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This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Knapp S (2013) A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 22 : 1–432, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-05-10, version 34490, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Knapp, Sandra},
journal = {PhytoKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)},
year = {2013},
volume = {22},
issue = {},
pages = {1--432},
doi = {10.3897/phytokeys.22.4041},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-05-10, version 34490, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)
A1 - Knapp S
Y1 - 2013
JF - PhytoKeys
JA -
VL - 22
IS -
UR -
SP - 1
EP - 432
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-05-10, version 34490, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/phytokeys.22.4041

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Knapp2013PhytoKeys22">{{Citation
| author = Knapp S
| title = A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)
| journal = PhytoKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 22
| issue =
| pages = 1--432
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/phytokeys.22.4041
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2022-05-16

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-05-10, version 34490, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Solanales
Familia: Solanaceae


Solanum L., Sp. pl. 184. 1753.Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Lectotype species

designated by Henderson 1974[1]: Solanum nigrum L. [I accept here the generic synonymy of D’Arcy (1972[2], 1974) with the addition of Amatula Moench, Cyphomandra Sendtn., Lycopersicon Mill., Normania Lowe, and Triguera Cav.].


Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines, with or without prickles, glabrous or pubescent with unbranched or branched (including stellate), often glandular hairs. Leaves alternate or paired and frequently unequal in size, simple to pinnately lobed or compound, petiolate or sessile, without stipules, but sometimes with “pseudostipules” (Potato clade). Inflorescences cymose, branched or unbranched. Flowers usually perfect, (4-) 5-merous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx campanulate, sometimes accrescent in fruit, corolla rotate, campanulate, stellate, or urceolate, white, green, yellow, pink, or purple; stamens equal or unequal, the filaments generally short and inserted at the corolla base, the anthers basifixed, equal or unequal, blunt or tapered toward apex, opening by terminal pores, these sometimes expanding into longitudinal slits, or introrsely longitudinally dehiscent with age in sect. Lycopersicon; ovary 2-carpellate; ovules many; style articulated at base or above the base, usually slender; stigma capitate to elongate-clavate. Fruit a berry, usually fleshy but occasionally dry, usually many-seeded, the seeds often flattened; embryo curved, embedded in abundant endosperm. Chromosome number: n = 12, 23, 24, 48.


The generic description applies to Solanum including all those genera traditionally segregated from it: Cyphomandra (Bohs 1995), Lycopersicon (Spooner et al. 1993[3]; Peralta et al. 2008[4]), Normania, and Triguera (Bohs and Olmstead 2001[5]). Data from chloroplast DNA sequences strongly support the inclusion of these segregates in a monophyletic Solanum (Bohs 2005[6]). Some workers (e.g., Hunziker 2001[7]) maintain these taxa as distinct genera.

Taxon Treatment

  • Knapp, S; 2013: A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) PhytoKeys, 22: 1-432. doi

Other References

  1. Henderson R (1974) Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) and related species in Australia. Contributions from the Queensland Herbarium 16: 1-78.
  2. D’Arcy W (1972) Solanaceae studies II: Typification of subdivisions of Solanum. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 59: 262-278. doi: 10.2307/2394758
  3. Spooner D, Anderson G, Jansen R (1993) Chloroplast DNA evidence for the interrealtionships of tomatoes, potatoes, and pepinos (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany 80: 676-688.
  4. Peralta I, Spooner D, Knapp S (2008) Taxonomy of wild tomatoes and their relatives (Solanum sections Lycopersicoides, Juglandifolia, Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). Systematic Botany Monographs 84: 1-186.
  5. Bohs L, Olmstead R (2001) A reassessment of Normania and Triguera (Solanaceae). Pland Systematics and Evolution 228: 33-48. doi: 10.1007/s006060170035
  6. Bohs L (2005) Major clades in Solanum based on ndhF sequences. In: Keating R Hollowell V Croat T (Eds). A festschrift for William G. D’Arcy: the legacy of a taxonomist, Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 104. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis: 27-49.
  7. Hunziker A (2001) Genera Solanacearum, the genera of Solanaceae illustrated, arranged according to a new system. ARG Gantner Verlag, Ruggell, Liechtenstein,