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Solano chimborazensi Bitter primo adspectu maxime similis sed floribus maioribus et pilis e filamentis abaxialiter plerumque carentibus differt.
PERU: Cajamarca: Prov. Contumazá, Bosque de Cachil, 2500 m, 28 Jun 1992 (fl), A. Sagástegui A. et al. 14710 (holotype: HUT  (photo); isotypes: F  (photo), GB , NY [NY00726434]).
Vine, trailing along ground or climbing on other vegetation to 3 m or more, rooting at the nodes. Stems slender, woody, moderately to densely covered with crisped transparent to tawny pubescence of unbranched, eglandular, multicellular trichomes. Sympodial units plurifoliate, not geminate. Leaves simple to 7-pinnate, most commonly 3–5-pinnate, the blades 0.8–12 × 0.5–8 cm, chartaceous, moderately to densely pubescent adaxially and abaxially, sand punctate abaxially, the rachis densely pubescent, the margins entire to irregularly revolute resulting in somewhat undulate margins, the leaflets decreasing markedly in size toward the base of the leaf, the distal leaflet of the lowermost pair typically smaller than its match or completely absent; interjected leaflets absent; lateral leaflets 0.3–3.5 × 0.2–1.5 cm, ovate to elliptic, the bases rounded to truncate, oblique, the apices obtuse to acute, the petiolules nearly lacking to 2 mm long, moderately to densely pubescent; apical leaflet 1.2–8(–9.5) × 0.7–3(–4) cm, ovate to elliptic to oblong, the apex obtuse to acute to acuminate, the base obtuse to truncate to cordate, the petiolules nearly lacking to 7 mm long, moderately to densely pubescent; petioles 0.1–2.5(–4.5) cm, moderately to densely pubescent. Pseudostipules present at most nodes, one per node, 0.5–1.5 × 0.4–0.8 cm, obliquely ovate to elliptic, sometimes lunate, the apices obtuse to acute, the bases sometimes strongly lobed, oblique. Inflorescence 1.5–3.5 × 1–3 cm, extra-axillary on main stems or terminal on short, axillary spur shoots, simple to sometimes once branched in the extra-axillary inflorescences, with 1–8 flowers (1–3 on spur shoots [mean= 1.9], 3–8 on main stems [mean = 4.6]), with all flowers apparently perfect, the axes densely pubescent; peduncle 0.5–1 cm long; rachis nearly lacking to 1.5 cm; pedicels 7–15 mm in flower, 10–20 mm in fruit, somewhat expanded distally in flower and fruit, spaced contiguously to 6 mm apart, articulated at the base. Spur shoots 0.5–3.5(–8) cm long, bracteate, with 2–8 bracts per shoot, the bracts similar in shape to the cauline leaves, simple to occasionally 3–5-pinnate, 1–15 mm long, with minute pseudostipules. Calyx 4–5 mm long, the tube 1–2.5 mm long, the lobes 2.5–3.5 × ca. 1.5 mm, ovate-lanceolate to oblong, acute at tips, moderately pubescent, sand punctate; fruiting calyx slightly accrescent, the lobes 4–4.5 × 1.5–2 mm, ovate-lanceolate to oblong. Corolla 0.8–1.5 cm in diameter, 2–6 mm long, pentagonal, white to violet, sometimes with yellow at tips or along the midveins of lobes, flat to strongly reflexed at anthesis, the lobes 1.5–5 × 3–5 mm, acute at apices, glabrous adaxially, moderately to densely pubescent abaxially along midvein of lobes, the trichomes becoming shorter toward the densely pubescent apices of the corolla lobes, the margins densely ciliate apically. Stamens equal, with filaments 0.5–1.5 mm long, nearly free to fused for about ½ their lengths, somewhat broadly flattened, nearly glabrous abaxially, densely pubescent adaxially and on margins; anthers 3–4.5 × 1–1.2 mm, oblong, incurved, connivent, yellow, the pores large, directed distally, opening into latrorse-introrse longitudinal slits with age. Ovary glabrous to sparsely pubescent; style 5–7 × 0.1–0.2 mm, exceeding stamens by 1.5–5 mm, cylindrical, glabrous to papillose in lower ½ to sparsely pubescent with long trichomes in the middle or in the lower ½; stigma capitate. Fruits 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 cm, ellipsoidal, rounded to very slightly obtusely pointed at apex, green with darker mottled striping when immature, orange when mature, glabrous to sparsely pubescent when young. Seeds 3–4.2 × 2–4 mm, flattened, lenticular, rounded to teardrop-shaped, with a 0.2–1 mm wide wing around the margins, the thickened part of the seed 1.8–2.2 × 1.5–2 mm, rounded to reniform, light to medium brown, the surface smooth, the wing yellowish-tan to transparent near the margins, with radial striations.
