Solanum umbelliferum

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Knapp S (2013) A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 22 : 1–432, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-05-10, version 34572, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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author = {Knapp, Sandra},
journal = {PhytoKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)},
year = {2013},
volume = {22},
issue = {},
pages = {1--432},
doi = {10.3897/phytokeys.22.4041},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-05-10, version 34572, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)
A1 - Knapp S
Y1 - 2013
JF - PhytoKeys
JA -
VL - 22
IS -
UR -
SP - 1
EP - 432
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-05-10, version 34572, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/phytokeys.22.4041

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Knapp2013PhytoKeys22">{{Citation
| author = Knapp S
| title = A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)
| journal = PhytoKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 22
| issue =
| pages = 1--432
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/phytokeys.22.4041
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-20

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-05-10, version 34572, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Solanales
Familia: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum


Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pétersbourg Hist. Acad. 10: 283. 1826Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Solanum genistoides Dunal, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 13(1): 85. 1852. Type: United States of America. California: sin. loc., 1833, D. Douglas s.n. (holotype: G-DC [G00144979, Morton neg. 8400]; isotypes: BM [BM000937786], GH [GH00077420], K [K000658255, K000658282]).
  • Solanum californicum Dunal, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 13(1): 86. 1852. Type: United States of America. California: sin. loc., 1833, D. Douglas s.n. (lectotype, designated by McVaugh 2000[1], pg. 505: G-DC [G00144968, Morton neg. 8401]; isolectotypes: BM [BM000838183], GH [GH00077415], K [K000658276, K000658251]).
  • Solanum menziesii Dunal, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 13(1): 159. 1852. Type: United States of America. California: Monterey County, Monterey, A. Menzies s.n. (holotype: BM [BM000934858]).
  • Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch.var. glabrescens Torr., Pacific Railr. Rep. 7, Pt. 3: 17. 1856. Type: United States of America. California: San Bernardino County; between San Bernardino and San Gabriel, 1854-1855, T. Antisell s.n. (lectotype, designated here: NY [NY00821174]).
  • Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch.var. incanum Torr., Pacific Railr. Rep. 7, Pt. 3: 17. 1856. Type: United States of America. California: Monterey County, head[waters] of the San Antonio [River], 1855, T. Antisell s.n. (holotype: NY [NY00820618]).
  • Solanum xanti A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 11: 90. 1876. Type:United States of America. California: Kern County, Fort Tejon and vicinity, near lat. 35°and long. 119°, 1857-1858, L.J. Xantus de Vesey 73 (lectotype, designated by Parish 1901[2], pg. 161: GH [00077430]).
  • Solanum palmeri Vasey & Rose, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 1888, 11: 532. 1889. Type:Mexico. Baja California: Bahia San Quintin [San Quentin Bay], Feb 1889, E. Palmer 704 (holotype: US [US00027766]; isotypes: LE, NY [NY00139015, NY00139016]).
  • Solanum cupuliferum Greene, Erythea 3: 72. 1895. Type: United States of America. California: Napa County, Napa Valley near Oakville, 1 Apr 1895, E.L. Greene s.n. (neotype, designated here: NDG [NDG-045023]).
  • Solanum tenuilobatum Parish, Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 3, Bot 2: 165. 1901. Type: Mexico. Baja California: near Ensenada, Apr 1882, C.C. Parry s.n. (holotype: GH [GH00077504]).
  • Solanum wallacei (A.Gray) Parish var. viridis Parish, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. ser. 3, Bot. 2: 166. 1901. Type: United States of America. California: Monterey County, Pacific Valley, May 1897, A. Eastwood s.n. (two syntypes cited, CAS, DS, neither found, see discussion).
  • Solanum xanti A.Gray var. intermedium Parish, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 3, Bot. 2: 168. 1901. Type: United States of America. California: San Bernardino County, vicinity of San Bernardino, 12 May 1897, S.B. Parish 4388 (lectotype, designated here: JEPS [JEPS-12142]; isolectotypes: BM [BM000934851], GH [GH00077431], MO [MO-884365, MO-2045917], US [US-313423]).
  • Solanum xanti A.Gray var. glabrescens Parish, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 3, Bot. 2: 169. 1901. Type: United States of America. California: San Bernardino County, vicinity of San Bernardino, 5 May 1897, S.B. Parish 4384 (lectotype, designated here: JEPS [JEPS-12146]; isolectotypes: DS [DS-106503], MO [MO-2045937, MO-884367], NY [NY00743231], US [US-313421]).
  • Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch. var. californicum (Dunal) Parish, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. ser. 3, Bot. 2: 172. 1901. Type: Based on Solanum californicum Dunal
  • Solanum parishii A.Heller, Muhlenbergia 2: 133. 1906. Type:Based on Solanum xanti A.Gray var. glabrescens Parish
  • Solanum xanti A.Gray var. spencerae J.F.Macbr., Contr. Gray Herb. 65: 43. 1922. Type: United States of America. California: San Diego County, Torrey Pines near San Diego, 28 Mar 1919, M.F. Spencer 1069 (holotype: GH [GH00077432]; isotype: NY [NY00138960]).
  • Solanum arborescens Clokey, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 30: 60. 1931, non Solanum arborescens Moench (1794). Type: United States of America. California: Santa Barbara County, Santa Cruz Island, Pelican Bay, 23 May 1930, I.W. Clokey 5047 (lectotype, designated here: UC [UC905430]; isolectotypes; A [A00077418], G [G00357912], GH [GH00077417], JEPS [JEPS12106], POM [POM-199830], RSA [RSA-19599], UC [UC535574]).
  • Solanum clokeyi Munz, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 31: 69. 1932. Type: Based on Solanum arborescens Clokey
  • Solanum xanti A.Gray var. montanum Munz, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 31: 70. 1932. Type: United States of America. California: San Bernardino County, north end of Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains, 6000-8500 ft., 26 Mar 1925, P. Munz 5718 (holotype: POM [POM-13481]; isotype: UC [UC218202]).
  • Solanum xanti A.Gray var. hoffmannii Munz, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 31: 70. 1932. Type: United States of America. California: Santa Barbara County, Gaviota Pass, P. Munz 9315 (holotype: POM [POM-98450]).
  • Solanum obispoense Eastw., Leafl. West. Bot. 1: 104. 1934. Type: United States of America. California: San Luis Obispo County, Santa Margarita, El Dorado School, 20 Apr 1933, M.E. Wall s.n. (lectotype, designated here: CAS [CAS-204657]; isolectotypes: CAS [CAS-204658], DS [DS-230359], GH [GH00077425], POM [POM-203041], US [US-1651755]).
  • Solanum wallacei (A.Gray) Parish var. clokeyi (Munz) McMinn, Man. Calif. Shrubs 491. 1939. Type: Based on Solanum arborescens Clokey.


United States of America. California: [San Francisco County], San Francisco, J.F.G. von Eschscholtz s.n. (lectotype, designated here: LE).


Shrubs or subshrubs, erect or somewhat spreading, to 1.5 m tall, spreading to 2 m diameter. Stems glabrous to densely pubescent with simple uniseriate trichomes to 2 mm long, these glandular or not, if shorter than 0.5 mm then sometimes antrorse, often with an enlarged cell at the base, mixed with shorter very delicate simple uniseriate trichomes with a single-celled glandular tip, and/or dendritic trichomes to 0.5 mm long, and glandular papillae with a multicellular head, usually winged from the decurrent leaf bases, in densely pubescent plants the wings not easily visible; new growth sparsely to densely pubescent with trichomes like those of the stems. Bark of older stems pale green or yellowish gray, somewhat glabrescent. Sympodial units plurifoliate. Leaves simple or shallowly pinnatifid with 1 (-3) pairs of lobes at the base, (0.5-)1–4(-9) cm long, 0.5–2(-6.5) cm wide, lanceolate to ovate or obovate, membranous or somewhat thick and leathery, both surfaces glabrous to densely pubescent with a mixture of trichome types, these simple uniseriate trichomes to 2 mm long, the dendritic trichomes to 0.5 mm long, all trichome types sometimes glandular (but less so than the trichomes of the stems), the pubescence somewhat denser along the veins; primary veins 5–8 pairs, often drying yellowish cream; base attenuate to truncate, occasionally slightly cordate; margins entire to crisped, often densely glandular papillate, the papillae with multicellular glands, the leaves sometimes lobed in the basal part, the lobes divided less than halfway to the midrib, the apex acute to rounded; apex acute to rounded; petioles 0.2–1.5(-3) cm long, glabrous to densely pubescent like the leaves and stems, never twining. Inflorescences terminal or lateral, 1–8 cm long, simple or once branched, with 5–20 flowers, only a few open at a time, glabrous to densely pubescent with simple uniseriate trichomes to 2 mm long or dendritic trichomes to 0.5 mm long, the trichomes sometimes but not often glandular; peduncle 0.5–2(-5) cm long, in branched inflorescences flowers only occurring above the branching point; pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter at the base, ca. 1 mm in diameter at the apex, slender, spreading, glabrous to densely pubescent with simple or dendritic trichomes, these usually sparser than on the inflorescence axis, in live plants sometimes dark purple, articulated at the base and inserted into a short sleeve 0.5–1 mm long; pedicel scars rather unevenly spaced 1–4 mm apart. Buds obovoid or obovoid-ellipsoid, included in the calyx tube until just before anthesis. Flowers all perfect, 5-merous. Calyx tube 1.5–3 mm long, broadly cup-shaped, the lobes 1–2.5 mm long, broadly deltate, glabrous to sparsely or densely pubescent with simple or dendritic trichomes like those of the pedicels.Corolla (1-)1.3–2.3(-2.6) cm in diameter, violet to deep purple or occasionally white, with green spots edged with white at the base of the lobes, the spots separate or confluent, rotate, lobed < 1/4 of the way to the base, the lobes 0.5–3.5 mm long, 1.5–6 mm wide, apiculate, the apiculae ca. 1 mm long, abaxially sparsely to densely pubescent with tangled weak simple uniseriate trichomes to 0.5 mm long along the lobe midveins, the tissue of the sinuses glabrous on both surfaces. Filament tube minute, the free portion of the filaments 1–2 mm long, occasionally one or two filaments longer than the rest, glabrous or pubescent with minute weak tangled simple trichomes to o0.1 mm long; anthers 3.5–4.5 mm long, 1–1.5 mm wide, ellipsoid, loosely connivent or spreading and not touching, poricidal at the tips, the pores lengthening to slits with age. Ovary glabrous; style 7–9(-10) mm long, minutely glandular papillate with weak unicellular papillae to 0.1 mm long in the basal third, appearing glabrous with a lens; stigma capitate, the surface minutely papillate, green in live plants. Fruit a globose berry, 1–2 cm in diameter, green, greenish black or black when ripe, the pericarp thin and shiny, glabrous; fruiting pedicels 1.2–2 cm long, 1–1.5 mm in diameter at the apex, woody and spreading with the weight of the fruits. Seeds 50–60 per berry, ca. 2 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, flattened reniform, reddish brown, the surfaces appearing minutely pitted with sinuate cells, the cell walls thick at the base, topped with filiform projections ca. 0.05 mm long and the seed appearing hairy when mature, especially at the margin. Chromosome number: not known.


(Figure 100). Common in the western part of North America from Oregon (USA) to Baja California (Mexico), extending eastwards to Nevada and Arizona, in California absent from the Sacramento valley, from sea level to ca. 2000 m in the Sierra Nevada mountains.


Solanum umbelliferum occurs in a wide variety of habitats from sand dunes to chaparral, Coastal Sage scrub and pine forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains.
Common names. USA, California: blue witch, bluewitch nightshade (CalFlora, , USDA Plants, )

