymy with Tethina]. Malloch 1913[37]: 147 [discussion, fig. of head]. Hendel 1917[38]: 46 [synonymy in key]; 1934: 46 [references]. Munari 1990[39]: 60–61 [status as a subgenus of Tethina].
  • Phycomyza Melander 1952[40]: 198. Type species: Rhicnoessa milichioides Melander, by original designation. Vockeroth 1965[41]: 727 [Nearctic catalog]. Foster 1976a[42]: 338 [synonymy].
  • Rhicnoessa cinerea. Czerny 1902[44]: 256 [generic combination].
  • Rhicnoessa willistoni Melander 1913[45]: 298 [new name for Anthomyza cinerea of Williston 1896[43], not Loew 1862[33]]. Hendel 1934[18]: 51 [citation]. Melander 1952[40]: 201 209 [key, citation].
  • Tethina willistoni. Foster 1976b[8]: 3 [generic combination, Neotropical catalog]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 19 [world catalog]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 611, 613, 615–618 [revision, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, neotype designation, figs. head and ♂ terminalia]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 65 [world catalog].
  • Rhicnoessa bermudaensis Melander 1952[40]: 203 [Bermuda. Castle and Cooper Islands; LT ♂ (designated by Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 612), USNM]. Mathis and Foster 2007[46]: 421 [synonymy].
  • Tethina bermudaensis. Vockeroth 1965[41]: 727 [generic combination, Nearctic catalog]. Woodley and Hilburn 1994[26]: 53–54 [citation, Bermuda]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 15 [world catalog]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 611–613 [revision, lectotype designation, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, fig. of ♂ terminalia].
  • Rhicnoessa variseta Melander 1952[40]: 209 [United States. California. Orange: Corona del Mar; LT ♂ (designated by Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 616), USNM]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 615 [synonymy, lectotype designation].
  • Tethina variseta. Vockeroth 1965[41]: 728 [generic combination, Nearctic catalog]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 19 [world catalog].
  • Tethina carioca Prado and Tavares 1966: 433 [Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Ilha do Governador (Galeão); HT ♂, FIOC (13356); figs. of ♂ terminalia and wing]. Foster 1976b[8]: 2 [Neotropical catalog]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 15 [world catalog]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 615 [synonymy].
  • Tethina albula of authors, not Loew 1869[47] [misidentification]. Frey 1919[48]: 15.
  • Anthomyza xanthopoda Williston 1896[43]: 445 [West Indies. St. Vincent; LT ♂ (designated by Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 620); BMNH]. Czerny 1902[44]: 256 [citation, placement in Rhicnoessa].
  • Tethina xanthopoda. Foster 1976b[8]: 3 [generic combination, Neotropical catalog]. Woodley and Hilburn 1994[26]: 54 [citation, Bermuda]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 19 [world catalog]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 620–624 [revision, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, lectotype designation, figs. of head and ♂ terminalia]. Munari and Mathis 2010[7]: 66 [world catalog].
  • Rhicnoessa xanthopoda. Czerny 1902[44]: 256 [generic combination]. Melander 1913[45]: 298 [key]; 1952: 202 209 [key, citation]. Hendel 1934[18]: 51 [citation].
  • Rhicnoessa seriata Melander 1952[40]: 206 [United States. Florida. Dade: Miami; LT ♂ (designated by Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 620), USNM]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 620 [synonymy, lectotype designation].
  • Tethina seriata. Vockeroth 1965[41]: 728 [generic combination, Nearctic catalog]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 18 [world catalog].
  • Tethina brasiliensis Prado and Tavares 1966: 435 [Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Ilha do Governador (Galeão); HT ♂, FIOC (13358); figs. of ♂ and ♀ terminalia]. Foster 1976b[8]: 2 [Neotropical catalog]. Artigas et al. 1992[49]: 127–129 [figs. of puparium]. Mathis and Munari 1996[9]: 15 [world catalog]. Foster and Mathis 1998[24]: 620 [synonymy].

