Paratenetus punctatus

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Bousquet Y, Bouchard P (2014) Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). ZooKeys 415 : 23–51, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-12, version 52536, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Bousquet, Yves AND Bouchard, Patrice},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)},
year = {2014},
volume = {415},
issue = {},
pages = {23--51},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.415.6524},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-12, version 52536, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)
A1 - Bousquet Y
A1 - Bouchard P
Y1 - 2014
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 415
IS -
UR -
SP - 23
EP - 51
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-12, version 52536, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.415.6524

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Bousquet2014ZooKeys415">{{Citation
| author = Bousquet Y, Bouchard P
| title = Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2014
| volume = 415
| issue =
| pages = 23--51
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.415.6524
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2021-10-20

}} Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-12, version 52536, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Coleoptera
Familia: Tenebrionidae
Genus: Paratenetus


Paratenetus punctatus Spinola, 1844Wikispecies linkZooBank linkPensoft Profile

  • Latridius pubescens Say, 1826: 265 [nomen dubium]. Type locality: United States (inferred from title of the paper).
  • Paratenetus punctatus Spinola, 1844: 118. Type locality: «Etats-unis de l’Amérique septentrionale» (original citation). Synonymy established by LeConte (1859[1]: 325).

Type material

Most of Say’s entomological collection has been destroyed and we are unaware that a syntype of his Latridius pubescens survived. LeConte (1859[1]: 325) based his interpretation of Say’s species on the original description. For nomenclatural stability, we believe it is best to consider Latridius pubescens Say as a nomen dubium and retain the long accepted name Paratenetus punctatus Spinola for this species.
Spinola (1844[2]: 119) indicated that he had three specimens of Paratenetus punctatus which came from Dejean’s collection. These specimens were received for study from the Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali in Turin (MRSN). The first specimen, probably a female, is labeled “Paratenetus punctatus Ekis 1974 [handwritten]”; the second, a male “Paralectotype Paratenetus punctatus Spinola Ekis 74 [handwritten]”; and the third, a female “Lectotype Paratenetus punctatus (Spinola) Ekis 74 [handwritten]”. The first two specimens correspond neither to our concept of Paratenetus punctatus nor to any other North American species we have seen. The specimens are in poor condition, with almost all the setae gone, but they appear to be conspecific. Although Spinola indicated that all three of his specimens came from the United States and were provided by “Mr. [John Eatton] LeConte,” these two specimens may have originated from Mexico, Central America or South America. The third specimen, a small individual (3.2 mm), fits our concept of Paratenetus punctatus and is here selected as lectotype. The label “Lectotype Paratenetus punctatus Spinola des. Y. Bousquet 2012” has been attached to the specimen.


Many specimens of Paratenetus punctatus can be separated from the other North American species of Paratenetus by their large size (3 mm or more). The vast majority of specimens of the other species are less than 3 mm long. Otherwise, the species can be separated from Paratenetus exutus in having the antennomere 8 subquadrate, the pronotum wider clearly anterior to the midlength, the punctation on the pronotum coarser, the slanting setae on the elytra slightly longer and more erect and the protibia of the male with a calcar along ventral surface. From Paratenetus texanus, this species is best separated in having the pronotum widest anterior to the midlength and the punctures on the pronotum coarser and denser, in part subcontiguous along the lateral half.


Body dorsally uniformly pale to dark reddish brown in most specimens, with the pronotum and head slightly darker than elytra and legs in some specimens; antennal club darker than antennomeres 1–8; metaventrite not darker than first two abdominal ventrites in the vast majority of specimens, slightly darker in a few specimens. Antennomere 8 subquadrate. Pronotum with maximum width anterior of midlength (Fig. 3); punctures narrowly spaced, in part subcontiguous over lateral half. Elytra less convex than for Paratenetus gibbipennis and Paratenetus fuscus; slanting setae semierect in the vast majority of specimens, suberect in some specimens, erect setae few. Metaventrite long, length along midline longer than length of abdominal ventrite 2 along midline. Male protibia with calcar near middle along ventral surface; male mesotibia with very short, preapical spine, oriented perpendicularly or obliquely to long axis of tibia. Parameres with sides more or less parallel to very slightly convergent towards apex; apex more or less rounded (Fig. 8).
Length: 3.0–4.0 mm.