Conservation status

Least Concern (LC); EOO >100,000 km2 (LC) and AOO >10,000 km2 (LC). See Moat (2007)[3] for explanation of measurements.
Discussion. Solanum umbelliferum and its close relative Solanum wallacei are among the most easily recognised species of the Dulcamaroid clade in being woody shrubs or subshrubs that do not climb with twining petioles with rotate purple (rarely white) corollas with prominent almost ruffled interpetalar tissue. Only Solanum flaccidum and Solanum laxum of southern Brazil (Solanum laxum also in widespread cultivation) have corollas with very short lobes that are almost rotate, but both those species have white flowers and are vines that climb with their petioles. Solanum viscosissimum, also of southern Brazil, shares densely glandular pubescence with Solanum umbelliferum (at least some populations; see below), but it is a vine with white flowers. The flowers of Solanum umbelliferum have two green spots that are edged with white at the base of each petal lobe underneath the anthers. This character is shared with Solanum dulcamara, Solanum lyratum, Solanum septemlobum and Solanum pittosporifolium, with which Solanum umbelliferum is closely related according to DNA sequence data (L. Bohs, unpublished). Those four species are all herbaceous or slightly woody vines, climbing by twining petioles, and have stellate corollas (except Solanum septemlobum with a more pentagonal corolla and consistently lobed leaves). The green spots have variously been interpreted as “pseudonectaries” and pollinator attractants (Buchmann et al. 1977[4], also see above under Solanum dulcamara).
The species I am recognising here as Solanum umbelliferum has normally been treated as several taxa, differing only by pubescence density and type. Parish (1901[2]: 163–164) characterized these plants as being those for which “their satisfactory segregation is a matter of no little difficulty. The exercise of that botanical industry that multiplies “species” by the minute description of individuals might reap here an abundant harvest.” He used variation in pubescence as the key character for distinguishing his taxa but also admitted that this character was continuous. For Parish, however, recognition of taxa was of importance and so he recognised as taxa what he called “certain diverging lines of development…without insisting upon definite cleavages, which do not exist.” He considered the treatment of this complex as a single taxon unacceptable, but given the variability in leaf form and pubescence present in many other taxa in the Dulcamaroid clade, I feel that it is better to recognise the variation as interesting and complicated, rather than suggesting, by the recognition of separate taxa, that it is understood. That some of this variation is environmental is clear; a pair of collections from Ventura County (Abrams & McGregor 154, 160) in open and shaded habitats show striking differences in leaf size and hairiness. To really understand this group more field work with local populations needs to be undertaken, coupled with transplant experiments and more detailed genetic marker work. A preliminary survey from across the species range revealed little (1 base pair) or no variation at several plastid markers (George 2011[5]; George et al. in prep.), but more detailed studies with microsatellites or AFLP markers may reveal differentiation.
The following extremes of leaf shape and pubescence have been recognised at the species level:
Plants with dense dendritic eglandular stem pubescence (such that the stems are white and no wings can be seen) and small leaves have been called Solanum umbelliferum. The types of Solanum californicum (with large leaves) and Solanum genistoides (with very small leaves) come from these populations; both these were collected by David Douglas in 1833. Gray (1876: 91) considered Solanum genistoides as a “small, summer-leaved form” of the former. The type of Solanum umbelliferum is from the San Francisco area, and although it has dendritic pubescence, it is not as dense as these extreme populations from Kern and San Luis Obispo counties.
Plants with simple uniseriate glandular trichomes with tangled tips and a relatively large basal cell have been distinguished as Solanum xanti; the type of Solanum xanti from Fort Tejon at GH consists of two stems, one of which is densely glandular and the other eglandular.
Plants from the Channel Islands (with the exception of Santa Catalina Island) and Isla Guadelupe in Mexico with long simple uniseriate trichomes that are either gland-bearing or not have been occasionally recognised as. Solanum clokeyi (or as a variety of Solanum wallacei). These plants are very similar to those from coastal populations in Santa Barbara County and without label data cannot be distinguished from them; they are also superficially similar to Solanum wallacei from Santa Catalina Island, but have smaller flowers and fruits.
Glabrous plants from northern California and adjacent Oregon with a few simple antrose uniseriate trichomes have been recognised as Solanum parishii; these plants also often have narrower leaves with more attenuate bases than populations with glandular pubescence. Glabrous plants from southern California and Baja California have been considered conspecific with these northern populations, based on lack of pubescence.
Plants from San Diego County and northern Baja California with narrow lobed leaves have been recognised as Solanum tenuilobatum.
Plants from northern Baja California and adjacent Isla San Martin with more deeply lobed leaves and slightly cordate leaf bases have been distinguished as Solanum palmeri; these plants have dendritic pubescence like that of northern populations and are not usually glandular.
Plants with very small leaves with crisped margins and glandular branched pubescence have been recognised as Solanum obispoense.
I have lectotypified Solanum umbelliferum with a sheet at LE labelled with the locality “San Francisco”; additional sheets bear no locality information, but are likely to have come from similar populations as they are morphologically very similar. These could be isolectotypes, but there is no evidence that they are duplicates.
I have lectotypified Solanum umbelliferum var. glabrescens with the one of two syntypes at NY that has flowers [NY00821174], the other syntype [NY00821142] is sterile and is a very fragmentary specimen. The only specimen cited in the description of Solanum umbelliferum var. incanum has been taken as the holotype; Torrey was working at NY when he wrote up the botany of the explorations of the American West for the purposes of the new railway.
Parish (1901)[2] was fortunately quite explicit about his choice of gatherings and the herbaria in which the duplicates were seen as types for his taxa in this group. I have selected lectotypes from amongst the duplicates specifically cited by him based on their completeness (flowers and fruits). The two sheets of Eastwood s.n. (“Pacific Valley, Miss Eastwood, May, 1897, Type [A, P]”) cited by Parish (1901)[2] in the protologue of Solanum wallacei var. viridis have not been found at either DS (P – Parish’s own herbarium, later incorporated into the Dudley herbarium) or CAS (A – his abbreviation for the California Academy) and are possibly no longer extant. I have not neotypified this name in the hopes that a duplicate might be found eventually. If a neotype is selected it should be from among the other paratypes cited: Coulter 586 (GH), Plaskett s.n. (CAS) or Eastwood s.n. (CAS, “Mt. Tamalpais, 1896”).
In describing Solanum cupuliferum, Greene (1895) did not cite any specimens, but gave a short description of the distribution of his new species: “Hills of the Coast Ranges of California from Marin and Napa counties northward..” Two sheets in the Greene herbarium at NDG are potentially original material; I have selected NDG-045023 as the neotype as it has both flowers and fruits; the other sheet (NDG-045022) is possible a duplicate, as it was also collected on 1 April 1895, but the locality is “hills W of Oakville” and not exactly the same as the locality on the neotype. All other Greene collections I have seen are post-1895 gatherings.
Clokey (1931) explicitly cited a sheet in his own herbarium in as the type of Solanum arborescens (“my number 5047 in my own herbarium is designated as the Type” – Clokey 1931). The sheet at UC (UC905430) stamped “Clokey Herbarium” is selected here as the lectotype; duplicates are widely distributed.
In early annotations on herbarium specimens I suggested that Heller 7899 from Shasta County (cited in the protologue of Solanum parishii; Heller 1906[6]) was the type of that name. It is clear, however, that Heller (1906[6]: 134) was proposing a replacement name for Parish’s Solanum xanti var. glabrescens, not describing a completely new taxon.
Several duplicates of the collection used by Alice Eastwood to described Solanum obispoense have been found; I have selected that at CAS [CAS-204658], the institution where she worked, as the lectotype.