Distribution and ecology
Solanum baretiae is apparently endemic to the Amotape-Huancabamba zone of southern Ecuador and northern Peru and grows in the understory of montane forests and disturbed roadside and pasture vegetation, 1900–3000 m in elevation. The areas where Solanum baretiae has been collected are seasonally dry.
Flowering specimens have been collected from Jun–Aug and Oct; fruiting specimens have been collected in May–Jun.
Solanum baretiae is named in honor of the botanist Jeanne Baret, the first woman to circumnavigate the earth (see below).
Preliminary conservation status
According to the IUCN Red List Categories (IUCN 2011), Solanum baretiae is classified as Data Deficient (DD). Although Solanum baretiae occurs over a broad geographic range (> 60,000 km2), it has been collected at fewer than 10 localities (localities within a few kilometers of each other have been grouped for this assessment) and from a narrow elevational band within its range. The relatively small number of collections of this species suggests that it is rare in the habitats where it occurs. Furthermore, these localities are near expanding population centers and habitats in these areas are highly fragmented and degraded. Nevertheless, Solanum baretiae seems to be well suited to habitat change caused by human activities, since EJT and LB observed thriving populations along roadsides and among shrubs between the town of Guzmango (Dept. Cajamarca, Peru) and the cultivated and pasture lands that surround the town. Further data regarding the distribution and abundance of Solanum baretiae are needed before we can make a more solid assessment of its conservation status.
ECUADOR. Loja: 15 km S of Yangana, 4°25.43'S, 79°8.78'W, 2450 m, 31 Jul 2011 (fl), E.J. Tepe and M. McCarthy 3346 (BM, MU, NY, QCNE, UT); Gualel, 3°43.5'S, 79°23.0'W, 2900 m, 10 Jun 1995 (fl, fr), V. van den Eynden & E. Cueva 433 (NY). PERU. Cajamarca: Prov. Contumazá, Guzmango, 7°23.12'S, 78°53.73'W, 2600 m, 6 Jun 2010 (fr), L. Bohs et al. 3735 (photos only); Prov. San Miguel, Miravalles Alto, Bolívar, 2600 m, 25 Aug 1991 (fl), Solanum Llatas Quiroz 3021 (NY); Prov. Contumazá, alrededores de Guzmango, 2600 m, 27 Jul 1973 (fl), A. Sagástegui A. 7711 (HUT, NY); Prov. Cajamarca, Namora–Matra, 2600 m, 16 Aug 1973 (fl), A. Sagástegui A. 7751 (NY); Prov. San Miguel, entre Calquis y Llapa, 2400 m, 13 May 1977, A. Sagástegui A. et al. 8863 (HUT, MO, NY); Prov. Contumazá, Contumazá–Ascabamba, 2700 m, 12 Jun 1981 (fl), A. Sagástegui A. et al. 9991 (MO, NY); Prov. Contumazá, Santiago, 2450 m, 13 Jun 1983 (fl), A. Sagástegui A. & S. López 10606 (BM, F, MO, NY); Prov. Contumazá, entrada al Bosque Cachil, 2500 m, 29 Jul 1993 (fl), A. Sagástegui A. et al. 14982 (HUT, MO, NY); Prov. Contumazá, Bosque Cachil, 7°24.38'S, 78°46.88'W, 2500 m, 17 Oct 2010 (st), E.J. Tepe et al. 2882 (HAO, USM, UT); Prov. Contumazá, ca. 5 km S of