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Bousquet Y, Bouchard P (2014) Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). ZooKeys 415 : 23–51, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-12, version 52530, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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author = {Bousquet, Yves AND Bouchard, Patrice},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)},
year = {2014},
volume = {415},
issue = {},
pages = {23--51},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.415.6524},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-12, version 52530, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)
A1 - Bousquet Y
A1 - Bouchard P
Y1 - 2014
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 415
IS -
UR -
SP - 23
EP - 51
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-12, version 52530, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.415.6524

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Bousquet2014ZooKeys415">{{Citation
| author = Bousquet Y, Bouchard P
| title = Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2014
| volume = 415
| issue =
| pages = 23--51
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.415.6524
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2021-12-02

}} Versioned wiki page: 2014-06-12, version 52530, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Coleoptera
Familia: Tenebrionidae


Paratenetus Spinola, 1844Wikispecies linkZooBank linkPensoft Profile


Spinola (1844[3]: 117) mentioned that the name Paratenetus came from a Greek adjective which supposedly means “Digne d’être observé” (worthy of being observed). The idea for the name came from the peculiar shape of the palpi and particularly the flattening of the first two labial palpomeres.


(based on species treated only). Body short, convex, pubescent; elytra with slanting setae in addition to erect setae. Epistoma with clypeolabral membrane exposed. Eyes present, prominent. Gena not sulcate. Antenna with last three antennomeres abruptly expanded, forming a distinct, loose club. Labial palpi short, penultimate palpomere swollen, last palpomere narrow, more or less fusiform; last maxillary palpomere large, at least twice as large apically than basally. Pronotum with sides denticulate, each denticle with one or two stiff setae; surface with relatively coarse punctures. Procoxae moderately separated. Mesepimeron not closing mesocoxal cavity. Elytra without striae, with relatively coarse punctures; epipleuron distinct and relatively wide up to apex. Abdomen with distinct membrane along posterior edge of ventrites 3 and 4. Intercoxal process of first ventrite relatively wide, more or less rounded apically. Tibia not expanded apically. Metatarsomere 1 elongate, as long as next two tarsomeres combined; penultimate tarsomere deeply lobate dorsally; last tarsomere not arising at apex of penultimate tarsomere. Tarsal claw simple, not pectinate. Tarsal formula 5–5-4. Defensive glands absent.


This genus currently includes 57 species (Table 1) ranging collectively from Canada, as far north as southern Northwest Territories, south to Argentina.

Table 1. Checklist of Paratenetus species of the world.
Species Distribution
Paratenetus antennalis Kulzer, 1958 Brazil
Paratenetus atricolor Pic, 1934 Brazil
Paratenetus auritus (Mäklin, 1875) Brazil
Paratenetus bicoloricollis Pic, 1939 Brazil
Paratenetus bordoni Marcuzzi, 1994 Venezuela
Paratenetus brevipennis Champion, 1886 Panama
Paratenetus cicatricosus Motschulsky, 1868 Brazil
Paratenetus constrictus Champion, 1893 Mexico, Central America
Paratenetus corticarioides Champion, 1886 Mexico, Central America
Paratenetus corumbanus Pic, 1934 Brazil
Paratenetus crenulatus Champion, 1886 Panama
Paratenetus denticollis (Mäklin, 1875) Venezuela
Paratenetus denticulatus Champion, 1886 Panama
Paratenetus discoidalis Pic, 1939 Brazil
Paratenetus donckieri Pic, 1925 Brazil
Paratenetus ensellatus Pic, 1934 Brazil
Paratenetus epitragoides Berg, 1889 Argentina
Paratenetus exutus Bousquet & Bouchard, sp. n. Canada, U.S.A.
Paratenetus foveithorax Ferrer & Ødegaard, 2005 Panama
Paratenetus freyi Kulzer, 1958 Brazil
Paratenetus fuscus LeConte, 1850 Canada, U.S.A.
Paratenetus germaini Pic, 1926 Bolivia
Paratenetus gibbipennis Motschulsky, 1868 Canada, U.S.A.
Paratenetus gounellei Pic, 1920 Brazil
Paratenetus grandicornis Motschulsky, 1868 Nicaragua, Panama
Paratenetus grandis Pic, 1920 Brazil
Paratenetus helgae Kulzer, 1958 Trinidad
Paratenetus huequensis Marcuzzi, 1994 Venezuela
Paratenetus humeralis Pic, 1934 Brazil
Paratenetus inaequalis Pic, 1925 Brazil
Paratenetus inermis Champion, 1893 Guatemala
Paratenetus koltzei Pic, 1939 Mexico
Paratenetus laticollis Pic, 1925 Brazil
Paratenetus latipennis Pic, 1920 Peru
Paratenetus lebasi Spinola, 1844 Columbia
Paratenetus limbaticollis Pic, 1921 Brazil
Paratenetus lithophiloides Pic, 1921 Brazil
Paratenetus longicornis Pic, 1925 Guadeloupe
Paratenetus luridus Motschulsky, 1868 Brazil
Paratenetus mexicanus Pic, 1925 Mexico
Paratenetus nigricornis Champion, 1893 Mexico, Central America
Paratenetus obovatus Champion, 1893 Central America
Paratenetus punctatus Spinola, 1844 Canada, U.S.A.
Paratenetus punctulatus Champion, 1893 Mexico, Central America
Paratenetus ruficornis Champion, 1886 Panama
Paratenetus sexdentatus Champion, 1893 Central America
Paratenetus sparsepunctatus Pic, 1939 Argentina
Paratenetus suturalis Pic, 1921 Brazil
Paratenetus testaceicornis Pic, 1925 Brazil
Paratenetus testaceipes Pic, 1934 Bolivia
Paratenetus testaceus Pic, 1920 Costa Rica
Paratenetus texanus Bousquet & Bouchard, n.sp. U.S.A., Mexico
Paratenetus tibialis Champion, 1893 Mexico, Central America
Paratenetus tropicalis Motschulsky, 1868 Mexico, Central America
Paratenetus tuberculatus Champion, 1886 Panama
Paratenetus vianai Pic, 1939 Argentina
Paratenetus villosus Champion, 1886 Mexico, Central America