Specimens examined

Mexico. Baja California: Isla San Martín, off the coast from Cabo San Quintin, 12 Jan 1973, Anderson 3253 (RSA); San Vicente, 15 miles S of San Vicente, 182 m, 28 Apr 1950, Benson 14313 (POM); Valle Las Palmas, Peninsular Ridges, Cerro Bola, just southwest of summit with communications towers, 1229 m, 9 Apr 2001, Boyd et al. 10342 (RSA); Isla Todos Santos, 10 Mar 1897, Brandegee s.n. (UC); Ensenada, al norte de Ensenada, Sep 1930, Bravo H. 256-7407 (MEXU); Ensenada, between village of Santa Catarina and lower dam, 64 miles southeast of Ensenada, 1036 m, 19 Aug 1961, Broder 581 (DS, MEXU); Rincón, 1.5-2.5 miles upstream from Rincón, 4.5 miles northeast of Santa Catarina, 64 miles southeast of Ensenada, 1250 m, 22 Apr 1962, Broder 732 (DS, MEXU); Isla Guadalupe, 914 m, 17 Jun 1906, Brown s.n. (GH); San Agustín, ridge 33.6 km northwest of San Agustin, 18 Jan 1948, Carter et al. 2557 (UC); Río Santo Tomás, headlands, 6 Mar 1947, Cooper 2171 (RSA); (RSA); Punta Banda, NE slopes, ca. 10 mi S of Ensenada, 22 Mar 1981, Dillon et al. 1832 (RSA); Ensenada, 24 miles N of Ensenada, 26 Mar 1949, Dressler 459 (MO); Valle Redondo, hills NE of Valle Redondo, 30 May 1932, Fosberg 8395 (DS, POM); Canyon Guadalupe, 7 miles north of San Vicente, 180 m, 4 Jan 1988, Franklin 5835 (UC); Cañada Grande, 22 Feb 1923, Gallegos 551 (MEXU); San Matías Pass, 29 Mar 1936, Harbison s.n. (RSA, UC); Isla San Martín, above small fishing camp near cove, near mouth of Lava Tube, ca. 200 m W of village towards top of island, 22 Jan 1975, Henrickson 14540 (RSA); Sierra Juárez, southern end, along dirt road from Valle Trinidad to Arroyo Calentura, 1036 m, 2 Apr 1951, Hohenthal 1 (UC); Colonet, 15 Apr 1925, Jones s.n. (POM); Ensenada, 10 Apr 1882, Jones 371 (CAS, MO, POM, UC); San Antonio Canyon, mesa above canyon, N of San Quintin, 1 May 1923, McKeever 28 (US); Rancho San José, 25 miles E of San Telmo, foothills of Sierra San Pedro Martir, 792 m, 1 Mar 1931, Meling 27 (DS, GH); Sierra San Pedro Mártir, ca. 9.7 miles northeast of Mikes Sky Rancho towards El Burro, 16 May 1983, Michener et al. 4283 (RSA); 28 mi E of Mexican Highway 1 on the San Telmo road to observatorio, 700 m, 5 May 1992, Miller et al. 7413 (MEXU, MO); Las Filipinas, 5 miles southeast, Sierra Juarez, 1620 m, 30 Jun 1962, Moran 9840 (DS, UC); Isla San Martín, east slope of San Martin Island, 20 m, 11 Apr 1963, Moran 10550 (DS, GH, MEXU, RSA, UC); Sierra San Pedro Martir, Rancho San Matias, 1450 m, 6 May 1963, Moran 10888 (DS, MEXU, RSA, UC); Punta San José, slopes 2 mi NE of point, 200 m, 29 May 1966, Moran 13203 (RSA); Portezuelo de Jamau, 1300 m, 20 May 1967, Moran 13876 (RSA); Isla Todos Santos, south island, 15 m, 23 Jun 1969, Moran 16230 (RSA, UC); Cerro Matomí, NNE ridge, 1550 m, 3 May 1973, Moran 20774 (POM, UC); Arroyo Durazno, 3 miles south of San Isidoro, 1100 m, 3 Jun 1975, Moran 22336 (UC); 3 km SE of Punta Cabras, 50 m, 11 Feb 1979, Moran 26414 (UC); Tecate, 50 miles SE, 13 May 1925, Munz 9561 (POM); Colonet, 18 km N on Highway 1 (km 111), 22 Jan 1983, Prigge & Prigge 4244 (MO); Ejido México, arroyo 4 km south of ejido, 300 m, 4 Apr 1958, Raven et al. 12221 (GH, UC); Descanso, 3 km south of Descanso, 15 m, 24 Apr 1958, Raven et al. 12692 (GH, UC); Ensenada, Rancho El Potrero, 40 km al SW de el Observatorio de San Pedro Martír, 1050 m, 1 May 1987, Tenorio & Romero de T. 13240 (MEXU); Ensenada, Rancho El Coyote, 60 km al W de El Observatorio de San Pedro Martír, 790 m, 2 May 1987, Tenorio & Romero de T. 13264 (GH, MEXU); Red Rock, above Hamilton Ranch, about 140 miles S of San Diego (CA), 22 Mar 1958, Thomas 121 (DS); Isla de Todos Santos, S island, 15 Mar 1980, Thorne et al. 53964 (BH); Los Arbolitos, SW coast 24 km S of Ensenada, 50 m, 1980, Thorne et al. 53988 (RSA); Laguna Hanson, on road to Ojos Negros, 8 miles SW of Laguna Hanson, 1500 m, 28 May 1983, Thorne et al. 55925 (RSA); Valle de Trinidad, about 2.3 miles NW of Valle de Trinidad, 900 m, 15 Nov 1983, Thorne & Wisura 57670 (RSA); Bocana de Santo Tomás, 6.7 mi from junction of Hwy 1 and along road to Bocana de Santa Tomas, along valley of Rio Santo Tomas, 75 m, 16 Nov 1983, Thorne & Wisura 57696 (RSA); Mesa La Misión, upper edge, N end of mesa, S of Valle La Mision, 3 mi. SE of Hwy 1, bridge over Rio San Miguel, 125 m, 18 Apr 1985, Thorne & Charlton 60023 (RSA); Cerro Bola, elevation of peak with microwave towers, 600 m, 14 Mar 1987, Thorne et al. 62136 (RSA); Rancho Loma Linda, Las Animas, S of Hwy 1, 200 m, 15 Mar 1987, Thorne et al. 62268 (RSA); San Quintín, base of Volcanos to W, N of Pichacho Vizcaino, opposite Isla San Martin, 40 m, 29 May 1987, Thorne et al. 62650 (E, RSA); Guadalupe, 1 miles south of Guadelupe, about 28 miles north of Ensenada, 8 Sep 1929, Wiggins & Gillespie 3913 (A, CAS, DS, GH, MEXU, MO, POM, US); San Vicente, 5 miles S of San Vicente, 2 Feb 1935, Wiggins 7550 (DS, UC, US); Mission Santa Catarina, southern end of Sierra de la Juarez, 1182 m, 28 Sep 1938, Wiggins 9136 (DS); Valle Trinidad, near summit of grade about 2 1/2 miles northwest of village, 3 Jan 1960, Wiggins & Wiggins 16074 (DS, GH, K, LE, MEXU).
United States of America. Arizona: Apache County: Fort Apache, 21 Jun 1890, Palmer 607 (GH, K); Cochise County: Natane Plateau, near Bisbee, 26 Jun 1912, Goodding 1083 (E); Coconino County: Oak Creek Canyon, Coconino National Forest, 2 May 1942, Cantelow s.n. (CAS); Oak Creek, 1.5 miles below Oak Creek bridge on State Highway 79, 2 Jul 1940, Ferris 9896 (DS); Upper Oak Creek, 18 Jun 1934, Fulton 9674 (DS, POM); Oak Creek Canyon, about 7 miles south of Oak Creek Lodge, S of Flagstaff, 14 Jun 1927, Goddard 611 (UC); Elden Mountain, mouth of canyon below TV hill and 0.3 miles NW of Elden Spring, 20 yards up the slope, Coconino National Forest, 2189 m, 15 May 1985, Ricketson 2503 (MO); Gila County: Collom Camp, Matzatzal Mountains, 1200 m, Collom 8 (GH, US); Miami, 1219 m, 10 Jun 1931, Gillespie 5298 (DS, US); Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, headquarters, 22 Aug 1968, Keil 3541 (F); Pine, between Pine and Power House, 11 May 1931, McKelvey 2151 (GH, US); Payson, Alpine Heights, 26 Apr 1984, Partch 336 (RSA); Oracle Road, 12 miles S of Globe, 1219 m, 29 Apr 1922, Wiegand & Upton 4229 (F, MO); Pine, 10 miles northwest of Pine, 1646 m, 1 Jul 1928, Wolf 2449 (DS, GH, RSA); Greenlee County: 27 miles north of Clifton, Coronada Trail, vicinity of Cherry Lodge, 7 Jun 1935, Maguire s.n. (GH); Crook National Forest, 16 miles N of Clifton, 7 Jun 1935, Maguire 11856 (UC); Maricopa County: Horseshoe Dam Road, ca. 46 mi NNE, 23 Apr 1960, Crosswhite 763 (K); Mazatal Mountains, NE of Phoenix, along USFS Rd 143 from Hwy 87 to Four Peaks, along Picadilla Creek, 14 Apr 1984, Daniel & Wagner 3438 (CAS); Columbine Spring, 21 Apr 1947, Goodding 17 -47 (UC); Alder Creek, Mazatzal Mountains, 5 May 1931, Harrison 7806 (DS, US); Tonto National Forest, road to Seven Springs at Camp Creek Wash, ca. 0.3 mi S of Sears-Kay road, 914 m, 7 May 1999, Landrum et al. 9436 (F, RSA); along road from Carefree to the Bartlett Reservoir, ca. 6.1 miles from the reservoir, 4 Apr 1972, Smith 1446 A (F); Camp Creek, 17 Apr 1954, Wright 23 -54 (RSA); Mohave County: Granite Canyon, Hualapai Mountains, below the falls, 1 Nov 1931, Braem 23 (DS, POM); Martin’s Canyon, Hualpai Mountains, 12 May 1940, Braem 784 (DS); Sawmill Canyon, Hualapai Mountains, along Hualapai Mountain Road, ca. 10 mi SE of Kingman, 1616 m, 5 Oct 1997, White 5995 (RSA); Blue Tank Wash, head of wash, Hualapai Mountains, 1783 m, 2 Jun 1972, Phillips et al. 3068 (UC); Navajo County: El Capitan, 5 miles north, 13 May 1935, Maguire 11333 (RSA, US); Yavapai County: Sedona, Verde River valley, Aug 1937, Gentry 3096 (CAS); 8 miles N of Congress Junction on road to Hillside, 914 m, 9 Apr 1947, Gould & Darrow 4163 (GH); Prescott, 1 Jun 1927, Peebles & Harrison 4186 (US); , Oak Creek, 22 Jun 1883, Rusby s.n. (E, F, MO, S, UC); California: Alameda County: valley a few miles southeast of Livermore, 11 Mar 1951, Dress 3046 (BM, E, LE); Berkeley, Strawberry Canyon, 28 May 1933, Howell 11352 (CAS, GH, US); Oakland, Oakland Hills, east of Mills College, W slope of Devil’s Punch Bowl, 50 m, 16 Apr 1967, Kasapligil 4074 (UC); Oakland, Hills in back of the Mountain View Cemetery, 5 Apr 1936, Lee 1847 (JEPS, MO); Berkeley, on the north side of Strawberry Canyon, 396 m, 8 Apr 1956, Raven 8980 (CAS); Corral Hollow above Tesla, Mount Hamilton Range, 304 m, 8 Mar 1936, Sharsmith 3410 (DS, GH, UC); off the south side of Norris Canyon Rd. near the Contra Costa Co. line. 5 miles east of Castro Valley, 152 m, 17 May 1975, Sinnott et al. 266 (CAS); Hills near Berkeley, San Francisco Bay Region, 121 m, 4 Apr 1902, Tracy 1338 (DS, UC); Mines road, 5 mi S of Livermore, 457 m, 20 May 1984, Williams & Roderick 84-6-2 (RSA); Arroyo Mocho, 228 m, 14 Mar 1936, Yates 5366 (UC); Alpine County: Ebbett’s Pass, 18 Jun 1940, Eastwood & Howell 8503 (CAS, POM); Iceberg Meadow Ranger Station, Clarks Fork Trail on Red Mtn., Stanislaus Forest, 2500 m, 10 Jul 1913, Eggleston 9583 (US); Noble Canyon, Silver Creek, east slope of Sierra Nevada, 2134 m, 29 Jul 1955, Munz 21311 (RSA); Silver Creek Public Camp, east base of Ebbetts Pass, 2103 m, 28 Jul 1955, Munz 21346 (RSA); along Ebbett’s Pass Highway, Markleeville Quadrangle, Mono National Forest, 2225 m, 2 Jul 1935, Thomas 127 (UC); near Chipmunk Flat Dardanelles Quadrangle, Stanislaus National Forest, 2439 m, 2 Jul 1935, Yates 5324 (UC); Amador County: Sierra Nevada, Along State Hwy 88, 23 miles east of Pine Grove, 1646 m, 14 Jun 1962, Breedlove 3642 (CAS); Sierra Nevada, above Buck-horn Lodge, 19 miles northeast of Jackson, 914 m, 13 Jun 1937, Crum 1936a (B); South bank of Cosumnes River opposite of Clark Creek, 3 May 1928, Mason 4485 (GH, UC); 5 1/2 miles WSW of Bisbee Peak, Jackson Quadrangle, 152 m, 24 Apr 1936, Nordstrom 758 (RSA, UC); Buena Vista Pk, Jackson Quadrangle, 228 m, 2 May 1935, Roseberry 130 (UC); Butte County: Bardees Bar Road, south of the small stream, about 1/4 mile southwest of the poor bridge across the North Fork of the Feather River at Bardees Bar, about 2 3/4 miles (air); southwest of Pulga, 405 m, 19 May 2006, Ahart 12633 (CHSC, JEPS, RSA); Clear Creek, 15 Apr 1897, Brown 191 (E, GH, MO, US, US); Jonesville, 1600 m, 27 Jul 1930, Copeland 453 (BM, E, F, LE, UC); Berry Canyon, near Clear Creek, 6 May 1902, Heller & Brown 5455 (DS, GH, MO, US); Hills 14 miles northeast of Chico near Rock creek in the Quercus Douglasii belt, 12 Apr 1915, Heller 11814 (A, CAS, GH, MO); W side of Dark Canyon Rd, ca. 3 mi S of its jct with Big Bend Rds jct, ca. 4 air mi S of Jarbo Gap on Hwy 70, N of Oroville, 366 m, 5 Apr 1981, Taylor 3502 (MO); Ca. 0.5 mi N of Kunkle Reservoir, on E side of Pentz-Magalia Hwy, ca. 3 mi S of Paradise, 6 Apr 1984, Taylor et al. 5413 (MO, RSA); Calaveras County: 4 miles W of Columbia toward Angels Camp. Big Trees Quadrangle, 457 m, 16 Apr 1936, Belshaw 1876 (UC); Lake Alpine, 30 May 1931, Branson, I., s.n. (CAS); Angels Camp, 11 Apr 1923, Eastwood 11656 (CAS); Big Meadows, North Fork Stanislaus River, 1981 m, Jul 1931, Leonard s.n. (JEPS); 1/2 mile from Parrots Ferry bridge, on road to Vallecito, 12 Jun 