This species ranges from New Brunswick to southeastern Manitoba, south to eastern Texas, southern Mississippi, and southeastern Florida (Fig. 12).


We have seen 1215 specimens from the following localities. Canada. Manitoba. “Tp. 3, Rge. 17, E.1 Mer.” (CNC). Victoria Beach (JBWM). New Brunswick. Jackson Falls, Carleton Co. (RWC). 10 km NW New River Beach, Charlotte Co. (AFC). 12 km SSE Upper Napan, Northumberland Co. (RWC). Cranberry Lake Protected Natural Area, Queens Co. (AFC). Acadia Research Forest, Sunbury Co. (AFC, RWC). Charters Settlement, York Co. (RWC). Canterbury, York Co. (RWC). 15 km W Tracy, York Co. (RWC). 14 km WSW Tracy, York Co. (AFC). Ontario. Ottawa (CNC). Constance Bay (CMN). Flint Hill, nr Kemptville (CNC). Ad & Lennox Co. (CNC, FSC, AMNH). Pelee Island (CNC). Leamington (CNC). Hastings Co. (CNC). Walsingham (CNC). Prince Edward Co. (CNC, USNM). Point Pelee (CNC). Rondeau Prov. Pk. (CNC). Arnprior (CNC). Chaffeys Locks (CNC). Northumberland Co. (CNC). Sudbury (CNC). Hamilton (CNC). Gordon Island (St. Lawrence Is. Nat. Pk.) (CNC). 13 km W of Mattawa (CNC). Toronto (CUIC). 2–5 km W Mallorytown Landing (CMN). Quebec. Rouville (CNC). Fort Coulonge (CNC). Parc Provincial d’Oka (CNC). Berthierville (CNC). Parc de la Gatineau (CNC). Laniel (CNC). Ile-du-Grand-Calumet (Pontiac) (CNC). Rigaud (CNC). Montreal (CNC). Parc de la Yamaska (CNC). United States of America. Arkansas. Garland Co.: 3 mi W Crystal Springs (SEMC). Connecticut. Fairfield Co.: Westport (AMNH). Litchfield Co.: Litchfield (AMNH). New Haven Co.: Middlebury (USNM); Hamden (CUIC). District of Columbia. “D.Col.” (USNM). Takoma Park (USNM). Washington (USNM). Florida. “Fla” (USNM). Alachua Co.: Gainesville (FSC); Newnans Lake (RLAC). Duval Co.: Jacksonville (USNM). Escambia Co.: Pensacola (FSC). Hillsborough Co.: Tampa (USNM). Indian River Co.: south of Vero Beach (FSC). Levy Co.: 4 mi SW Archer (FSC). Marion Co.: Juniper Springs (FSC); Rainbow Springs (FSC); Ocala National Forest (CMN, FSC). Palm Beach Co.: Lake Worth (CUIC). Polk Co.: Lake Marion Creek (GMNH). Putnam Co.: 2.5 mi NE Florahome (FSC); Crescent City (USNM); Welaka Exp. Sta. (DENH, LSAM). Saint Johns Co.: St. Augustine (MCZ). Santa Rosa Co.: 4 mi N Munson (LSAM). Seminole Co.: Lake Mary (MCZ). Volusia Co.: South Daytona (CNC); Daytona (USNM). Georgia. Charlton Co.: 2.8 mi N Saint George (FSC). Johnson Co.: 1 mi E Kite (FSC); Suwanee Canal Rec. Area (FSC). Montgomery Co.: 5 mi W Uvalda (GMNH). Rabun Co. (MCZ); Clayton (MCZ). Tattnall Co. (FSC). Union Co.: “Herbert Reece Park” (GMNH). Illinois. Knox Co.: Galesburgh (MCZ). Macon Co. (FSC). Indiana. Allen Co.: “Schoaf Park” (USNM). Howard Co.: “NW Howard Co.” (LSAM). Jasper Co.: Jasper/Pulaski St. Forest (USNM). LaPorte Co.: Michigan City (USNM). Monroe Co.: Bloomington (FSC, USNM). Porter Co.: Dunes St. Pk. (RLAC). Tippecanoe Co. (CUIC, USNM, AMNH); “McCormick Woods” (USNM). Iowa. “Iowa” (USNM). Johnson Co.: Iowa City (USNM). Polk Co.: “Brown WDS Psv” (CUIC); W. Saylorville Lake (CUIC, USNM). Kansas. “Kans” (USNM). Cherokee Co.: 2 mi S Galena (SEMC). Crawford Co.: Pittsburg (SEMC); 2 mi W Pittsburg (SEMC). Douglas Co.: 2 mi NW of Baldwin (SEMC). Jackson Co.: 6.5 km W Mayetta (SEMC). Jefferson Co.: 1 km SW Perry State Park (SEMC). Johnson Co.: Overland Park Arboretum (SEMC). Labette Co.: Big Hill Reservoir (SEMC). Neosho Co.: 2 mi SE Erie (SEMC). Sedgwick Co.: 0.5 mi S of Derby (SEMC). Shawnee Co.: S of intersection Woodring Rd & 69th St (SEMC). Kentucky. “Ky” (USNM). Marshall Co. (FSC). Louisiana. Caddo Parish: Jacobs Nature Park (LSAM). Claiborne Parish: Corney Lake (CNC). East Feliciana Parish: Idlewild Exp. Station (LSAM). Livingston Parish: Livingston (LSAM). Natchitoches Parish: Kisatchie Nat. For. (LSAM). West Feliciana Parish: Saint Francisville (CMN); Tunica Hills, 0.5 mi W Weyanoke (LSAM). Maine. Androscoggin Co.: Wales (MCZ). Cumberland Co.: Casco (CUIC). Franklin Co.: Dead River (USNM); Farmington (USNM). Kennebec Co.: Augusta (DENH); Monmouth (MCZ). Oxford Co.: Rumford (USNM); Bethel (AMNH). Penobscot Co.: Lee (DENH); Passadumkeag (CUIC). Piscataquis Co.: Greenville (USNM). Washington Co.: Beddington (USNM). York Co.: West Lebanon (DENH). Maryland. Allegany Co.: Piclic Ridge, 5 km SE Pratt (USNM); Fifteen Mile Creek (RLAC). Anne Arundel Co.: 8 km ESE Laurel (USNM); 6 km ESE Laurel (USNM); Edgewater (USNM); 6 km S Edgewater (USNM); 3 km WSW Bristol at Jug Bay (USNM); Odenton (CUIC, USNM). Baltimore Co.: 4 km SW Cockeysville (USNM); Catonsville (USNM). Calvert Co.: Plum Point (USNM). Carroll Co.: Eldersburgh (USNM). Cecil Co.: Pleasant Hill (USNM); Port Deposit (USNM). Frederick Co.: 2 mi W Thurmont (USNM). Garrett Co.: Rock Lodge, 4 km SW Bittinger (USNM); 7 mi N Oakland (USNM). Montgomery Co.: Kensington (USNM); Potomac (USNM); Rockville (USNM); Plummers Island (USNM); Great Falls (USNM); Hughes Hollow area, 5 km W Seneca (USNM). Prince Georges Co.: Cheverly (USNM); Bladensburg (USNM); Takoma Park (USNM); Laurel (USNM); Priest Bridge (USNM); Oxon Hill (USNM); Beltsville (USNM); Greenbelt (Park) (USNM); Bowie (USNM). Somerset Co.: Shelltown (USNM). Talbot Co.: 3 km SE Easton (USNM); Wittman (USNM); McDaniel (USNM). Worcester Co.: Assateague Island (USNM). Massachusetts. Barnstable Co.: Cape Cod (CNC). Bristol Co.: Dartmouth (MCZ). Essex Co.: Nahant (MCZ). Hampden Co.: Springfield (USNM). Middlesex Co.: Lincoln (MCZ); Sherborn (MCZ); Framingham (MCZ); Hopkinton (MCZ); Tyngsboro (MCZ); Natick (MCZ); Cambridge (MCZ). Norfolk Co.: Brookline (MCZ). Plymouth Co.: Marion (USNM). Suffolk Co.: Boston (MCZ); Jamaica Plain (CUIC). Michigan. Shiawassee Co.: Rose Lake Wldlf. Exp. Station (USNM). Wayne Co.: Detroit (USNM). Minnesota. Hennepin Co.: Minneapolis (CNC). Houston Co.: Winnebago Cr. Vy., 3–4 m NE Eitzen (USNM). Saint Louis Co.: Duluth (MCZ). Mississippi. George Co.: Lucedale (CUIC). Greene Co.: Leakesville (CUIC). Lauderdale Co.: Marion (MCZ). Missouri. Barry Co.: Mark Twain Nat. For. (FSC). Boone Co.: Ashland Wildlife Ar. (TAMU). Clay Co.: Cooley Lake (FSC). Greene Co.: near James River (TAMU). Jackson Co.: Raytown (FSC). Oregon Co.: Mark Twain Nat. For. (FSC). Randolph Co.: 1 mi E Moberly (TAMU). New Hampshire. “N.H.” (USNM). Coos Co.: Gorham (CNC); Mt. Washington (DENH, MCZ, AMNH). Grafton Co.: Mt. Moosilauke (MCZ); Bedell Bridge St. Pk. (DENH); Bath (DENH). Hillsborough Co.: Antrim (MCZ). Merrimack Co.: Concord (DENH). Strafford Co.: 1 mi SW Durham (DENH); Dover (DENH). New Jersey. “N.J.” (AMNH). Atlantic Co.: Buena (MCZ). Bergen Co.: Fort Lee (AMNH). Burlington Co.: Wharton State Forest (TAMU); Pemberton (USNM); 7 mi E Batsto (USNM). Cumberland Co.: Rutgers Exp. Sta. (USNM). Essex Co.: South Orange (MCZ); Eagle Rock (USNM); Montclair (USNM). Gloucester Co.: Malaga (USNM). Monmouth Co.: Highlands (USNM). Monroe Co.: Delaware Water Gap (USNM). Morris Co.: Boonton (USNM). Ocean Co.: Lakehurst (CUIC, CUIC, USNM). Orange Co.: Greenwood Lake (CUIC, USNM). New York. “S.I.” (USNM). Albany Co.: Delmar (CUIC); Rensselaerville (USNM). Clinton Co.: vic. Taylor Pond Campground (GMNH). Erie Co.: Buffalo (MCZ, USNM). Essex Co.: New Russia (CUIC); Whiteface Mt. (USNM). Orange Co.: Greenwood Lake (CUIC); Fort Montgomery (CUIC); West Point (USNM). Putnam Co.: Brewster (CUIC). Rockland Co.: Nyack (CUIC). Saint Lawrence Co.: Rossie (USNM). Seneca Co.: Willard (USNM). Suffolk Co.: Huntington, Long Island (DENH); Southold, L.I. (CUIC); Wyandanch, L.I. (USNM); Bellport (USNM); Yaphank (USNM). Tompkins Co.: Ithaca (CUIC, FSC, USNM); Dryden (CUIC). Yates Co.: Seneca Lake (USNM). North Carolina. “N.C.” (MCZ). “Round Knob” (USNM). Brunswick Co.: Southport (FSC). Buncombe Co.: 6 mi S Asheville (SEMC). Burke Co.: Linville Falls (CNC). Columbus Co.: Lake Waccamaw (USNM). Gates Co.: 6 km ENE Corapeake (USNM). Haywood Co.: Cove Creek (JCC); Cataloochee Divide (LSAM, MCZ); 9 mi W Waynesville (SEMC). Henderson Co.: Fletcher (FSC). Jackson Co.: Balsam (USNM). Macon Co.: Nantahala Gap (CUIC); Highlands (CMN, CNC). Mitchell Co. (USNM). Moore Co.: Southern Pines (USNM). New Hanover Co.: Wilmington (USNM). Swain Co.: 2.5 mi NNE Cherokee, GSMNP (SEMC); Andrews Bald, GSMNP (LSAM); Ekaneetlee Gap, GSMNP (LSAM). Transylvania Co.: Lake Toxaway (AMNH). Watauga Co.: 3 mi NW Blowing Rock (TAMU). Yancey Co.: Black Mountains (USNM, AMNH). Ohio. Ashland Co.: Mohican St. Pk. (FSC). Champaign Co.: Cedar Swamp (FSC). Ottawa Co.: Fishery Bay, S. Bass Isl. (CUIC). Union Co. (CUIC). Oklahoma. Latimer Co. (FSC, TAMU); 5 mi W Red Oak (CNC, TAMU). Pennsylvania. “Pen” (CNC, UASM). Allegheny Co.: Allegheny (CUIC). Dauphin Co.: Dauphin (CUIC). Lehigh Co.: Lehigh Gap (USNM). Luzerne Co.: Hazleton (MCZ). Montgomery Co.: Abington (MCZ). Philadelphia Co.: Frankford (USNM). Pike Co.: Twin Lakes (USNM). South Carolina. “S.C.” (MCZ). “Shiloh” (JCC). Georgetown Co.: Sandy Island (JCC). Richland Co.: Pontiac (JCC). Tennessee. “Chimney Camp, Gt. Smoky Mts.” (CUIC). Blount Co.: Cades Cove, GSMNP (LSAM, SEMC). Cocke Co.: Davenport Gap, GSMNP (LSAM). Sevier Co.: Goshen Prong, GSMNP (LSAM); Chimney Tops Picnic Nature Trail, GSMNP (LSAM); Roaring Fork, GSMNP (LSAM); Brushy Mnt., GSMNP (LSAM). Texas. Brazos Co.: College Station (TAMU). Vermont. Bennington Co.: Manchester (MCZ). Chittenden Co.: Burlington (USNM). Orange Co.: 12 mi E Chelsea (TAMU). Virginia. “Middletown” (MCZ). “Franklin Park” (USNM). Arlington Co.: Glencarlyn (USNM). Fairfax Co.: Vienna (USNM); Black Pond (USNM); Great Falls (USNM); Great Falls N.P. near Clay Pond (USNM); Great Falls N.P. near quarry site (USNM). Giles Co.: Mountain Lake, Univ. Va. Biological Sta. (USNM). Lee Co.: Pennington Gap (MCZ). Loudoun Co.: Middleburg (USNM). Louisa Co.: Gum Spring (USNM). Montgomery Co.: Blacksburg (CUIC). Nelson Co. (USNM). Page Co.: Skyland (CUIC, MCZ). Rockbridge Co.: Natural Bridge (USNM). Shenandoah Co.: New Market (USNM). Warren Co.: 7 km NNE Linden, summit of Blue Mt. (USNM). Alexandria (USNM). West Virginia. Greenbrier Co.: W. Sulphur (USNM). Jefferson Co.: Harpers Ferry (USNM); Shepherdstown (USNM). Pocahontas Co.: Cranberry Glades (USNM). Preston Co.: Aurora (USNM). Wisconsin. “Wis” (MCZ). Bayfield Co.: Bayfield (USNM). Douglas Co.: Bennett (USNM). Sauk Co.: Sauk City (GMNH). Shawano Co.: Tilleda (FSC). Wood Co.: Griffith State Nursery (USNM). Wyoming. Weston Co.: Newcastle (USNM).