Taxonomic position

Spinola (1844)[3] originally placed Paratenetus in his Clérites Corynétoïdes (currently Cleridae: Korynetinae). Agassiz (1846[4]: 119) listed it in the family “Tenebrionites.” Melsheimer (1853[5]: 45) transferred the genus to the family Cryptophagidae. LeConte (1862[6]: 232) moved Paratenetus back in the family Tenebrionidae, and placed it in the tribe Heterotarsini, a position that was followed by several authors including Horn (1870[7]: 373), Gebien (1911[8]: 471), Leng (1920[9]: 236), Gebien (1941[10]: 821) and Arnett (1962[11]: 688). In 1918, Leng mentioned that “the genera Paratenetus, Prataeus and Anaedus seem to be near the Lagriidae on account of the similarity in their larval stages” and Böving and Craighead (1931[12]: 42) moved the genera of Heterotarsini (except Heterotarsus Latreille) from the tenebrionids to the lagriids based also on the morphology of the larvae. The study of the ovipositor structures by Tschinkel and Doyen (1980[13]: 367) supported also the position of Paratenetus within the subfamily Lagriinae rather than the subfamily Tenebrioninae. Ardoin (1961[14]: 33) placed the genera of Heterotarsini (except Heterotarsus) in the lagriine subtribe Lupropina of the tribe Adeliini. Parsons (1976[15]: 211) listed Paratenetus in the lagriid subfamily Lupropinae. Doyen and Tschinkel (1982[16]: 183) indicated that the genus may belong to the belopines, currently a valid lagriine tribe. Campbell (1991[17]: 261) listed Paratenetus in the lagriid subfamily Goniaderinae and Aalbu et al. (2002a[18]: 509; 2002b[19]: 484) retained also the genus in the lagriine tribe Goniaderini. On the other hand, Ferrer and Ødegaard (2005[20]: 648) included it in the lagriine tribe Lupropini following Ardoin (1961)[14] and Parsons (1976)[15].
We did not investigate the taxonomic position of the genus Paratenetus but we accept, following Aalbu et al. (2002a[18]; 2002b[19]), its placement in the tribe Goniaderini of the subfamily Lagriinae within the Tenebrionidae.


The biology of members of Paratenetus is poorly known. Many of the specimens seen in this study were collected in leaf litter in forested areas or in nests of the tent caterpillar genus Malacosoma (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). All three winged species have been collected at black light. Steiner (1995[21]: 508) commented that Paratenetus species pupate on the inner surfaces of rolled dead leaves (in which the larvae live) either hanging on fallen tree branches or on the ground.