1952, Quick 52-07 (CAS); 3/4 mi NW of Central Ferry. Copperopolis Quadrangle, 259 m, 25 Apr 1935, Rutter 164 (UC); about 4 miles NE of Murphy, 914 m, 21 May 1927, Stanford 393 (DS, GH, MO); Near Burson, 152 m, 12 May 1928, Stanford 992 (DS, MO, POM, US); Colusa County: “Grapevine Grade” to Lodoga, 10 mi NW of Sites, 26 Apr 1950, Bacigalupi & Holmgren 3175 (JEPS, UC); Arbuckle, Rumsey Road, 14 Apr 1917, Ferris 590 (DS, MO); near Stonyford, 23 Apr 1926, Ferris 6591 (DS); Salt Cyn, N side of Salt Creek, Hwy 20, 10 miles WSW of Williams. Wilbur Springs Quadrangle, 143 m, 16 Apr 1977, Kelly 8 (MO); Timber near College City, 18 Jun 1916, Stinchfield 299 (DS); Contra Costa County: Martinez Mountain, South Coast Range, Sacramento River watershed, 91 m, 18 Mar 1931, Benson 2658 (POM); Mt. Diablo, Back Creek, 11 May 1975, Bowerman s.n. (JEPS); Mt. Diablo, upper end of South Road, 7 Mar 1931, Bowerman 553 (UC); between Antioch and Marsh Creek, 16 Jun 1907, Brandegee s.n. (POM, UC); Antioch, 7 Apr 1895, Burtt Davy 985 (JEPS, UC); San Leandro, 21 Jun 1915, Eastwood 4728 (CAS); Antioch, sand hills to the east, 22 m, 16 Apr 1908, Heller 8889 (DS, E, GH, MO, US); hills east of St Mary’s College, 14 May 1933, Howell 11291 (A, CAS, POM); 1 mi SE of Oakley, 2 Nov 1933, Keck 2619 (CAS, DS, POM, UC, US); Marsh Creek Canyon, 31 Mar 1929, Raven s.n. (POM); Mt. Wanda, John Muir National Historic Site, 13 Mar 2003, Smick GAS-068 (JEPS); N of Briones Reservoir, ca. 1.8 km S of Bear Creek Road on Hampton Road in Hampton Road Natural Reserve, 180 m, 22 Mar 1974, Yorks 118 (JEPS); Del Norte County: At Bear Basin Heliport, Six Rivers National Forest, eastern Del Norte County, headwaters of the South Siskiyou Fork of the Smith River, 1463 m, 11 Jul 1964, van Deventer 1050 (JEPS); El Dorado County: At Old Twin ridges, 500 yards above road, ca 44 mi E of Placerville along Hwy 50, 1905 m, 21 Jul 1934, Belshaw 120 (UC); Along State Hwy 89, 3 miles south of Meyers, 1996 m, 13 Jun 1962, Breedlove 3554 (CAS); Echo Summit, 2286 m, 1 Jun 1947, Copeland s.n. (UC); Aukum, near Mt Aukum, 10 Jun 1903, Gross 209 (DS); Lake Tahoe region, Eagle Lake Trail, near Emerald Bay, 2134 m, 19 Jun 1925, Howell 1173 (CAS); El Dorado National Forest, 2 mi SW of Georgetown Junction, Pyramid Pk Quadrangle, 1768 m, 20 Jul 1934, Johannsen 421 (UC); Placerville, 13 Apr 1939, Muenscher & Muenscher 15033 (A); Lake Tahoe, above Fallen Leaf Lake, 1890 m, 25 Jun 1958, Myrick 53 (CAS); Highway 50, west slope, at 42 miles campground, 1768 m, 15 Jul 1956, Pawek 189 (DS); Institude of Forest Genetics, At western edge of grounds of Institude of Forest Genetics, 792 m, 21 Apr 1943, Robbins 1017 (CAS, UC); Echo Summit, on old Meyers Grade at hairpin curve below California Alpine Club Lodge, 2210 m, 19 Jul 1971, Smith 3058 (JEPS); Echo Lake, N ridge of Echo Lake, about half way between lower boat landing and upper dock, 2347 m, 9 Jul 1971, Smith 3059 (JEPS); trail from Glen Alpine Springs to Lake Gilmore, 2378 m, 20 Jul 1972, Smith 3315 (JEPS); Fresno County: Huntington Lake, 3/4 mile E of Cedar Crest, 30 Jun 1949, Beane 1495 (DS); Cedarbrook area, 2 1/2 miles NW of Pinehurst on Stony Flat Road, 1310 m, 10 May 1958, Botkin s.n. (RSA); Sierra National Forest, NW slope of Black Mountain, Kaiser Quadrangle, 853 m, 6 Jun 1935, Bullard 40 (UC); Huntington Lake, Jun, Clark s.n. (RSA); High Sierras, Jackass Meadows, South Fork San Joaquin River, 2134 m, 10 Jul 1920, Ferguson 450 (JEPS); Pine Ridge, 1524 m, 15 Jun 1900, Hall & Chandler 93 (DS, DS, E, K, UC); Region of Dinkey Creek, Sierra Nevada Mountains, 1615 m, 25 Jun 1900, Hall & Chandler 355 (DS, POM, UC); North Fork of Kings River, 1951 m, Jul 1900, Hall & Chandler 448 (DS, MO, UC, US); Sierra Nevada, Simpson Meadow, Middle Fork of the Kings River, 1829 m, 25 Jul 1958, Howell 33912 (CAS); Zapato Chino Canyon, 670 m, 12 Apr 1930, Jepson 15411 (JEPS); Temperance Flat, S side San Joaquin R, 167 m, 7 May 1955, Mallory 569 (RSA); Panoche Creek, Bottom down creek from the road crossing east of Panoche Valley, 304 m, 21 Mar 1932, Quibell 2070 (POM); new road around N side of Hughes Mt, NW of Pine Flat Dam quarter mile or more down W from saddle N of mountain, 304 m, 24 Mar 1953, Quibell & Quibell 1725 (CAS, RSA); Convict Road between General Grant National Park and the Canyon of the South Fork of the Kings River, 1676 m, 17 Apr 1934, Quick & Quick 1204 (UC); Florence Lake, 2225 m, 5 Jul 1952, Raven 4244 (CAS); 1 mile west of Sand Creek and Dunlap Roads, 609 m, 7 May 1969, Shannon s.n. (CAS); Sierra National Forest, 5 miles from Auberry toward Pine Ridge, 1128 m, 5 Jun 1965, Thorne & Blake 34808 (RSA); Hillside 12-13 miles north of Coalinga along road to Hernandes, 9 Apr 1950, Wiggins 12336 (CAS, RSA); Watts Valley, N end of Watts Valley, 609 m, 21 Apr 1933, Winblad s.n. (UC); Sierra Nevada, W slope. 1 mile below Miramonte on road to Dunlap, 853 m, 16 May 1933, Wolf 4735 (A, CAS, RSA); Sequoia National Forest, Ca. 82 km E of Fresno, 5.5 km W-NW of Boyden Cave, Redwood Creek at Hwy 180, 1015 m, 27 Apr 1996, York 623 (RSA); Glenn County: On the west side of Black Diamond Road, about 2 1/2 miles west of the paved road, about 4 3/4 miles (by road); from Stonyford, 749 m, 15 Jun 2006, Ahart 12747 (CHSC, JEPS, RSA, SBBG); Black Butte, 16 Jul 1944, Howell 19818 (CAS, US); SW end of Keller Lake, 1981 m, 7 Jul 1968, Stebbins et al. 2570 (CAS); St. John Mountain, Along the jeep road ca. 0.4 miles below the summit, 16 Jun 1992, Taylor 12812 (JEPS); Mendocino National Forest, Keller Lake, SW slope of Black Butte. NE side of the lake, 1707 m, 11 Jul 1982, Wheeler & Smith 3195 (CAS); Humboldt County: along Friday Ridge Road, about 3 miles NE of its Jct. with Titlow Hill Road, 1067 m, 1 Jun 1965, Anderson 3778 (RSA); Weott Ranger Station, Mt. Range Seaward N Coast, S Fork Eel River, 60 m, 12 Jul 1928, Benson 463 (POM); Bull Creek Region, South Fork Eel River. Bull Creek road to mouth of Bull Creek, and up Bull Creek, 2 Jun 1934, Constance 788 (JEPS); Camp Baxter, trail to Dardnells, 20 Jul 1930, Jussel s.n. (CAS); Near Hupa, 7 Jun 1901, Manning 88 (UC); Carlotta, Jun 1915, Parsons s.n. (CAS); Orleans Mt., 1219 m, 31 Jul 1948, Pollard s.n. (CAS); Dinsmore’s Ranch, In Valley of Van Duzen River, opposite Buck Mountain, 762 m, 20 Jun 1913, Tracy 4219 (UC); Bear River, 10 mi up stream from the mouth, 152 m, 20 Jun 1937, Tracy 15340 (JEPS, UC); Carlotta, By old Strong’s District School House, 5 mi E of town, 60 m, 8 May 1949, Tracy 18293 (UC); Briceland, 18 Jun 1950, Tracy 18851 (RSA, UC); Inyo County: Pinyon Creek, A tributary of Independence Creek, E slope of Sierra Nevada, 1920 m, 16 Jun 1942, Alexander & Kellogg 2980 (DS, GH, UC); Owens Valley, Sierra Nevada, 1493 m, 22 May 1973, DeDecker 3212 (CAS, RSA, RSA); Shepherd Canyon, Owens Valley drainage, below Mahogany Flat. Sierra Nevada, 2682 m, 27 Jul 1979, DeDecker 4877 (RSA, UC); Panamint Mountains, Thorndike’s Ranch, Upper Wildrose Canyon, 2286 m, 7 Jul 1937, Epling s.n. (RSA); Junction Nelson and Panamint Range near Jackass spring, 1829 m, 2 Jun 1940, Jaeger s.n. (MO); 8 miles up Mt Whitney Trail from Lone Pine, near crossing of Lone Pine Creek, 2103 m, 10 Jun 1935, Kimber 46 (CAS); Thorndyke’s, Wild Rose Canyon, Panamint Mountains, 2134 m, 7 Jul 1937, Munz 14836 (GH, MO, POM); Summit Creek, Trail from Olancha Pass, east slope of Sierra Nevada, 2774 m, 12 Jul 1950, Munz 14960 (RSA); Death Valley National Monument, Thorndyke’s, Telescope Peak Quadrangle, 2286 m, 1 Aug 1938, Shanteau 21 (UC); Kern County: Along State Hwy 166, 1 mi to W of summit of grade and near junction of Carriso Plains road, 26 Apr 1951, Bacigalupi & Hawkes 3292 (JEPS); Tehachapi, Brandegee s.n. (DS, POM, UC); Banducci Rd, 9 miles W of Tehachapi, 1310 m, 4 Jul 1963, Breedlove 5470 (CAS); Lebec, N side of Tejon Pass, 1000 m, 20 May 1980, Davis & Lightowlers 67039 (E); S side of Rte. 58 around 0.1 mile E of the Sna Luis Obispo Co. line, about 6.4 mi W of the intersection with Reward Road and about 12.35 miles W of intersection with Rte. 33 S of McKittrick, 835 m, 29 Mar 2005, Goldman 3174 (GH); Vicinity of Old Fort Tejon, 975 m, 16 Jun 1905, Hall 6266 (E, UC, US); Tehachapi Mountains, Keene Station, 1 Apr 1931, Hastings & Darland s.n. (B, LE, MO, RSA, S, UC); Girard Station, Tehachapi Mountains, 18 Apr 1905, Heller 7706 (E, GH, MO, US); Fort Tejon State Park, Above fort, 1067 m, 14 May 2002, Moe 2326 (RSA); 19 miles above Weldon on road to Walker Pass, 1371 m, 21 May 1949, Munz 13359 (CAS, RSA); Piute Mts, Erskine Creek, 1219 m, 1 Jun 1897, Purpus 5053 (E, GH, K, MO, UC, US); Tremblor Range, 13.7 miles from McKittrick on road to Pozo (San Luis Obispo Co.), 13 Jun 1951, Raven 2994 (CAS); 6 mi E of Mouth of Kern River Canyon, 457 m, 12 May 1940, Rose 40353 (CAS, MO); Tejon Ranch, Grapevine Creek Canyon, section of creek SW of I-5, below Ft. Tejon St. Hist. Park, 1.25 mi due S of Grapevine Peak, 838 m, 18 May 1999, Sanders et al. 22757 (RSA); Bitterwater Valley, at mouth of Cedar Canyon. Lowest limits of Upper Sonoran, 403 m, 3 Mar 1954, Twisselmann 855 (CAS); Mt. Abel, 2.6 miles from the summit, San Emigdio Range, 2271 m, 10 Aug 1955, Twisselmann 2322 (CAS); Bear Mountain, South slope of mountain. Tehachapi Mountains, 1676 m, 21 Jun 1964, Twisselmann 9626 (CAS); Piute Mountains, Haight Canyon, 3.8 miles E of Havilah, 1432 m, 10 May 1966, Twisselmann 12132 (CAS); Kern Plateau, Ridge between Little Cannell Meadow and Fay Creek, 2317 m, 16 Jul 1968, Twisselmann & McMillan 14585 (CAS, GH, RSA); near Bakersfield, 10 Apr 1938, Winblad s.n. (CAS); Kings County: Tar Canyon, foothills W of Avenal, 23 Mar 1940, Hoover 4281 (UC); Lake County: Bartlett Mt. Grade, 1 mile from Clear Lake, 5 May 1928, Abrams 12380 (DS, POM); just E. of Clear lake on road to Mineral Springs, 1500 m, 9 May 1952, Balls 8772 (BM, S); just out of Clear Lake Park on road to Mineral Springs, 9 May 1952, Balls & Lenz 17137 (RSA); Soda Bay, Middle N Coast Mt Range, Clear Lake, 457 m, 26 May 1928, Benson 577 (POM); Lower Lake, 2 mi N of Lower Lake, near Cache Creek bridge, 9 Jun 1938, Jepson 18910 (JEPS); 3 miles east of Bartlett Springs, 7 May 1928, Kindale 4943 (DS); Long Ridge trail to Snow Mt, 1524 m, 24 Jul 1956, Munz 22300 (RSA); 1 mi from Clear Lake on the Bartlett Springs Grade, 5 May 1928, Wolf 1950 (DS, RSA); 3 mi E of Bartlett Springs on the road to Williams, 6 May 1928, Wolf 2051 (RSA, US); Los Angeles County: Liebre Mountains, Oakgrove Canyon, 1067 m, 19 Jun 1908, Abrams & McGregor 336 (DS, E, GH, US); Claremont, 16 Mar 1903, Baker 4059 (CAS, DS, GH, K, MO, POM, UC); San Gabriel Mountains, Cold Spring, 2.5 miles southwest of Camp Baldy on the Glendora Road, 1371 m, 5 Jun 1945, Benson 11759 (POM); Liebre Mountains, Knapp Ranch area at upper end of Castaic Creek drainage in broad alluvial valley at head of Cienaga Canyon, south of Liebre Mountain, 914 m, 31 Mar 1997, Boyd & Raz (RSA); Camp at Cahuenga Pass, Feb 1861, Brewer 189 (K, MO, UC, UC, US); Lower Hungry Valley, S side of Hungry Valley Road, ca 2.7 air km NW of confluence of Gorman Creek and Hungry Valley drainage, 10 air km SSE of Gorman, 922 m, 29 Apr 1989, Buck & Palmer 1238 (JEPS); San Gabriel Mountains, Big Tujunga Canyon, ca 5 