Gymnoclasiopa pulchella

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Mathis W, Zatwarnicki T (2012) A revision of the New World species of Gymnoclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae). ZooKeys 248 : 1–69, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2012-12-05, version 28843, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Mathis, Wayne N. AND Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A revision of the New World species of Gymnoclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)},
year = {2012},
volume = {248},
issue = {},
pages = {1--69},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.248.4106},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-12-05, version 28843, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - A revision of the New World species of Gymnoclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)
A1 - Mathis W
A1 - Zatwarnicki T
Y1 - 2012
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 248
IS -
UR -
SP - 1
EP - 69
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-12-05, version 28843, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.248.4106

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Mathis2012ZooKeys248">{{Citation
| author = Mathis W, Zatwarnicki T
| title = A revision of the New World species of Gymnoclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2012
| volume = 248
| issue =
| pages = 1--69
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.248.4106
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-12-11

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-12-05, version 28843, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Diptera
Familia: Ephydridae
Genus: Gymnoclasiopa


Gymnoclasiopa pulchella (Meigen)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile


This species is distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: Small to moderately small shore flies, body length 1.60–2.45 mm; generally coloration of males and females sexually dimorphic to a degree with females generally less microtomentose. Head: Frons of male densely microtomentose, moderately intensely whitish gray to white, that of female moderately microtomentose, whitish gray microtomentose anterior, becoming less microtomentose, more blackish posteriorly; proclinate fronto-orbital seta 1. Antenna generally yellowish orange (sometimes apex of basal flagellomere and scape darkened); arista bearing 4–6 dorsal rays. Face relatively flat; antennal grooves, especially ventral margins, inconspicuous; face of male densely microtomentose, intensely yellow, that of female less densely microtomentose, silvery white; facial setae inserted close to parafacials, aligned vertically; gena very short, gena-to-eye ratio 0.065–0.072. Maxillary palpus yellowish orange. Thorax: Anterolateral area of mesonotum, just mediad of area from postpronotum through notopleuron, thinly to very thinly microtomentose, subshiny to shiny with some metallic luster; lateral mesonotal area from and including postpronotum and notopleuron in males with thin microtomentum whitish to grayish, similar to central mesonotal microtomentum, not brown; mesonotum of female more thinly microtomentose, appearing blackish with whitish gray microtomentum more sparse; pleural areas generally shiny black with some very thin microtomentum ventrally. Wing mostly hyaline; costal section II conspicuously longer than costal section III by about twice length; costal vein ratio 0.44–0.47; M vein ratio 0.43–0.54; halter stem dark brown; knob white to whitish yellow. Femora black; tibiae blackish brown except for basal and apical extremities black; tarsi mostly yellowish orange. Abdomen: Tergites shiny black. Male terminalia (Figs 45–48): Epandrium in posterior view (Fig. 45) as a broadly rounded, inverted U, width of dorsal portion slightly narrower than lateral arms, lateral arms shallowly arched, in lateral view wider ventrally; cercus in posterior view (Fig. 45) almost evenly semilunate, robustly developed at dorsal and ventral margins; aedeagus in lateral view (Fig. 47) slipper-like, base wide with moderately narrow, thumb-like projection at connection with phallapodeme, tapered more or less evenly to moderately rounded apex, in ventral view (Fig. 47) with basal 1/3 expanded laterally from narrow base, thereafter to apex slightly tapered then parallel to bilobed apex, each lateral lobe as wide as aedeagal base, with thin, short, wing-like, narrow projections sub-basally; phallapodeme in lateral view (Fig. 47) robustly lunate, basal margin broadly and conspicuously rounded, narrowed at each apex, in ventral view (Fig. 46) longer than wide, T-like, with long, apical crossbar, apical margin shallowly emarginate; ejaculatory apodeme in lateral view L-shaped, in ventral view broadly ovate; postgonite in lateral view (Fig. 47) as a parallelogram, acutely pointed basally and apically, bearing 2-3 setulae along basoposterior margin and 1 setula subapically along margin toward hypandrium; pregonite in lateral view (Fig. 47) moderately elongate, almost parallel sided, tapered, narrowed toward aedeagus, narrowly pointed; hypandrium in ventral view (Fig. 46) wide, width almost twice length, broadly and shallowly rounded along anterior margin without lateral projections anterolaterally, but with posterolateral, robust projections, forming a deeply and widely incised posterior margin medially, in lateral view (Fig. 47) nearly straight, narrow, posterior with dished out emargination on posterior 1/3, thereafter anteriorly narrow, very slightly tapered toward anterior margin.