Diagnosis

The family Canacidae, sensu lato, is distinguished from other families of the Carnoidea by the following combination of characters: Exclusively or tending to occur in saline habitats (secondarily in freshwater habitats). Minute to moderately small flies, length 0.91–5.0 mm. Head: Postocellar setae developed (absent or reduced in some Canacinae); dorsal fronto-orbital seta lateroclinate; oral vibrissae weakly differentiated, except for Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel species. Arista dorsal. Face sometimes characterized by 2 shiny protuberances laterad to the facial cavity, just above vibrissal pore (Tethina, Pseudorhicnoessa) or nearby (Afrotethina, Horaismoptera); face strongly depressed and short (Dasyrhicnoessa, Horaismopterinae) or with medial carina (Tethina) or even distinctly convex (Canacinae). Gena bare, except for ventral or nearly ventral row of setae (peristomal setae), or even with a few anaclinate, strong setae (Canacinae). Buccal parts generally strongly sclerotized in Canacinae. Thorax: Precoxal bridge developed. Prescutellar acrostichal setae developed; presutural dorsocentral setae differentiated; anepisternum with 2–3 developed posterior setae, bearing enlarged, dorsally curved seta at posterodorsal corner; usually 1 katepisternal seta present; proepisternal seta developed. Wing generally hyaline, bearing fine, dense microtrichia; subcosta weakened apically, close to vein R1; vein A1 short (except in the sub-Antarctic genus Apetaenus); vein A2 long, present as a fold. Abdomen: Pregenital sclerites of male short and fused; male tergite 6 fused with sternite 8, forming a usually symmetrical (except in some species of Tethina), pregenital sclerite; male sternite 7 lost; postgonites firmly connected laterally to base of phallapodeme, distinctly anterior to basiphallus; hypandrium forming a sheath or phallic mantle around the postgonite and basiphallus; epandrium bearing 1–2 pairs of surstyli ventrally, sometimes anterior surstylus lacking (Canacinae, Tethina); posterior surstylus partially articulated or fused with epandrium; inner basal corner of surstylus connected to broad interparameral sclerite; cercus very short to exceptionally developed (Horaismopterinae); postabdomen of female more or less telescopically retractile; 2 sclerotized spermathecae variable in shape, below with a narrower cylindrical extension into the spermathecal duct; cercus subcylindrical to compressed, or even tapered distally, sometimes bearing stout to pointed, spinelike setulae.

Discussion

Our concept of Canacidae includes what had been considered as two families, the Canacidae and Tethinidae. At the familial level, J. F. McAlpine (1989[50]: 1472) identified five synapomorphies that link Canacidae with Tethinidae and noted that “...these are clear indications of a sister-group relationship between them ... and may even indicate that they are subgroups of a single family.” Other authors (Hennig 1958[51]; Griffiths 1972[52]; McAlpine 1982[53]; Freidberg 1995[54]) have also suggested a relationship with the family Tethinidae, and Griffiths (1972)[52] further noted some affinities with the Chloropidae and Milichiidae. According to J. F. McAlpine’s (1989) cladogram, which included an analysis of 25 characters for the families Canacidae and Tethinidae, the superfamily Carnoidea (= Chloropoidea) comprises the families with the following relationships in parenthetic notation: ((Australimyzidae, Braulidae) Carnidae)((Tethinidae, Canacidae)((Milichiidae, Risidae) ((Cryptochetidae, Chloropidae)))).
More recently, Buck (2006)[6] and D. K. McAlpine (2007)[10] provided rather compelling character evidence, substantiating that these two families are closely associated, and more specifically that the Canacidae sensu stricto are an included lineage within the Tethinidae. Thus, not to include the Canacidae within the Tethinidae would render the Tethinidae as a paraphyletic family. Buck and D. K. McAlpine cited ten synapomorphies that corroborate the monophyly of the family Canacidae sensu lato (the family-group name Canacidae is older than Tethinidae). These synapomorphies are (only derived state cited): (1) Precoxal bridge present; (2) anepisternum with enlarged, dorsally curved setae at posteroventral corner; (3) vein A2 long, present as a fold; (4) male sternite 6 reduced and divided medially; (5) male tergite 6 fused with sternite 8, forming a symmetrical pregenital sclerite; (6) male sternite 7 lost; (7) postgonites firmly connected laterally to base of phallapodeme, distinctly anterior to basiphallus; (8) hypandrium forming a sheath or phallic mantle around the postgonite and basiphallus; (9) cuticle of larva with covering of fine spicules, and (10) halobiontic in habitat preference, secondarily in freshwater habitats. Buck (2006)[6] further suggested that the sister group to Canacinae sensu stricto is the subfamily Apetaeninae and not Zaleinae and provided four characters as corroborative evidence for this relationship: (1) antennae broadly separated, inserted more or less on protuberant facial tubercles; (2) clypeus distinctly enlarged and produced anteriorly; (3) prementum distinctly emarginated apically; and (4) tentorial arms of head capsule enormously developed and strongly sclerotized.

Key to Subfamilies of Canacidae sensu lato from Brazil

Taxon Treatment

  • Mathis, W; Marinoni, L; 2012: A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil ZooKeys, 162: 59-92. doi

Other References

  1. Jones B (1906) Catalogue of the Ephydridae, with bibliography and description of new species. University of California Publications in Entomology 1 (2): 153-198.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Hendel F (1916) Beiträge zur Systematik der Acalyptraten Musciden (Dipt.). Entomologische Mitteilungen 5(9/12): 294–299.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Wirth W (1951) A revision of the dipterous family Canaceidae. Occasional Papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum 20 (14): 245-275.
  4. Enderlein G (1935) Dipterologica, III. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1935: 235-250.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mathis W (1982) Studies of Canacidae (Diptera), I: Suprageneric revision of the family, with revisions of new Tribe Dynomiellini and new genus Isocanace. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 347: 1-29.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Buck M (2006) A new family and genus of acalypterate flies from the Neotropical Region, with a phylogenetic analysis of Carnoidea family relationships (Diptera, Schizophora). Systematic Entomology 31: 377-404. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2006.00328.x
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 Munari L, Mathis W (2010) World catalog of the family Canacidae (including Tethinidae) (Diptera), with keys to the supraspecific taxa. Zootaxa 2471: 1-84.
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