miles NE of Sunland on road 2N78, small side canyon, 685 m, 24 Jun 1975, Davidson & Gustafson 2877 (RSA); San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest Glendora Ridge near Baldy Camp along forest service road above ridge road, 29 Apr 1984, Elías 8332 (RSA); Ca 1 mi SE of Newhall in W part of Whitney Canyon just NE of junction of San Fernando Road and State Highway 14, within 200 ft of Hwy 14, 472 m, 15 Apr 2000, Henrickson 20711 (RSA); Elizabeth Lake, slope 3 miles E of Elizabeth Lake, 3 May 1931, Hoffmann 342 (CAS); Los Angeles Basin region, Palos Verdes Hills, 28 Mar 1928, Kirtland 14754 (RSA); Santa Monica Mountains, Temescal Canyon, 1 Apr 1933, Lloyd s.n. (MO, MO, RSA, UC, US); Santa Monica Mountains, Topanga Canyon, 152 m, 17 May 1920, Munz & Harwood 3980 (POM); Antelope Valley, Near Elizabeth Lake, Jun 1887, Parish 1888 (DS, MO, UC); San Gabriel Mountains, along south bank of Rock Creek, north slope of San Gabriel Mountains, 1295 m, 15 Jun 1919, Peirson 1082 (POM, RSA); San Gabriel Mountains, Yerba Buena Ridge, Angeles National Forest, Tujunga Ranger District, 1048 m, 14 May 1990, Ross & Boyd 2467 (BM, MO, RSA); San Gabriel Mountains, Big Pines Hwy, mid-way between Caldwell Lake and Big Rock Springs, on the NE side of the knoll behind which Shoemaker Canyon turns to the NW, 1402 m, 29 May 1990, Ross & Boyd 2673 (RSA); Santa Monica Mountains, Triunfo Pass W side of Yerba Buena Road, ca. 360 m NNW of intersection with Mulholland Highway, 487 m, 22 Mar 1992, Ross & Bell 6049 (K, MO, RSA, UC); San Gabriel Mountains, upper Winter Creek Trail between Chantry Flat and Hoegee Camp (on Winter Creek), on the W side of Santa Anita Canyon, 2560 m, 1 Jun 1993, Ross 7352 (CAS, F, RSA); Liebre Mountains, Warm Springs Canyon: canyon bottom and adjacent northerly slopes at the confluence of a blueline drainage NNE off the face of Warm Springs Mtn. ca 1250 m WNW from the canyon’s effluence into Elizabeth Lake Canyon, 667 m, 10 May 1994, Ross & Boyd 7718 (CAS, RSA); Santa Clara River watershed, Newhall Ranch, ca. 0.4 north of Hwy 126, west of Castaic Creek and north of its confluence with the Santa Clara River, 0.6 mi. south of Commerce Center Dr. along Franklin Parkway, vicinity of large water tank, 305 m, 14 Apr 2003, Sanders et al. 25981 (RSA); San Gabriel Mountains, 1 mile E of Georges Gap on Angeles Crest Highway (Highway 2), 1219 m, 1 May 1992, Taylor 12495 (JEPS); San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, Pinyon Flats 1.6 miles below Alder Saddle along dry branch of S fork of Little Rock Creek, 1585 m, 30 Jun 1971, Thorne et al. 40782 (CAS, GH, RSA); Mojave Desert, Near Victorville Area, 18 Apr 1964, Wallace s.n. (RSA); UCLA Campus, West Los Angeles, 137 m, 20 Feb 1932, Wheeler 446 (DS); Antelope Valley, Between Lancaster and Highway 99, 4 Jun 1941, Winblad s.n. (CAS); Los Angeles Basin region, W Covina. East on I-10 between Barranca and Grand off ramps, 27 Feb 1981, Zuck 65 (RSA); Madera County: Devils Postpile National Monument, UTM Coordinates: 315497 4165036, 2429 m, 22 Jun 2001, Arnett 8088 (JEPS); San Joaquin Experiment Range, 320 m, 30 Apr 1935, Biswell 9 (UC, US); near Granite Springs, 3 May 1938, Eastwood & Howell 5348 (CAS); Sierra Nevada, The Niche, East Fork of Granite Creek, 2439 m, 17 Aug 1958, Howell 34573 (CAS); Agnew Meadows to Lake Olane, 2682 m, 1 Jul 1951, Raven 3223 (CAS); San Joaquin River drainage, Along the Shadow Lake Trail, about 1 mi from Agnew Meadow . Sec 15 T3S R26E, 2469 m, 18 Jul 1962, Reveal & Reveal 430 (UC); Marin County: near Drakes Estuary, 19 Apr 1927, Abrams 11625 (DS); Inverness Ridge, 5 miles W of Pierce Point Rd, 30 Mar 1963, Bell 17480 (MO); Mount Tamalpais, Blithedale Canyon, 26 Feb 1900, Chandler s.n. (UC); Lagunitas, 5 Jun 1909, Hall 8501 (DS, UC); Lagunitas Creek Canyon, 12 May 1940, Howell s.n. (CAS); Mill Valley, Blythedale Canyon, 23 Apr 1939, Howell 14606 (CAS); Deer Park, Near Fairfax, 13 May 1945, Howell 20861 (CAS); Inverness, 13 Feb 1900, Jepson 21257 (JEPS); Ross Valley, 5 Apr 1892, Jepson 21259 (JEPS); Point Reyes Peninsula, Mar 1960, Leary & Sherfey s.n. (CAS); Mt. Tamalpais, trail to Kentfield, 19 Jun 1922, McMinn 236 (DS); on the Balins Road above Fairfax, 182 m, 13 May 1950, Raven 2087 (GH); Tomales Bay, Point Julia, 5 Aug 1932, Schreiber 753 (UC); near confluence of Lagunitas and Nicasio Creeks, 30 m, 21 Apr 1965, Thorne 34415 (RSA); Mt. Tamalpais, Muir Woods RR Track, 2 May 1909, Zeile s.n. (CAS); Mariposa County: Yosemite National Park, New Bridal Veil Falls, Yosemite Valley, 1219 m, 12 Jul 1911, Abrams 4676 (DS, GH); Pipeline near Mariposa, 685 m, 19 Apr 1959, Ballantyne 263 (CAS); Sierra Nevada, 3 mi NW of Coulterville, Sierra Nevada foothills, 701 m, 25 Apr 1937, Crum 1912a (UC); Hell Hollow, 1.1 mi N of Bear Valley (town); on Hwy 49, headwaters of Hell Hollow, 670 m, 23 Apr 1989, Ertteret al. 8326 (RSA, UC); Yosemite National Park, Little Yosemite Valley, 1890 m, 7 Jul 1911, Hall 9064 (UC); Sierra Nevada, Mt. Bullion, 640 m, 19 May 1954, Howell 29911 (CAS); Yosemite Valley, along trail in vicinity of Nevada Falls, 1829 m, 1 Jun 1937, Lee s.n. (UC); 3 mi above Coulterville, 15 May 1936, Mason 11111 (UC); 1 mi N of Mt. Bullion, 24 Apr 1954, Raven 6739 (CAS); 3/4 mi S of Bridgeport, 518 m, 4 May 1935, Schlobohm 106 (UC); Mendocino County: Russian River, 3 mi N of Ukiah, 21 Jun 1922, Abrams 8109 (DS, POM); Covelo-Willows Highway, 3 mi W of Summit, 10 Jul 1949, Baker 12126 (UC); Round Valley, 440 m, 20 May 1898, Chesnut 69 (US); 6.5 miles W of Oris Hot Springs, 23 May 1936, Eastwood & Howell (CAS); Mendocino National Forest, Castle Peak to Middle Eel, Ace Bean Camp, Ace Bean Flat, 25 Jul 1897, Jepson 21260 (JEPS); Mt. Sanhedrin, Summit, lookout tower, 1886 m, 26 Jul 1981, Smith 7133 (CAS); Redwood Valley, 6 mi N of Capella, 213 m, 3 Apr 1941, Tracy 16824 (UC); Mendocino National Forest, Middle Fork Eel River near Salmon River, about 4 mi SE of Round Valley, 304 m, 1 May 1980, Wheeler 1565 (CAS); Mendocino National Forest, 6 mi E of Middle Fork Eel River on the Mendocino Pass Road, 1036 m, 15 Jun 1981, Wheeler 2403 (CAS); Merced County: Los Baños, 19 Mar 1927, Eastwood 14110 (CAS); Pacheco Pass, E of summit on old road, 24 Apr 1969, Hoover 11264 (UC); Twin Peaks, North Fork Los Banos Creek, Inner South Coast Ranges, 5 May 1940, Mason 12276 (GH, UC); Pacheco Pass, San Luis Gonzaga Grant, 396 m, 2 Apr 1934, Short & Johnson S 27 (UC); Modoc County: Little Hot Spring Valley, 8 Jun 1894, Baker & Nutting s.n. (DS, UC); 1.8 km WSW of Day on County Road 94, 1170 m, 23 Jun 1988, Bartholomew & Anderson 4260 (CAS, RSA); Mono County: 1.4 mi. N. of Convict Lake on rd. from U.S. Hwy. 395, 2195 m, 8 Jul 1956, Balls 10930 (BM, E, S); Sierra Nevada, Leevining Grade, 3.5 mi above camp ground, 2317 m, 29 Jun 1952, Constance & Bacigalupi 3447 (UC); 1.4 mi N of Convict Lake, on road from U.S. Highway 395, 2195 m, 8 Jul 1956, Everett & Balls, 21964 (CAS, RSA, UC); Robinson Creek, 12 mi SW of Bridgeport, 2134 m, 18 Jul 1940, Munz 16106 (CAS, GH, POM, UC); Whiskey Creek, Jul 1938, Noldeke s.n. (CAS); Mono National Forest, near Horse Creek above Twin Lakes, N shoulder of Matterhorn Peak, 2399 m, 2 Aug 1945, Wiggins & Rollins 501 (DS, GH, UC); Inyo National Forest, Road below Twin Lakes, Mammoth Lakes area, 2560 m, 29 Aug 1946, Willard 108 (DS, RSA); Monterey County: Carmel, 17 Aug 1909, Abrams 4271 (DS); between Bradley and San Ardo, 1 mi S of Salinas Bridge, 5 Apr 1924, Abrams 10165 (DS, GH, POM, UC); Santa Lucia Mountains, 2 mi SE of Santa Lucia Memorial Camp by road, 10 Apr 1936, Carter et al. 1073 (UC); Pacific Grove, Salinas Road about 5.5 mi from Pacific Grove, 27 Dec 1919, Duncan s.n. (DS); near Asilomar, 28 Jan 1935, Eastwood & Howell 1923 (CAS, MO, RSA); Del Monte, Apr 1902, Elmer 3552 (DS, E, GH, K, MO, POM, UC, US); Tassajara Hot Springs, 472 m, 26 Apr 1933, Ferris 8307 (CAS, DS, GH, RSA, UC); Stone Canyon, 8 mi E of Salinas Valley, 22 Mar 1931, Howell 5951 (CAS, DS, GH, POM, RSA); Gabilan Range, near H.A. Twisselmann Ranch on Johnson Road about 3 miles E of Gonzales in Salinas Valley, 29 May 1962, Howitt 1322 (CAS, PGM); Santa Lucia Mountains, near fire tower, Chew’s Ridge, 8 mi N of Tassajara Hot Springs, 1493 m, 30 May 1937, Mathias 1312 (GH, UC); near trail from Carmel to Monterey, 30 Dec 1909, Randall s.n. (DS, POM); Los Padres National Forest, 2.8 mi E of Leigh Ranch, 243 m, 16 Oct 1938, Simontacchi 672 (UC); Cholame Valley, 0.75 mile W of the Cholame Ranch headquarters, 323 m, 21 Apr 1970, Twisselmann 16382 (CAS); Toro Creek, 5 miles SSW Salinas, 45 m, 27 May 1944, Wheeler 5957 (RSA); Napa County: Howell Mountains, E slope in the Howell Mountains, 5 mi E of Napa, 457 m, 27 Mar 1938, Constance 2039 (GH, K, MO, S, UC); Nevada Creek, along Nevada Creek, about 5 mi S of Knoxville, 304 m, 15 May 1965, Heckard & Bacigalupi . 1460 (JEPS); Zem-Zem, northeastern 28 Jul 1892, Jepson 21261 (JEPS, US); State highway 128, 28 miles west of Winters, 4 Apr 1970, MacFarlane 5 (MA); Hill 7 mi E of Napa, on the road to Monticello, 19 Apr 1937, Osgood s.n. (UC); Rector Creek, 121 m, 31 May 1952, Raven 4159 (JEPS); 11.3 miles N of Pope Canyon Rd. on Berryessa-Knoxville Road, 231 m, 22 Apr 1980, Ruygt 860 (JEPS); San Francisco Bay Region, S side of Mount Atlas, 609 m, 17 Mar 1963, Sharsmith 5214 (UC); Nevada County: Soda Springs, 30 Jul 1881, Jones s.n. (POM); Donner Region, Rainbow Tavern, 1829 m, Pollard s.n. (CAS); Lake City, Lake City near Bloomfield. Tahoe Forest, 914 m, 30 Apr 1925, Smith 1571 (CAS, JEPS); Sierra Nevada, Near Grouse Ridge Lookout, 5 miles N of Yuba Gap, 2347 m, 10 Jul 1962, Stortz 839 (CAS); Sierra Nevada, Woodchuck Flat on Rattlesnake Creek about 2 miles N of Cisco Grove, 1951 m, 23 Jul 1964, True 1611 (CAS); Relief Hill Road, 10 mi W of Washington, 1128 m, 12 May 1966, True 2822 (CAS); Orange County: Gypsum Canyon, Santa Ana Mountains, S of Corona, 22 Feb 1929, Crow 169 (RSA); Santa Ana Canyon, Santa Ana River bottom, 152 m, 24 Jul 1927, Howell 2822 (CAS); Cleveland National Forest, State Hwy 74, 1 mi uphill from the 2000 ft marker, and to the left ca 1 mi on an old paved road, 640 m, 21 May 1992, Pitzer & Hemstreet 1943 (RSA); vicinity of city of Brea, immediately N of Carbon Canyon Road and E of Placentia Avenue. ±1 mile (airline); S/SE of Tonner Canyon, 182 m, 13 Oct 1992, White 959 (RSA); Santa Ana Mountains, above Modjeska Canyon, proposed water tank site, 425 m, 28 Mar 1997, White 4831 (RSA); Trabuco Canyon, 1/2 mi below Trabuco Camp Ground, W slope Santa Ana Mountains, 609 m, 6 Mar 1931, Wolf 1850 (DS, POM, RSA, UC); Modjeska Grade, 1 mi N of base of Modjeska Grade, W slope of Santa Ana Mountains, 304 m, 6 Mar 1931, Wolf 1862 (DS, POM, RSA, UC, UCR); Placer County: Sierra Nevada, near Baxter’s Hotel, between Colfax and Gold Run, W side of Sierra Nevada, 8 Jun 1935, Belshaw 1002 (UC); Sierra Nevada Mountains, Squaw Valley, 1920 m, 7 Jul 1915, Brainerd & Baird 146 (JEPS); about 6 mi SE of Loomis, on the road from Folsom to Auburn, 25 Apr 1937, Carter 1250 (UC); Donner Pass, W side of Donner Pass near Norden, 2134 m, 25 Jul 1943, Howell 18806 (CAS, UC); near Tahoe City, 1899 m, 18 Jun 1935, Lehenbauer s.n. (UC); 5 mi above Auburn, 28 May 1926, Mason 