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Chelicerae each with two bristles (rarely with one bristle) on anterior side; leg formula: 4123 (rarely 1423); spination: femora I–II d 0–2, III–IV d 0–1, I pl 3–6, II pl 0–3; tibiae I–II usually with 6–8 pairs of ventral spines; tibia I always one more rv than pv spine and tibia II always one more pv than rv spine; metatarsi I–II usually with 3–4 pairs of ventral spines, and always one more pv than rv spine.
Male palp: femur with ventral apophysis or hump; tibia usually with single strong RTA, some species with BTA or DTA; embolus hook-shaped or needle-like, originating antero-prolaterally; tegular apophysis sclerotized or transparent, present or absent, antero-retrolaterally located; conductor membranous, well developed or absent. Female genitalia: epigynal median plate distinct or absent; vulva with pair of transparent bursae anteriorly and pair of strongly sclerotized spermathecae posteriorly.
Species groups of Otacilia
After reviewing 59 Otacilia species (including the four new Chinese species described in this paper), the grouping was revised and the current species assigned to four groups based on assessment of Fu et al. (2016b). The revoluta group was divided into two new groups, the longituba group (16 species) and the ambon group (two species). The armatissima group (29 species) and the pseudostella group (nine species) were preserved and updated. Three species were not assigned to any group because of their poor original description and figures or peculiar structure: Otacilia luzonica (Simon, 1898) (female is unknown; description and figures are not diagnostic), Otacilia papilla Dankittipakul & Singtripop, 2014 (male is unknown; epigyne medially with lobe and absence of bursae) and Otacilia paracymbium Jäger & Wunderlich, 2012 (female is unknown; cymbium with paracymbium).
Here the male and female diagnostic characters are listed for each species group, followed by a list of all of the included Otacilia species (Table 1).
|Species group name||Diagnostic Character||Included Species|
|armatissima||1) Palpal organ with a distinct sclerotized TA or membranous conductor; embolus hook-shaped. 2) Epigyne with a distinct median plate, without concavity; CO slocated anteriorly or medially, higher than the spermathecae; CD (the left one from the ventral view) anti-clockwise from the CO; connecting tube usually crescent-shaped; spermathecae separated by more than half a spermatheca’s diameter.||1) Otacilia armatissima Thorell, 1897 2) Otacilia bawangling Fu, Zhang & Zhu, 2010* 3) Otacilia biarclata Fu, He & Zhang, 2015* 4) Otacilia bicolor Jäger & Wunderlich, 2012 5) Otacilia florifera Fu, He & Zhang, 2015* 6) Otacilia forcipata Yang, Wang & Yang, 2013* 7) Otacilia foveata (Song, 1990)* 8) Otacilia fujiana Fu, Jin & Zhang, 2014* 9) Otacilia hengshan (Song, 1990)* 10) Otacilia jianfengling Fu, Zhang & Zhu, 2010* 11) Otacilia kao Jäger & Wunderlich, 2012 12) Otacilia komurai (Yaginuma, 1952)* 13) Otacilia limushan Fu, Zhang & Zhu, 2010* 14) Otacilia liupan Hu & Zhang, 2011* 15) Otacilia luna (Kamura, 1994) 16) Otacilia lynx (Kamura, 1994)* 17) Otacilia macrospora Fu. Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 18) Otacilia obesa Fu. Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 19) Otacilia onoi Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 20) Otacilia papilion Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 21) Otacilia pyriformis Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 22) Otacilia sinifera Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 23) Otacilia songi Wang et al., 2015* 24) Otacilia subliupan Wang et al., 2015* 25) Otacilia taiwanica (Hayashi & Yoshida, 1993)* 26) Otacilia truncata Dankittipakul & Singtripop, 2014 27) Otacilia yangi Zhang, Fu & Zhu, 2009* 28) Otacilia hippocampa sp. n.* 29) Otacilia yangmingensis sp. n.*|
|ambon||1) Palpal organ without a distinct TA; the bulb is not pyriform but oval; embolus claw-like. 2) Epigyne without median plate and concavity; Cos located posterior, lower than the spermathecae; spermathecae well separated from each other by more than three spermatheca’s diameter.||1) Otacilia ambon Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 2) Otacilia revoluta (Yin et al., 2004)*|
|longituba||1) Palpal organ without a distinct TA; conductor well developed or degenerated; embolus needle-like. 2) Epigyne without median plate and concavity; Cos located medially, higher than the spermathecae; CD (the left one from the ventral view) straight or slightly clockwise from the CO; spermathecae close together or separated by less than half a spermatheca’s diameter.||1) Otacilia bifurcata Dankittipakul & Singtripop, 2014 2) Otacilia christae Jäger & Wunderlich, 2012 3) Otacilia flexa Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 4) Otacilia longituba Wang, Zhang & Zhang, 2012* 5) Otacilia loriot Jäger & Wunderlich, 2012 6) Otacilia microstoma Wang et al., 2015* 7) Otacilia mingsheng Yang, Wang & Yang, 2013* 8) Otacilia mira Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 9) Otacilia mustela Kamura, 2008 10) Otacilia namkhan Jäger & Wunderlich, 2012 11) Otacilia parva Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 12) Otacilia simianshan Zhou, Wang & Zhang, 2013* 13) Otacilia vangvieng Jäger & Wunderlich, 2012 14) Otacilia zebra Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 15) Otacilia curvata sp. n.* 16) Otacilia submicrostoma sp. n.*|
|pseudostella||1) Palpal organ without a distinct TA; an apophysis present near embolic base (PEA); embolus needle-like. 2) Epigyne without indistinct median plate, but with a pair of shallow concavities; Cos located anteriorly or medially, higher than the spermathecae; spermathecae separated by more than one spermatheca’s diameter.||1) Otacilia acuta Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 2) Otacilia aurita Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 3) Otacilia digitata Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 4) Otacilia leibo Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 5) Otacilia ovata Fu, Zhang & Zhang, 2016* 6) Otacilia pseudostella Fu, Jin & Zhang, 2014* 7) Otacilia stella Kamura, 2005 8) Otacilia vulpes (Kamura, 2001) 9) Otacilia zhangi Fu, Jin & Zhang, 2014*|
|the others||1) Otacilia luzonica (Simon, 1898) 2) Otacilia papilla Dankittipakul & Singtripop, 2014 3) Otacilia paracymbium Jager & Wunderlich, 2012*|
- Jin, C; Fu, L; Yin, X; Zhang, F; 2016: Four new species of the genus Otacilia Thorell, 1897 from Hunan Province, China (Araneae, Phrurolithidae) ZooKeys, (620): 33-55. doi
- Fu L, Zhang Z, Zhang F (2016b) New Otacilia species from Southwest China (Araneae: Phrurolithidae). Zootaxa 4107(2): 197–221. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4107.2.4
- Wang L, Chen H, Zhou K, Zhang F, Zhang Z (2015) Diversity of spiders in Fanjing Mountain Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China, I: Six new species of Phrurolithidae (Araneae). Zootaxa 4012(3): 447–464. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4012.3.2