This species varies in regard to the punctation and setae. The punctation on the pronotum is coarse and in most specimens free on the disc and very close, in part subcontiguous over the sides; in some specimens the punctation is denser, being subcontiguous on the disc and contiguous all over the lateral sides. The slanting setae on the elytra are usually semierect but in some specimens they are less inclined and the erect setae are difficult to distinguish. The erect setae are usually short and moderately numerous but in some specimens, they can be relatively long or much more numerous; in such case the species can be confused with Paratenetus fuscus but is easily separated by the coarse, irregular punctation on the pronotum and by the longer metaventrite.
Females are more common in collections than males. Of 220 randomly selected specimens, 169 (77%) were females and 51 (23%) were males.
Specimens were collected in March (n=6), April (n=89), May (n=296), June (n=384), July (n=152), August (n=67), September (n=40), October (n=9), November (n=5), and December (n=2).
Labels on specimens read “in overwintered nest remains of Malacosoma americana on Prunus serotina at mixed forest edge, shale barren area” (7 specimens), “shaken from and reared in moldy frass in old nest of Malacosoma americana on Prunus serotina” (13), “beaten from dead leaf clusters on cut branches of Carpinus caroliniana at forest edge” (6), “beaten from dead leaf clusters on branches of fallen Populus deltoides” (7), “beaten from dead leaf clusters on fallen broken branch of Tilia americana in shade, mixed forest” (2), “beaten from dead hanging leaf clusters on fallen Ailanthus in mixed forest” (6), “shaken from dead leaves on fallen branches of Quercus rubra” (4), “in moldy leaf clusters on fallen branch of Quercus alba in shade” (6), “beaten from dead leaves of wind-blown Quercus rubra” (1), “beaten from dead leaf clusters on fallen branches of Quercus rubra in mixed forest” (14); “at black light in longleaf pine and mixed oak, sand barrens” (23), “in moldy leaves on fallen branches of Acer rubrum” (4), “at black light in oak & longleaf pine sand barren” (5); “at black light; open sandy gap in mixed forest” (1); “at black light in mixed deciduous forest” (1); “at black light in mixed hardwood and loblolly pine forest” (1); “at black light in mixed pine and hardwood forest” (3); “beaten from dead leaf clusters on branches of Castanea out ca. 2 weeks earlier” (5); “at black light near mixed forest, farmed fields and tidal creek” (4); “beach drift” (1); “from pile of moldy thatch” (1); “in moldy leaf clusters on cut branches of Prunus serotina” (4); “in moldy leaf clusters on cut branches of Morus” (2); “beaten from dead leaf clusters on cut branches of Acer rubrum at mixed forest edge” (10); “in old nest of Malacosoma on Prunus” (2); “in dead leaves on branches of fallen oak” (1); “shaken from dead leaves on cut Sassafras” (7); “beaten from dead leaf clusters on fallen branch Acer negundo at mixed forest edge” (1); “at black light in tree canopy, mixed broken forest and residential area” (43); “at black light in mixed hardwood forest near pond and river” (8); “at black light in mixed forest, bluff above river” (2); “in old tent Malacosoma americana” (5); “at black light” (2); “in old tent nest of Malacosoma americana with moldy frass, on Prunus serotina” (1); “shaken from dry leaf (Vitis sp.) nest of Sciurus carolinensis in vine tangle ca. 3 m above ground” (1); “at black light at edge of clearing in mixed forest near drying vernal pool” (2); “at black light in mixed forest near vernal pools” (8); “at black light sheet in open mature mixed forest near river” (3); “beaten from dead leaf clusters on fallen branch of Liriodendron in mixed forest” (9); “beaten ex spruce” (1); “collected in tents Malacosoma americana” (12); “in web of Malacosoma” (3); “on Pinus strobus” (2); “ex. canopy trap” (34); “intercept trap” (1); “beating dead leaves” (8); “btng oak blowdown” (2); “leaf litter” (1); “dead moldy leaves” (1); “beating veg.” (2); “beating flowers” (2).

Taxon Treatment

  • Bousquet, Y; Bouchard, P; 2014: Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) ZooKeys, 415: 23-51. doi

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 LeConte J (1859) The complete writings of Thomas Say on the entomology of North America. Edited by John L. Le Conte, M.D. with a memoir of the author, by George Ord. In two volumes. Vol. II. Ballière Brothers, New York, iv + 814 pp.
  2. Spinola M (1844) Essai monographique sur les clérites insectes coléoptères. Tome second. Ponthenier, Gênes, 216 pp.