3269 (GH, UC); roadbank going into Alpine Meadows, 2073 m, 21 Jun 1972, Smith 3283 (JEPS); Pacific Crest Trail between old and new Donner Summits, 6 Jul 1985, Williams 85-63-4 (RSA); Plumas County: W side of the dirt road, W of South Fork of the Feather River, about 1/4 mi N of Little Grass Valley Reservoir, 4 1/2 air miles N of La Porte, 1585 m, 4 Jun 2001, Ahart 8752 (CHSC, JEPS); on the E side of the poor road, about 1/2 mile S of the intersection of Lumpkin Ridge Road and the road to Tamarack Flat, ca 1 mile (air); NW of Little Grass Valley Reservoir dam, about 4 miles (air); NW of La Porte, 1796 m, 26 Jun 2002, Ahart 9771 (CHSC, JEPS); Upper reaches of trail from Gray Eagle Valley to Long Lake, 7 Jul 1927, Bacigalupi 1648 (DS); at the mouth of Chambers Creek, just above Tobin, North Fork of the Feather River, 640 m, 25 Apr 1974, Dakan s.n. (CAS); Plumas National Forest, 1.5 mi NW of Bucks Mountain, 1524 m, 6 Jun 1934, Embree 84 (UC); Johnsville, 1585 m, 28 Jun 1951, Howell 27644 (CAS); Gold Lake, slide just W of Gold Lake, 19 Jun 1924, Mason 1066 (UC); Riverside County: Palomar Mountains, NW Palomar Mountains, Agua Tibia Wilderness Area, N face of Agua Tibia Mtn., Dorland Mtn. area, 805 m, 15 Mar 1995, Banks & Boyd 75 (RSA, UCR); Santa Ana Mountains, Gavilan Hills region, eastern edge of the Gavilan Plateau at the head of “Santa Rosa Canyon” along Santa Rosa Road, 1/4 mile N of El Nido Road, 609 m, 29 Apr 1981, Boyd s.n. (RSA); Vail Lake Area, Temecula Creek Canyon below Vail Lake dam, 417 m, 18 Mar 1989, Boyd et al. 2991 (RSA); Santa Ana Mountains, San Mateo Canyon Wilderness of the Cleveland National Forest. Lower half of Tenaja Cyn, especially about Fishermans Camp, 2 Feb 1992, Boyd et al. 6658 (RSA); Banning, Southern Colorado Desert, 701 m, 21 Apr 1944, Cooper 1140 (RSA); San Jacinto Mountains, Santa Rosa Mts Road from Hwy 74 to Santa Rosa Mt, ca. 2 mi W of junction to Sta Rosa Spgs Campground, 2088 m, 15 Jun 1978, Davidson 7380 (RSA); White Post Turn on Rt 74, to the W side of the road and NW part of the turn, about 3.9 m W of the intersection with Rt 243, San Bernardino National Forest, 1088 m, 11 May 2005, Goldman 3283 (K); Cleveland National Forest, Hwy 74 W of lower San Juan Picnic Area at pullout W side of Santa Ana Mountain Range, 495 m, 12 Mar 2005, Gust & Nye 562 (MO); San Antonio Mountains, Lyttle Creek Canyon, 1219 m, 1 Jun 1900, Hall 1427 (DS, E, MO, UC); Vicinity of Riverside, 457 m, 21 Apr 1902, Hall 2929 (E, K, MO, POM, UC); Santa Ana Mountains, W of Lake Elsinore, 487 m, 29 Apr 1922, Munz 5085 (POM); Anza Bench region, San Carlos Pass, near Anza, 1371 m, 21 May 1927, Munz 10851 (POM); Cleveland National Forest, San Juan Loop Trail, ca. 4 mi W of El Cariso Village, just across the hwy from Ortega Parks Store, 548 m, 20 Mar 1988, Pitzer & Misquez 669 (RSA); San Jacinto Mountains, 7.4 miles SE of Banning on road to Idyllwild, 17 May 1958, Raven 12943 (CAS, GH, RSA); San Bernardino Mountains, Head of Banning (San Gorgonio River); Canyon close to the San Bernardino Co. line, 0.5 mi SE of Oak Glen Conservation Camp, 1402 m, 27 May 2004, Salvato & Green 630 (RSA); Box Springs Mountains, S end of the range along Gernert Rd. (dirt road paralleling the mountain front), in valley draining to Box Spring Canyon, 457 m, 1 Mar 1997, Sanders 19749 (RSA); Santa Rosa Plateau, Rancho California, 609 m, 6 Jun 1969, Thorne & Lathrop 39334 (RSA, UC); San Jacinto Mountains, Idyllwild area, “Strawberry Fuelbreak” between Inspiration Point and Strawberry Creek, SW terminus of Double View Drive W to creek, 1402 m, 30 Jun 2001, White et al. 8657 (RSA); Temescal Canyon, below and E of Horsethief Canyon immediately S of I-15 Freeway, 366 m, 4 Apr 2003, White & Honer 8961 (RSA); Perris/Elsinore Basins, Temescal Valley, just N of the I-15 Freeway and E of Indian Truck Trail, S and W of Lee Lake, 335 m, 6 Apr 2004, White & Honer 10048 (RSA); Santa Ana Mountains, along Ortega Highway, San Juan Canyon, 5/10 mi E of Orange County Line, 365 m, 17 Jun 1936, Wolf 7953 (DS, GH, RSA, UC); San Benito County: Pinnacles National Monument, 4 mi N of Pinnacles Lodge, 4 Apr 1939, Baker 9271 (POM, UC); Lorenzo Vasquez Canyon, West Gate Ranch, mouth Lorenzo Vasquez Canyon, 8.0 mi from junction with Highway 25 on Coalinga Road, 304 m, 11 May 1982, Crosby & Morin 14380 (CHSC, JEPS, MO); Upper San Benito River, 4 mi E of Hernandez, 12 May 1947, Hoffman 1591 (UC); Tres Pinos, 3 miles S of Tres Pinos, 22 Apr 1933, Howell 11033 (CAS, POM); Pinnacles National Monument, 425 m, 7 Apr 1929, Mexia 2366 (CAS, POM, UC, US); Panoche Road, off Route J1, ca. 10 km east of junction with Route 25, 300 m, 11 Apr 2000, Stone &Bodine 2946 (LE, MO); Bitterwater, Hollister Road, 0.3 mile N of Bitterwater, 442 m, 4 Oct 1966, Twisselmann 12888 (CAS, RSA); Griswold Creek, 5 miles S of Panoche, on New Idria Road, 609 m, 7 Apr 1928, Wolf 1704 A (RSA, RSA, US); New Idria, 762 m, 8 Apr 1928, Wolf 1758 (RSA); San Bernardino County: Cajon Pass, N of Cajon Pass, 1189 m, 5 Jun 1941, Alexander & Kellogg 2297 (UC); San Bernardino Mountains, Mountain Home Creek Canyon, 1356 m, 16 May 1947, Benson 12426 (POM); San Gabriel Mountains, Lytle Creek Canyon, 701 m, 4 Mar 1934, Edge 18928 (RSA); San Gabriel Mountains, Head of Lone Pine Canyon, N-slope, 2000 m, 8 Jun 1932, Fosberg 8571 (POM); San Bernardino Mountains, Sugarloaf, S-slope, 2926 m, 11 Jul 1906, Grinnell 213 (CAS, US); San Bernardino Mountains, ca. 20 air miles W of San Bernardino, 3 miles NW of Angeles Oaks, near junction of Deer Creek and Santa Ana River near Filaree Flat, 1158 m, 18 May 1985, Henrickson 19982 (RSA); San Gabriel Mountains, Horse Canyon/Circle Mtn. Rehab Project, in wide drainage W of Circle Mountain, 1798 m, 18 Jul 1994, Mistretta 1432 (RSA); San Bernardino Mountains, Bear Valley, 1981 m, 25 Jun 1894, Parish 3382 (MO, US); San Bernardino Mountains, Waterman Canyon, 685 m, 20 May 1908, Parish 11759 (CAS, MO, UC); San Bernardino Mountains, Holcomb Creek, tributary to Santa Ana River, 2591 m, 23 Jun 1922, Peirson 4062 (RSA); San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, along Glendora Mountain Road, 27.4 km N of the intersection with Boulder Springs Drive (just S of the entrance to the National Forest), 17 May 1993, Prather & Hempel 1356 (MO, RSA); San Gabriel Mountains, Dirt extension of Almond Ave. (W), ca. 1.0 mile W of Cucamonga Canyon, at SE corner of debris basin. Just E of Frankish Point, 731 m, 23 Apr 1994, Swinney 2784 (RSA); San Bernardino National Forest, San Gabriel Mountains, divide between Lone Pine and Swarthout Valleys, just E of Wrightwood, 1852 m, 26 Jun 1969, Thorne & Tilforth 38189 (RSA, UC); San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino National Forest: near San Sevaine Cow Camp, 1432 m, 7 Jul 1971, Thorne et al. 40919 (RSA); San Bernardino National Forest, Cucamonga Canyon along truck trail, San Gabriel Mountains, 792 m, 9 Jun 1971, Thorne & Thorne 40965 (UC); Mouth of Devil Canyon, 4 mi N of San Bernardino, 731 m, 13 Mar 1935, True 84 (UC); San Bernardino Mountains, Jeep Trail to Aspen grove off Fish Creek Fork on Coon Creek-Fish Cr. Rd., off Hart Bar Campground Rd., ca. 5 miles off Calif. Hwy 38, San Bernardino National Forest. San Gorgonio Wilderness, Fish Creek to Santa Ana River drainage area, 2225 m, 7 Oct 1968, Wilder 4435 (POM); Mojave Desert, 3 mi E of summit of Cajon Pass on road to Victorville, 20 May 1926, Wolf 13 (RSA); San Diego County: near Bernardo, 1 May 1903, Abrams 3362 (A, BM, DS, E, GH, K, LE, MO, POM, US); Witch Creek, 1 May 1894, Alderson s.n. (DS, GH, UC); Cleveland National Forest, NW Palomar Mountains, Agua Tibia Wilderness Area on the saddle between the two peaks of Agua Tibia Mountain. In large oak grove at the Dripping Springs Trail and Palomar-Magee Trail junction, 1341 m, 1 Jun 1995, Banks & Boyd 499 (RSA); 3.7 mi E of Otay Dam along Janul Dulzura Creek on Telegraph Canyon Road, 175 m, 10 Mar 1962, Breedlove 1821 (DS); Cuyamaca-Laguna Mountains, Barrett, 304 m, 17 Mar 1949, Cooper 3128 (RSA); Cuyamaca-Laguna Mountains, Potrero, 1067 m, 2 Jun 1949, Cooper 4057 (RSA); Escondido, 23 mi N of Escondido, 304 m, 25 Apr 1964, Cronquist 9886 (GH); San Ysidro Mountains, SE side of Otay Mtn, western Marron Valley, S of BM 838, ca. 1/2 km N of Mexican border, slopes above Tijuana River, 183 m, 3 May 2003, Elvin 2606 (IRVC, RSA, UCR); Oriflamme Canyon, 22 Jun 1932, Epling et al. s.n. (BM, L, LE); Cuyamaca-Laguna Mountains region, SW side of Viejas Mountain, at base of mountain, just off West Boundary Truck Trail, just at the end of Anderson Road, SW side of the Cuyamaca Mountains, 795 m, 5 Apr 2005, Gross et al. 1832 (RSA); 10 mi SE of Temecula, on road to Pala, 16 Mar 1962, Hitchcock & Muhlick 22170 (DS, F, MO, UC); San Diego, 3 Apr 1882, Jones s.n. (POM); Anza Bench region, Near Warner’s Ranch, 1036 m, 17 May 1925, Keck & McCully 52 (POM); Torrey Pines, 12 Dec 1919, Millspaugh 4487 (F); Chollas Valley, 20 Mar 1883, Orcutt, C.R., s.n. (F); Encinitas, 0.5 mile N of Encinitas, 26 Mar 1923, Peirson 3380 (POM, RSA); South Coastal Plain region, 2 miles E of Solana Beach, 26 Jun 1941, Ramsey 813 (POM, RSA); Crestridge Ecological Reserve, W of La Cresta between Alpine and El Cajon, east of Rios Canyon, on N-facing slope, 850 m, 1 May 2003, Rebman & Gregory 8736 (UC); Laguna Mountains, Lucky 5 Ranch, southern portion of new acquisition by California State Parks: E side of Sunrise Hwy (S-1); between Cuyamaca Lake and Mount Laguna, 1675 m, 7 Oct 2003, Rebman & Gregory 9571 (RSA, UC); San Diego, vicinity of San Diego, 60 m, 5 Mar 1916, Spencer 148 (GH, K, UC, US); Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base, Canyon off Ash Road, 30 m, 7 Apr 2000, Stone & Bodine 2887 (MO); Pine Valley, Corte Madera Ranch, 1219 m, 9 May 1993, van der Werff 12928 (MO); 5.5 mi S of Ramona on road to Lakeside, 6 May 1927, Wiggins 2476 (DS, UC); Point Loma, 1/4 mi N of Old Spanish Lighthouse, 60 m, 26 May 1931, Wolf 2082 (DS, POM, RSA, UC); near Banner, 853 m, 8 Apr 1936, Yates 5474 (UC); San Francisco County: San Francisco, 1853, Bigelow s.n. (GH, K); San Francisco, Sep 1865, Bolander s.n. (LE, MO); San Francisco, East of Lands End, 27 Apr 1918, Collins s.n. (GH); Lone Mountain, 3 Jul 1880, Engelmann s.n. (MO); San Francisco, 23 Mar 1869, Kellogg & Harford 717 (BM, MO, US); San Francisco, Presidio, nothern slope of Lobos Creek Gully between 16th Avenue and Lincoln Boulevard, 9 Nov 1956, Rübtzoff 3058 (RSA); South San Francisco Airport, 20 Apr 1930, Sumner 101 (US); San Joaquin County: Hospital Canyon, 18 Apr 1938, Eastwood & Howell 5074A (A, CAS, UC); Holt, 28 Sep 1930, Howell 5512 (CAS, GH, POM); Sunol State Park, S of Tracy, 18 Mar 1973, Kasapligil 4546 (UC); Live Oaks, Mar 1877, Rattan s.n. (DS); Hospital Canyon, 5 Apr 1930, Stanford 1220 (CAS, MO); San Luis Obispo County: Los Padres National Forest, La Panza Public Camp, E base of La Panza Range, 655 m, 25 May 1955, Bacigalupi et al. 5247 (JEPS); Temblor Mountains, Upper Cuyama Valley, San Maria River Watershed, Kern Co. line, 609 m, 9 May 1932, Benson 3573 (DS, POM, UC); 2 mi SSE of mouth of Osos Creek, 45 m, 14 Jan 1936, Bolt 532 (UC); Oso Flaco Lake, 5 miles N of Guadelupe, 7 Aug 1962, Breedlove 4089 (DS); Morro