tunnel on Contumazá–Bosque Cachil road, , 2625 m, 17 Oct 2010 (st), E.J. Tepe et al. 2884 (HAO, USM, UT); Prov. Contumazá, ca. 5 km S of tunnel on Contumazá–Bosque Cachil road, 7°24.33'S, 78°46.88'W, 2625 m, 17 Oct 2010 (fl), E.J. Tepe et al. 2885 (BM, HAO, NY, PLAT, USM, UT); Prov. Contumazá, Contumazá–Guzmango road, 7°22.62'S, 78°53.63'W, 2850 m, 18 Oct 2010 (fl), E.J. Tepe et al. 2886 (BM, HAO, NY, PLAT, USM, UT); Prov. Contumazá, Guzmango, 7°23.12'S, 78°53.73'W, 2600 m, 18 Oct 2010 (fl, fr), E.J. Tepe et al. 2888 (BM, CINC, HAO, NY, USM, UT). Lambayeque: Prov. Ferreñafe, Bosque de Chiñama, 2300–2700 m, 15 Aug 1988 (fl), A. Cano 2125 (NY); Prov. Lambayeque, Abra la Porculla, road from Olmos–Pucará, km 45 E of Olmos, 1920 m, 13 Jul 1986 (fl), T. Plowman et al. 14284 (NY). La Libertad: Prov. Otuzco: abajo de Shitahoura (oeste de Salpo), 3000 m, 11 Jun 1992 (fl), Solanum Leiva & P. Leiva 582 (NY); Prov. Otuzco: alrededores de San Andrés, 2560 m, 1 Jul 1992 (fl), Solanum Leiva & J. Ullilen 646 (MO).
Solanum baretiae is a striking species with its relatively large, pentagonal corollas in shades of violet, yellow, or white (Fig. 2B), and its soft-pubescent leaves that range from simple to 7-foliolate. Specimens of Solanum baretiae have been previously identified as the Ecuadorian Solanum chimborazense Bitter, from which it differs by its larger corollas (0.8–1.5 cm in Solanum baretiae vs. < 1 cm in diameter in Solanum chimborazense), styles that are papillose or only sparsely pubescent (vs. densely pubescent with long trichomes in Solanum chimborazense), more flowers per inflorescence (1–8 in Solanum baretiae vs. mostly 1, but up to 3 in Solanum chimborazense), and filaments that are pubescent adaxially, but glabrous abaxially (vs. evenly pubescent on all surfaces in Solanum chimborazense). Solanum baretiae is sympatric with the exceedingly rare Solanum chachapoyasense Bitter but the latter species has stellate corollas (vs. pentagonal in Solanum baretiae), long filaments (3–3.5 mm in Solanum chachapoyasense vs. 0.5–1.5 mm in Solanum baretiae), and strictly simple leaves (vs. simple to 7-foliolate in Solanum baretiae). Solanum baretiae is also sympatric with several species of Solanum section Basarthrum (Bitter) Bitter, which can be scandent shrubs with compound leaves and somewhat similar flowers. These species, however, can easily be differentiated by the distinctive two-celled “bayonet” trichomes that characterize Solanum section Basarthrum (Seithe and Anderson 1982).
The Andean species of Solanum sect. Anarrhichomenum are typically found in mid- to high-elevation cloud forest habitats that are moist throughout the year. Solanum baretiae appears to be an exception to this rule, however, as it occurs in forests and disturbed areas on the western slopes of the Andes which, in the latitudes of the Huancabamba-Amotape zone, experience a marked dry season.