There are two types of setae on the elytra of Paratenetus: erect and slanting. The slanting setae are characterized as subdepressed when the angle between the base of the seta and the elytra is between 10 and 40°, semierect when the angle is between 40 and 60°, and suberect when the angle is between 60 and 80°.

Key to North American (north of Mexico) species of Paratenetus

Taxon Treatment

  • Bousquet, Y; Bouchard, P; 2014: Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) ZooKeys, 415: 23-51. doi

Other References

  1. Lucas R (1920) Catalogus alphabeticus generum et subgenerum Coleopterorum orbis terrarum totius (famil., trib., subtr., sect. incl.). Pars I. Nicolai, Berlin, xxxi + 696 pp.
  2. Champion G (1893) Note on the genus Storthephora, Mäklin. The Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 29: 47.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Spinola M (1844) Essai monographique sur les clérites insectes coléoptères. Tome second. Ponthenier, Gênes, 216 pp.
  4. Agassiz L (1846) Nomenclator zoologicus, continens nomina systematica generum animalium tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum disposita, adjectis auctoribus, libris in quibus reperiuntur, anno editionis, etymologia et familiis ad quas pertinent, in variis classibus. Fasciculus XI. Continens Coleoptera. Jent et Gassmann, Soloduri, xii + 170 pp.
  5. Melsheimer F (1853) Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of the United States. Revised by S.S. Haldeman and J.L. LeConte. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., xvi + 174 pp.
  6. LeConte J (1862) Classification of the Coleoptera of North America. Prepared for the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections [no] 265. Smithsonian Institution, Washington [D.C.], 209–286.
  7. Horn G (1870) Revision of the Tenebrionidae of America, north of Mexico. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Series 2) 14: 253–404.
  8. Gebien H (1911) Coleopterorum Catalogus auspiciis et auxilio W. Junk editus a S. Schenkling. Pars 28: Tenebrionidae III. W. Junk, Berlin, 355–585.
  9. Leng C (1920) Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America, north of Mexico. John D. Sherman, Jr., Mount Vernon (NY), x + [1] + 470 pp.
  10. Gebien H (1941) Katalog der Tenebrioniden. Teil II. Mitteilungen der Münchener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 31: 803–834.
  11. Arnett R (1962) The beetles of the United States (a manual for identification). Part V. Suborder Polyphaga (Cont.). Series Cucujiformia (Cont.). Tenebrionoidea. Cucujoidea. The Catholic University of America Press, Washington D.C., 645–850.
  12. Böving A, Craighead F (1931) An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera. Entomologica Americana (new series) 11 [1930]: 1–80.
  13. Tschinkel W, Doyen J (1980) Comparative anatomy of the defensive glands, ovipositors and female genital tubes of tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 9: 321–368. doi: 10.1016/0020-7322(80)90009-4
  14. 14.0 14.1 Ardoin P (1961) Contribution à l’étude des Tenebrionides malgaches. Deux nouveaux genres d’Adeliini malgaches. Bulletin de l’Académie Malgache (n.s.) 37 [1959]: 31–38.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Parsons C (1976) A key to Nearctic Statira and Arthromacra (Lagriidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 29 [1975]: 211–226.
  16. Doyen J, Tschinkel W (1982) Phenetic and cladistic relationships among tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera). Systematic Entomology 7: 127–183. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1982.tb00129.x
  17. Campbell J (1991) Family Lagriidae – lagriid beetles. In: Bousquet Y (Ed) Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, 261–262.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Aalbu R, Flores G, Triplehorn C (2002a) Tenebrionidae. In: Llorente Bousquets J Morrone J (Eds) Biodiversidad, taxonomía y biogeografía de arthrópodos de México: Hacia una síntesis de su conocimiento. Volumen III. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, 499–512.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Aalbu R, Triplehorn C, Campbell J, Brown K, Somerby R, Thomas D (2002b) 106. Tenebrionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett R Thomas M Skelley P Frank J (Eds) American Beetles. Volume 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 463–509.
  20. Ferrer J, Ødegaard F (2005) New species of darkling beetles from Central America with systematic notes (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Annales Zoologici 55: 633–661.
  21. Steiner W, Jr (1995) Structures, behaviour and diversity of the pupae of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera). In: Pakaluk J Ślipiński S (Eds) Biology, phylogeny, and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy A. Crowson. Volume 1. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, 504–539.