Bay, 5 miles E, 1 Apr 1937, Cantelow 2071 (CAS); La Panza Mountains, 8 May 1936, Eastwood & Howell 2316 (CAS, US); Paso Robles, 4 May 1926, Eastwood 13836 (A, CAS); Templeton, hills about 4 mi SE of Templeton, 304 m, 29 May 1939, Ferris 9760 (CAS, DS, POM, UC); Luquero Crossing, hills N, Santa Lucia Mountains, 3 Jun 1956, Hardham 853 (CAS, RSA); Peachy Canyon, Santa Lucia Mountains, 26 Apr 1958, Hardham 3164 (CAS, JEPS); Outer South Coast Ranges region headwaters of Las Tablas Creek, 19 May 1959, Hardham 4564 (CAS, RSA); Swift Ranch, SE of Los Osos, starting ca. 2 mi S of Los Osos Valley Road on Clark Valley Road, 107 m, 8 Mar 1997, Helmkamp 1459 (CAS); Temblor Range, summit, NE of Simmler, 16 May 1953, Hoover 8304 (CAS); Diablo Canyon, San Luis Range, 18 Feb 1967, Hoover 10211 (CAS, UC); Camp Roberts, vicinity of Twin Bridges (over Nacimiento River), 16 May 2000, Keil et al. 28704 (UC); Palo Prieta Canyon, 1 mi N and 8 mi E of Shandon, 25 May 1952, McMillan 130 (CAS, UC); Paso Robles, 8 Apr 1926, Munz 10129 (POM, UC); Nacimiento River, Boyscout Road, Camp Roberts and Camp San Luis Obispo, 23 May 1993, Proctor & Young ROB-0493 (RSA); Morro Bay, S end between bay and ocean, 21 Apr 1963, Thorne & Everett 31632 (RSA); Palo Prieta Canyon, 3.5 miles S of Cholame, 457 m, 31 Mar 1956, Twisselmann 2602 (CAS); York Mountain, W slope, Santa Lucia Range, 289 m, 15 May 1956, Twisselmann 2786 (CAS); Cuyama Valley, 1 mi w of Kern County line, upper end of Cuyama Valley, Santa Maria-Maricopa State Highway, 18 Nov 1932, Wolf 4416 (A, RSA, UC); San Mateo County: Redwood City, Whipple Road, 30 m, 16 Mar 1941, Arnaud s.n. (CAS); King’s Mountain, W side, 15 Jan 1902, Baker 234 (ECON, GH, K, MO, POM, UC); Corte Madero Creek, 30 May 1932, Blackwelder 168 (MO); Redwood City, 3 miles westward, near intersection of Canada and Edgewood Roads, 18 Jan 1975, Cahill 395 (DS); Jasper Ridge, Stanford University, Santa Cruz Mtns., San Francisco Bay watershed, 152 m, 21 Apr 1935, Cohen 605 (POM); Los Trancos, 9 Apr 1932, Demaree 8981 (MO); Glen Gloaming, near Pedro’s Creek, 16 Feb 1896, Dudley s.n. (DS, RSA); Jasper Ridge, Santa Cruz Peninsula, 11 Feb 1900, Dutton s.n. (DS); San Bruno Mountains, overlooking Daly City near San Francisco, 14 Apr 1967, Gorelick s.n. (RSA); Jasper Ridge, Santa Cruz Mountain peninsula, May 1907, McGregor s.n. (MO); Kings Mountain, about 6 mi W of Woodside, E slope of Kings Mountain, Santa Cruz Mountains, 16 Mar 1941, Rollins 2944 (DS, GH, UC); Brisbane, about 1 mile W, SE slope of San Bruno hills, 30 Apr 1942, Rollins 3001 (DS, GH, US); La Honda Grade, 0.5 mi E of base of grade, Santa Cruz Mountains, 21 Aug 1931, Wolf 2334 (RSA); Santa Barbara County: Santa Cruz Island, vicinity of Pelican Bay, 26 Apr 1930, Abrams & Wiggins 76 (CAS, GH, UC); Cañada Honda, 7 miles south of Surf, 5 m, 26 Apr 1951, Balls & Balls 16351 (RSA); , Ballinger Canyon, ca. 0.5 mi E of Hwy. 399, 853 m, 19 Sep 1962, Chandler 939 (CAS); Gaviota, adjacent to Santa Barbara, 1 May 1908, Eastwood 52 (F, GH, K, MO, UC, US); Santa Maria, ca. 53 miles S on highway in western end of Cuyama Valley, 30 Mar 1935, Ferris 9155 (DS); Santa Cruz Island, Prisoner’s Harbor, 5 m, 6 Mar 1932, Fosberg 7570 (POM); Carpinteria, 30 m, 18 Apr 1932, Fosberg 8002 (POM, RSA, UC); Midland School, Santa Ynez Valley, 7 Apr 1957, Hardham 1628 (CAS); Sycamore Canyon, Santa Inez Mountains, 13 Apr 1921, Jepson 9151 (JEPS); Purisima Hills, 182 m, 25 Apr 1927, Jepson 11946 (JEPS); Santa Cruz Island, Alamos Canyon, SW of Peak 611, 0.75 miules inland from beach, 49 m, 12 Apr 1994, Junak SC-3873 (RSA); Santa Rosa Island, east side of Black Mountain, 304 m, 9 Mar 1950, Moran 3346 (DS, UC); Lompoc, canyon north of Lompoc, 9 Apr 1938, Munz 15749 (DS, POM, US); Mission Canyon, Santa Inez Mtns. near Sta. Barbara, 17 Feb 1931, Müller 2454 (L); Surf, 13 Apr 1938, Peirson 12386 (CAS, RSA); Los Padres National Forest, Santa Ynez Mountains. Hwy 154 (San Marcos Pass Rd); at intersection with Painted Cave Rd, ca. 4 mi. below San Marcos Pass, 610 m, 13 May 1991, Pitzer 1523 (RSA); Santa Rosa Island, Lobo Canyon, 122 m, 5 Apr 1960, Raven et al. 14928 (RSA); Santa Cruz Island, on ridge south of Stanton Ranch, 26 Apr 1960, Raven & Smith 15254 (RSA); Cuyama Valley, 30 mi. W of Maricopa, 610 m, 18 Mar 1936, Rose 36061 (CAS, RSA, S); Santa Cruz Island, Fryes Harbor, 31 May 1908, Sexauer 79 (BM, E, F, GH, K, LE, MO, POM, S, UC); Rattlesnake Creek, 610 m, 23 Feb 1970, Shevock 20 (RSA); Tajiguas Canyon, above the planted orchards, south foothills of Santa Ynez Mts. near Refugio Pass, 13 Dec 1950, Smith 2889 (RSA); Vandenburg Air Force Base, Southern Pacific RR right of way between San Antonio Creek and Santa Ynez River (ca. 10 mi), Casmalia, Surf, 24 May 2001, White & Devries 8512 (RSA); San Raphael Mountain, Figueroa Mt. Road and gate ca. 2 mi. E of Midland Sch. along N-facing Hillside, Santa Ynez River drainage, 396 m, 28 Mar 1965, Wilder 1708 (POM); Santa Cruz Island, ledge above cove about a 1/2 mile west of Pelican Bay, 7 Jul 1939, Williams 38 (POM, UC); Lompoc, 3 miles north of Lompoc, 106 m, 14 Apr 1929, Wolf 3537 (RSA); Santa Clara County: Stanford University, 3 May 1902, Abrams 2390 (DS, MO, POM); Stanford University, 9 May 1902, Baker 273 (B, C, CAS, DS, ECON, GH, K, LE, MO, POM, UC, UC, US); Los Gatos, 0.2 mile S on Hwy. 17 between Santa Cruz and Los Gatos, 121 m, 6 May 1952, Balls & Lenz 17085 (RSA); Seeboy Ridge, 1/2 mi. below summit, Mt. Hamilton Range, 3 Apr 1936, Carter & Sharsmith 1056 (UC); Loma Prieta, summit road, Gov’t Range, Santa Cruz Mountain Peninsula, 30 May 1893, Dudley s.n. (DS); ca. 12 miles E of San Jose along raod to Mt. Hamilton, 304 m, 28 Apr 1962, Gentry 19696 (US); Pacheco Pass, on W side of Pass, 4 May 1936, Jepson 17464 (JEPS); Los Francos Creek, Santa Cruz Mountains, 4 Apr 1906, McMurphy 72 (DS, GH, MO, US); , Pacheco Pass, west of the crest along the Pacheco Pass highway, 274 m, 28 Mar 1929, Quibell 993 (POM); Santa Clara County, Mount Hamilton, above Alum Rock Falls, on W slopes of Mount Hamilton, 365 m, 24 Mar 1935, Sharsmith 1500 (UC); Canada Valley, near Gilroy, 29 Mar 1915, Sheldon s.n. (DS); Page Mill Road, 2.9 miles up in hills from intersection with Alameda de las Pulgas, 21 May 1949, Thomas 554 (DS); Mayfield, 3 mi sw of Mayfield along Page Mill Road, 31 May 1939, Wiggins 9216 (DS, LE, UC, US); Monte Bello Ridge, 548 m, 29 Apr 1936, Yates 5526 (UC); Santa Cruz County: Hwy. #17, Santa Cruz to Los Gatos, 2 mi. S of Los Gatos, 6 May 1952, Balls 8725 (BM, E, S); Glen Gloaming, near Petersen Creek, 16 Feb 1896, Dudley s.n. (DS); Año Nuevo Pines, 9 Apr 1933, Howell 10979 (CAS); Santa Cruz, 22 Jun 1881, Jones 2223 (BM, CAS, DS, GH, LE, POM, U, UC, US, US); along Pajaro River, just inside county line in SE corner of county Pajaro River, 30 m, 15 Apr 1950, Thomas 1542 (DS, JEPS, RSA); Rancho del Oso, about 1 mile inland from coast, 8.5 miles NW of Davenport, 1 Oct 1950, Thomas 2475 (DS, RSA); Saint Mary of the Palms, summer girls camp near Glenwood, 304 m, 23 Mar 1953, Thomas 2876 (DS); Pajaro River, alogn river near bridge on San Juan Bautista-Watsonville Highway (#67), 91 m, 30 May 1953, Thomas 3228 (DS); Lomita Ridge, 731 m, 9 Apr 1933, Wieslander & Yates 298 (UC); Shasta County: Goose Valley, 26 May 1894, Baker s.n. (UC); Redding, 9 Apr 1911, Blankinship s.n. (JEPS); in a meadow about 3 miles northeast of Redding, 30 May 1905, Heller 7899 (E); 2 mi w of Falls River Mills (below Pit Dam, Power Plant), 1341 m, 25 May 1940, Hitchcock 6590 (DS, MO, POM, UC); Redding, 28 Apr 1911, Jones 235 (GH); Ono, 21 May 1925, Malmsten s.n. (DS); east of Timbered Crater in lava bed area, 1051 m, 5 Jun 1989, Schoolcraft 1898 (UC); Sierra County: Sierra City, Herrington’s, 1219 m, 12 Jul 1982, Best 737 (CAS); Webber Lake, Lemmon s.n. (GH); Tahoe National Forest, 1.3 mi. west of Sierra City on Hwy 49, 1250 m, 29 May 1988, Pitzer et al. 941 (RSA); Sand Pond, 2 mi from Highway 49 down Sardine Lake Road at Sand Pond, 20 m n of bath house, 1829 m, 27 Jun 1972, Zamzow 36 (JEPS); Siskiyou County: Klamath River, between Shovel Creek and Fall Creek, 792 m, 15 May 1898, Applegate 2137 (DS, RSA, US, US); Salmon Mt., SW slopes near summit, 1817 m, 20 May 1936, Cantelow 1440 (CAS); Castle Lake, in a N-facing cirque with an abrupt 1000 ft. backwall, 14 miles SW of Mt Shasta on N side of a 6600 ft eastern spur of Trinity Mtns, 2000 ft above Sacremento River, within 10 airmiles of its headwaters to the west, 1656 m, 24 Jul 1943, Culbertson 54 (RSA); Happy Camp-Takilma road at turn off to Bolan Lake, 1524 m, 25 Jun 1988, Joyal & Mehlman 1272 (RSA, UC, US); Marble Mountain Wilderness Area, high lake basins in the vicinity of English Peak, approx., 0.2 mi below the 13 mile marker along the trail from English to Damas Lake, 2012 m, 11 Jul 1969, Oettinger 971 (RSA); Salmon Mountains, High Lake basin in the vicinity of English Peak Marble Mountain wilderness area, below seepage on trail from English Lake to Diamond Lake, 1875 m, 15 Jul 1969, Oettinger 1033 (BM); along trail from English to Diamond Lake (Marble Mountain Wilderness Area, High Lake Basins in vicinity of English Peak) Salmon Mountains, 1874 m, 15 Jul 1969, Oettinger 1033 (RSA, UC); along trail above Willow Springs (between English Lake and Abbotts, Marble Mountain Wilderness Area, High Lake Basins in the vicinity of English Peak), Salmon Mountains, 1676 m, 12 Aug 1969, Oettinger 1347 (RSA, UC); Kidder Creek, 914 m, 15 Jun 1950, Parker 451 (DS); Black Bear Summit, south of Sawyer’s bar on ridge road to Cecilville, 1356 m, 17 Jun 1958, Quick 58 -32 (CAS); Soda Creek, Klamath Forest, S25 T48N, R9W, Mt. Diablo Mer, 1707 m, 3 Jul 1934, Wheeler 2853 (CAS, POM, RSA); Yreka, 21 Jun 1870, Greene 877 (F, GH, MO, US); Solano County: Lake Solano, above the lake, 11 Apr 1984, Crampton 9901 (CAS, UCD); Vacaville, 28 Apr 1902, Heller & Brown 5407 (DS, E, GH, MO, US); Vaca Mountains, Weldon Canyon, 11 May 1938, Jepson 18758 (JEPS); Vaca Mountains, Gates Canyon, 25 Apr 1943, Jepson 20765 (JEPS); Vaca Mountains, Miller Canyon, Napa River basin, 23 May 1897, Jepson 21262 (DS, JEPS); Cold Canyon Creek, Stebbins Reserve [University of California Nature Reserve], 0.5 mi S of Solano/Yolo county line [Putah Creek] near CA highway 128, 185 m, 21 May 1997, Rhode & Nemeth 159 (CAS, RSA); Mix Canyon Road, 1.5 miles W of its junction with Pleasants Valley Road, 274 m, 12 Apr 1969, Tee 4 (RSA); Sonoma County: Pine Flat, w slope of the Mayacama Mountain Range Pine Flat-Mayacama Mountain Range, Pine Flat, 25 Mar 1934, Applegate 8854 (DS, RSA, UC); Mill Creek, N side along trail from Cosper’s Ranch to Cypress Green, 2 Jan 1929, Baker 3401 b (CAS); Jensen’s Ranch, 14 Apr 1929, Baker 3489 b (UC); Russian River, near Trenton, 16 Mar 1902, Heller & Brown 5076 (US); Oakville to Glenn Ellen, 274 m, 20 May 1951, Raven 2862 (CAS, GH); Healdsburg, resort at east base of Fitch Mtn, 9 Jun 1952, Rübtzoff 1195 (CAS); Duncans Mills Marsh, along streamlet in upper portion of marsh, 16 May 1960, Rübtzoff 4358 (RSA); Stanislaus County: Salada Creek Canyon, 9 mi sw of Patterson, Mount Hamilton Range, 213 m, 11 Apr 1937, Crum 1766 (UC); Arroyo del Puerto, at mouth of canyon, E margin of Mount Hamilton