As mentioned above, the number of leaflets in this species is highly variable, with the leaves ranging from simple to compound with seven leaflets. Seedlings and young vegetative shoots typically have compound leaves with five leaflets, whereas the number of leaflets on fertile shoots is much more variable. In general, the number of leaflets, along with the size of the lateral leaflets, decreases along the length of fertile shoots, and the leaves in the proximity of the flowers and fruits are, in many cases, simple or have only one or two tiny lateral leaflets. The number of leaflets is variable in many species of Solanum sect. Anarrhichomenum, but the range of variability seen in Solanum baretiae is shared only with that of Solanum sodiroi Bitter (Anderson et al. 1999).
This species in named in honor of Jeanne Baret (1740–1807), an unwitting explorer who risked life and limb for love of botany and, in doing so, became the first woman to circumnavigate the world (Ridley 2010).
Jeanne Baret sailed on the ship L’Étoile in 1766 and embarked on the first French circumnavigation of the globe under the command of Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729–1811) as assistant to the botanist Philibert Commerson (1727–1773). Since French naval regulations prohibited women being on board ship, Baret disguised herself as a man to join the expedition, and continued to wear men’s clothes during her time on the ship. Baret was Commerson’s lover, but was also an accomplished botanist in her own right and evidence suggests that she made some of the expedition’s most notable collections, including the showiest, most enduring botanical specimen from the expedition: the vine that would be named in honor of its commander, Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss.
Commerson and Baret (though uncredited) amassed over six thousand specimens that are incorporated into the French National Herbarium at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. In the course of the expedition and the years after its successful completion, over seventy species would be named in honor of Commerson using the specific epithet commersonii. Expedition records show that Commerson was frequently unable to collect specimens in the field because of his health issues (Vivès 1766-1769) and, at these times, Baret took the part of the expedition’s chief botanist. Yet, today, despite the important role she played, not a single species is named after her. Commerson’s notes reveal that he intended to name a Malagasy genus Baretia (MS 887 of the Commerson archive in the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle), but it was never published (the species concerned are now placed in Turraea of the Meliaceae). The fact that individual plants of this genus that Commerson collected with Baret have leaves that are highly variable in shape perhaps struck him as a neat reflection of the multi-faceted companion who united seemingly contradictory qualities (Monnier et al. 1993): a woman dressed as a man, a female botanist in a male-dominated field, and a working class woman who had traveled farther than most aristocrats. Given the importance of her work and the singular nature of her achievements, Baret has clearly made a sufficient contribution to the field to deserve a species named after her. Following Commerson’s example, we believe that this new species of Solanum,with its highly variable leaves, is a fitting tribute to Baret.
- Tepe, E; Ridley, G; Bohs, L; 2012: A new species of Solanum named for Jeanne Baret, an overlooked contributor to the history of botany PhytoKeys, 8: 37-47. doi
- IUCN Standards and Petitions S (2011) Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 9.0. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Downloadable from http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf. [accessed 31 Oct 2011].
- Seithe A, Anderson G (1982) Hair morphology and the relationships of species in Solanum sect. Basarthrum. Plant Systematics and Evolution 139: 229-256. doi: 10.1007/BF00989327
- Anderson G, Bernardello G, Schlehofer M (1999) Continuous variation among three species of Solanum sect. Anarrhichomenum (Solanaceae): the synonymy of Solanum carchiense and Solanum tetrapetalum with Solanum sodiroi. Kurtziana 27: 233-242.
- Ridley G (2010) The discovery of Jeanne Baret: a story of science, the high seas, and the first woman to circumnavigate the globe. Crown Publishers, New York, 1–288.
- Vivès F (1766–1769) Journal of François Vivès (Manuscript B). Bibliothèque municipale de Versailles, Lebaudy In-4˚ 126, 1–60.
- Monnier J, Jolinon J, Lavondes A, Elouard P (1993) Philibert Commerson: Le Découvreur de Bougainvillier. Association Saint-Guignefort, Châtillon-sur-Chalaronne, 105–113.