Range, 76 m, 28 Mar 1935, Sharsmith 1551 (UC); Sutter County: Sutter Buttes, Myer’s Ranch, 50 m, 7 Apr 1977, Ahart s.n. (CAS, MO); Sutter Buttes, S slope near the S fence line, ca. 3/4 mi SW of Myers home, Myers Ranch, 50 m, 24 Apr 1982, Ahart 3384 (CAS); Marysville Buttes, 121 m, 18 Apr 1917, Ferris 650 (DS); Marysville Buttes, slopes of West Butte, 22 Apr 1926, Ferris 6372 (DS, POM); Marysville Buttes, E side of North Butte, 9 May 1936, Lee 2076 (CAS, JEPS, JEPS); Marysville Buttes, 1/2 mi W and 1 mi S of North Butte, 304 m, 30 Mar 1934, Sindel 39 (UC); Tehama County: Mendocino National Forest, about 17 miles E of Covelo, along Covelo-Paskenta road, between Eel River Ranger Station and Low Gap ranger Station, 29 May 1934, Bacigalupi 2408 (DS, GH, POM, POM, UC); along State Hwy. 32 from Junct with State Hwy 89, 1036 m, 23 May 1957, Balls 11216 (BM, E, S); Payne’s Creek, 4 miles W of Payne’s Creek, 22 Apr 1934, Eastwood & Howell 1879 (CAS, DS); Log Spring Ridge, between Log Spring and Government Flat, 9 Jul 1941, Eastwood & Howell 9714 (CAS, GH, US); Dales Lake Reserve, Cascade Range Foothills, on the W side of Manton Rd. (A6); ca. 1.5 mi N of Dales Station on Hwy. 36, ca. 14 mi NE of Red Bluff, between Manton Rd. and the preserve fence at the level of the S end of the Old Hwy. Pool, 219 m, 3 Apr 1995, Oswald & Ahart 6606 (JEPS); Plum Creek Rd. 0.1 mi west of Hogback Rd., southeast of the town of Paynes Creek. in area of 1990 fire, 969 m, 14 May 1997, Oswald & Ahart 8417 (CHSC, JEPS); Payne’s Creek, Red Bluff-Susanville road 2 3/10 miles below Payne’s Creek P.O, 365 m, 16 May 1937, Wolf 8706 (GH, MO, RSA); Trinity County: Dinsmuir, Eureka-Red Bluff Road, 21 Jul 1916, Abrams 6156 (DS); Hobo Gulch Camp, North Fork Trinity River, 18 miles NW of Weaverville (T36N, R12W, Sec. 25), 945 m, 16 Jun 1971, Carter 234 (CAS); between Eagle and Bear Creeks, 25 Jun 1937, Eastwood & Howell 4966 (CAS, GH); Salmon Mountains, Coffee Creek, 1310 m, 1 Jul 1909, Hall 8631 (UC, US); One Eye Flat, about 1.7 miles N of Carrville, Trinity River Canyon, 756 m, 20 May 1980, Howell et al. 53504 (CAS); Dedrick, 8 miles below Dedrick, 670 m, 15 May 1949, Munz 13241 (CAS, RSA); Asbestos Gulch, on Forest Rd. 25 W of Castella, 2 mi W of Forest Rd. 26 to Mt. Shasta (city), 1512 m, 14 Jun 1994, Oswald 6292 (JEPS); South Fork Mountain, near summit on road to low gap of Mad River, Northern Coast Ranges, 1219 m, 1 Jul 1923, Tracy 6515 (UC); New River, bluffs at mouth, 426 m, 27 Apr 1924, Tracy 6657 (UC); White’s Creek, at head of White’s Creek, Devil’s Canyon Mountains, 2073 m, 5 Aug 1935, Tracy 14576 (UC); Trinity Summit, 2 mi E of Grove’s Prairie, 1524 m, 8 Aug 1936, Tracy 15132 (JEPS, UC); Van Duzen River, halfway between Kuntz and Hettenshaw, 975 m, 3 Jul 1942, Tracy 17399 (UC); Mad River, 5 8/10 mile above Eureka, Red Bluff Road on road to Ruth, 457 m, 20 Jun 1937, Wolf 8924 (DS, RSA); NE of Weaverville, 853 m, 19 May 1914, Yates 317 (CAS, UC); Tulare County: Sequoia National Park, Moro Creek Road above Hospital Rock Camp, 1067 m, 7 Jul 1948, Bailey & Bailey 2028 (UC); Bear Peak, Southern Sierra Nevada region Chimney Peak Recreation Area, summit of northern high point on Bear Mountain, 2509 m, 27 Jun 2003, Boyd et al. 10537 (RSA); Government Hill, Giant Forest, Sequoia National Forest, 1981 m, 22 Jun 1940, Cronquist 2076 (MO); Sequoia National Park, S side of Elizabeth Pass, Kaweah River drainage, Sierra Nevada, 3201 m, Aug 1963, Grannell 2236 (POM); Kern Plateau, canyon of Poison Meadow Creek on Cherry Hill Road, 2195 m, 13 Jul 1966, Howell & True 41890 (CAS); Kern Plateau, on Dome Lands Trail about 0.5 miles S of Church Dome, 2317 m, 15 Jul 1971, Howell & True 48526 (CAS); Slate Mountain, S slopes, above Windy Gap, 2134 m, 28 Jul 1972, Leskinen 1002 (CAS); Tulare County, Sequoia National Park, Soda Creek on Middle Tule River, 2134 m, Jun 1896, Purpus 1820 (UC); Sequoia National Forest, along N fork of Middle fork of Tule River, 2.4 miles up Camp Wishon road from power plant, 1158 m, 7 Jun 1967, Thorne & Everett 36937 (RSA); Kern Plateau, Troy Meadow road on the ridge above Beach Meadow, 2408 m, 26 Jun 1968, Twisselmann 14489 (CAS, MO, RSA); Kings Canyon National Park, General Grant Grove, 26 May 1935, Woglum 1096 (RSA); Tule River, North fork of Tule River, 3.6 mi N of Springville, 396 m, 13 May 1933, Wolf 4648 (A, CAS, RSA); Grapevine Spring, 35 m E of Visalia, head of the San Joaquin Valley, Mar 1898, Woolsey s.n. (UC); Tuolumne County: Jamestown, 1 mile W of town, 1 Apr 1923, Abrams 10023 (DS); 4 mi E of Sonora, Sierra Nevada, 29 May 1944, Alexander & Kellogg 3585 (JEPS, RSA, UC); Phoenix Lake, E side of lake 5 miles SE of Columbia, 13 May 1915, Grant 51 (MO, POM); Kennedy Meadow, near Kenndey Lake, 3 Sep 1915, Grant 452 (JEPS, MO, POM); Sonora Pass Road, 10.7 mi E of Pine Crest, 1829 m, 19 Jul 1957, Hesse 2292 (JEPS); Stanislaus National Forest, 0.5 mi E of Mt. Lewis, 1524 m, 27 May 1925, Hough 13 (CAS); Columbia, northeast of Columbia on road to Vallecito, 3 May 1960, Howell 35273 (CAS); Yosemite National Park, W of Vernon Lake, SW end of Moraine Ridge, Sierra Nevada, 2286 m, 24 Jul 1938, Mason 11985 (CAS, UC); 2.4 mi ESE of Don Pedro Bar, Sonora quadrangle Sec. 29, T2S, R15E, 396 m, 26 Mar 1936, Nordstrom 643 (UC); Dodge Ridge, near Pinecrest, 1859 m, 22 Jul 1952, Quick 52-217 (CAS); Red Hills, BLM Management area, 3.6 miles SW of Chinese Camp, 457 m, 31 May 1984, Stone 615 (CAS); Stanislaus National Forest, Sugarpine on Hwy 108, ca. 12 air miles NE of Sonora, 1341 m, 27 Aug 1997, Taylor 16195 (JEPS); Chipmunk Flats, about 5 mi W of Sonora Pass, 6 Jul 1935, Wiggins 8052 (DS, RSA, UC); Penon Blanco mine, near mine above Indian Creek, 365 m, 27 Apr 1919, Williamson 14 (A, CAS, DS, POM, UC); Ventura County: Red Reef Canyon, Topa Topa Mountains, 853 m, 8 Jun 1908, Abrams & McGregor 154 (DS, E, US); Topa Topa Mountains, Transverse Ranges, Mount Pinos region east of Sespe Canyon near upper end of Tar Creek Road (and trail), 11 May 2004, Boyd & Morgan 11174 (RSA, UC); Sespe Creek, Transverse Ranges, Mount Pinos region, 1000 m, 2 May 1935, Clokey & Anderson 6882 (CAS, DS, MO, POM, UC, US); 2 mi S of Chuchupate Forest Station on raod 8N04 to Frazier Mountain, 1509 m, 22 Jun 1975, Davidson 2822 (RSA); Casitas Lake, Santa Ynez Mountains N of Ventura, Lake Casitas (Matilija 7.5’ Q), 182 m, 5 Mar 1968, Goeden & Ricker s.n. (RSA); Simi Valley, Transverse Ranges: Santa Susana Mts. region, north side of mountain, 28 Apr 1948, Goodfellow s.n. (RSA); Transverse Ranges, Mt. Pinos region, Piru Creek adjacent to Highway 126, 5 May 1992, Kegarice 9 (RSA); Wheeler Hot Springs, Ojai Valley, coast, 304 m, 11 Apr 1936, Livers 94 (POM); Los Padres National Forest, 12 mi S of California Route 166, on state route 33, 945 m, 27 May 1993, Miller et al. 7974 (MO); ca. 1 mi. west of Ventura River estuary, 30 Mar 1967, Pollard s.n. (RSA); Foster Park, N face of Red Mountain, Foster Park, 152 m, 22 Apr 1971, Pollard s.n. (CAS, JEPS, RSA); Conejo Mountain, Santa Monica Mountains region, 168 m, 10 May 1959, Raven & Thompson 14188 (CAS, GH, RSA); Santa Susana Mtns., Western Transverse Range,Newhall Ranch, west side of Salt Canyon watershed, toward Tapo Canyon, 1.2 km west of Los Angeles Co. line, 351 m, 14 May 2003, Sanders & Wotipka 26640 (RSA); Apache Canyon, Santa Barbara National Forest, 1219 m, 11 Apr 1934, Sowder 371 (UC); Cuyama Road near the Ventura Co. line, 29 Apr 1939, Stubblefield s.n. (RSA); Santa Monica Mountains, lower end of long Grade Canyon ca. 0.5 mi E of Camarillo State Hospital, 8 Jun 1968, Thorne & Thorne 37726 (RSA); Moorpark, foothills of “Big Mountain” northeast of Moorpark College, 213 m, 23 Apr 2003, White et al. 9088 (RSA); Santa Ynez Mountains, Ojai to Cuyama Valley Road, North Fork of Ventura River, 2.2 miles below Wheelers Hot Springs, 366 m, 21 May 1935, Wolf 6885 (CAS, DS, MO, RSA); Point Mugu, 4 Jun 1977, Zembal s.n. (RSA); Yolo County: Cache Creek Canyon, 8 May 1903, Baker 2890 (B, ECON, F, GH, K, LE, MO, POM, UC, US); Rumsey, 5 air mi WSW of Rumsey, Rayhouse Road 4.3 mi from Hwy 16, E side of ridge between Blue Ridge and Little Blue Ridge, 0.4 mi below crest at large roadcut, 731 m, 28 May 1989, Ertter & Carter 8533 (MO, RSA, UC); Putah Canyon, 3.5 miles W of Winters, 5 May 1949, Hanson 14 (RSA); Rumsey, about 1 mi N of Rumsey (NW of Highway 16), 10 Apr 1947, Heiser 1902 (UC); Putah Canyon, 2 mi below Yolo-Napa County line, S slope of Putah Canyon, 6 Jun 1948, Skoss 28 (UC); Buckeye Creek, mouth of creek, 1 Jun 1916, Stinchfield 342 (DS). Nevada: Carson City, 1865, Anderson s.n. (GH); Douglas County: Minden Highway to Woodford’s near state line, 6 Jun 1937, Lehenbauer 37 (GH); Taylor Canyon, Sierra Nevada, Carson range, 1.2 road miles NW of Jack’s Valley Road on highway 207 (Kingsbury Grade), 1524 m, 19 Jun 2002, Tiehm 14027 (CAS, RSA); Washoe County: Highway 395 between Reno and Carson City, 22 Jun 1954, Kruckenberg 3324 (DS, RSA); Davis Creek Campground, ca. 1 mi W of highway 395, ca. 12 mi N of Carson City, 2 Jul 1979, Taylor 2090 (CAS, MO); Oregon: Curry County: Solitude Bar, 26 Jun 1917, Nelson 1530 (GH); Jackson County: Siskiyou Camp, along the Pacific Highway, N slope of Siskiyou Mtns, 11 Jun 1928, Applegate 5451 (DS); Ragsdale Butte Lookout, ca. 12 mi NW of Trail, 1371 m, 29 Jun 1939, Hitchcock & Martin 5044 (DS, GH, POM, UC); Siskiyou Summit, 1280 m, 23 Jun 1929, Kildale 8308 (DS); Union Creek, Golden Star Trail, 22 Jun 1928, Sipe s.n. (MO); Josephine County: Grant’s Pass, 5 miles N on Pacific Highway, 12 May 1924, Abrams & Benson 10417 (DS); Merlin, 14 May 1887, Henderson 1379 (MO); Rogue River, near bridge on road to Galice, 18 Apr 1926, Henderson 6050 (CAS, DS, MO); Jump-Off-Joe, May 1884, Howell s.n. (GH); Grave Creek, 21 May 1884, Howell s.n. (K, S); Bolan Lake, ridge 2.5 miles W of lake, road between Waldo and Bolan Lake; Siskiyou Mtns, 1371 m, 23 Jun 1950, Kruckenberg 1917 (CAS, S); Kerby, 13 Jun 1904, Piper 6101 (K, US); Grant’s Pass, 8 Jun 1912, Prescott s.n. (GH). Washington: Lake County: Mt. Konocti, W slope above Breen’s Lake, 13 Jul 1929, Benson 1777 (K, POM).

Taxon Treatment

  • Knapp, S; 2013: A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) PhytoKeys, 22: 1-432. doi

Other References

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Parish S (1901) A group of western American solanums. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, series 3, 2: 159–172.
  3. Moat J (2007) Conservation assessment tools extension for ArcView 3.x, version 1.2. GIS Unit, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available at
  4. Buchmann S, Jones C, Colin L (1977) Vibratile pollination of Solanum douglasii and Solanum xanti (Solanaceae) in southern California. Wasmann Journal of Biology 35: 1-25.
  5. George M (2011) The morphing of the blue witch: exploring the morphological plasticity of the hypervariable Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch. using genetic and multivariate analysis (Solanaceae, Solanum L.). MSc thesis, Imperial College, London.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Heller A (1906) Solanaceae In: Botanical exploration in California: Season of 1905. Muhlenbergia 2: 133-134.