Type material

The lectotype male of Notiphila pulchella Meigen (designated by Cresson 1925[13]: 256) is labeled “pulchella Coll. [Wilhelm von] Winth[em]. [pulchella handwritten]/pulchella [handwritten]/TYPE [dark red].” The lectotype is double mounted, is in poor to fair condition (part of frons, thorax, and rest of abdomen wet; tiny balls on distal part of wing; forelegs with both coxae, left tibia and femur; hindlegs covered with dark brown substance; right wing missing; distal portion of abdomen removed and stored in plastic microvial with glycerin), and is deposited in the NMW.
The holotype female of Clasiopa fulgida Becker is labeled “[Romania. Mehedinți:] Orsova [44°43.5'N, 22°23.8'E] V. 37647 [submarginal border; “Orsova” printed; number handwritten]/Holotypus [red, printed].” The holotype is double mounted, is in moderate condition (abdomen missing), and is deposited in the ZMHU.

Type locality

Not given, Wilhelm von Winthem collection (? Germany, perhaps Hamburg).

Other specimens examined

Nearctic. CANADA. NORTHWEST TERRITORIES. Aklavik (66°13.1'N, 135°0.3'W), 5 Aug 1930, O. Bryant (1♂; CAS). Fort Simpson (61°50.8'N, 121°21'W), 16 Aug 1929, O. Bryant (1♂; CAS).
YUKON TERRITORY. Clear Lake, Klondike Loop (63°47'N, 137°18'W), 5 Jul 1978, P. H. Arnaud, Jr. (2♂, 2♀; CAS).
UNITED STATES. IDAHO. Latah: Laird Park (6.4 km NE Harvard; 46°56.5'N, 116°38.8'W), 6 Jul 1978, R. S. Zack (1♂; WSU).
ILLINOIS. Macoupin: Carlinville (39°16.8'N, 89°52.9'W), 5 Sep 1952, M. R. Wheeler (3♂, 5♀; USNM).
INDIANA. Tippecanoe: Lafayette (40°25'N, 86°52.5'W), 17 May-26 Jul 1916, 1922, E. V. Stafford (3♂, 2♀; ANSP, USNM).
IOWA. Boone: Fraser (1 km SW; 42°07'N, 93°58'W), 4 Jul 1960, D. L. Deonier (2♂, 1♀; USNM); Ledges State Park (41°59'N, 93°53.2'W), 13 May-16 Aug 1960, 1968, D. L. Deonier, J. L. Laffoon (35♂, 22♀; USNM). Story: Ames (42°02.1'N, 93°37.2'W), 17 Jul 1960, D. L. Deonier (5♂, 2♀; USNM).
KANSAS. Decatur: Sappa State Park (39°50.2'N, 100°29.7'W), 31 Aug 1961, D. L. Deonier (3♂, 2♀; USNM).
MICHIGAN. Saginaw: Saginaw (45°25.2'N, 83°57'W), 18 Jun 1952, R. R. Dreisbach (1♂; USNM).
MINNESOTA. Houston: Houston (43°45.8'N, 91°34.1'W), 28 May 1939, H. E. Milliron (1♀; USNM). St. Louis: Eagles Nest (47°50.4'N, 92°05.8'W), 5 Jul 1957, W. V. Balduf (1♀; USNM).
MISSOURI. Jackson: Atherton (39°11.2'N, 94°18.3'W), 21 Aug 1915, C. F. Adams (3♂, 9♀; ANSP, USNM). Madison: Fredericktown (37°33.6'N, 90°17.6'W), 4 Sep 1952, A. H. Sturtevant (2♂; USNM); Oak Grove (37°34.4'N, 90°23.7'W), 4 Sep 1952, A. H. Sturtevant (1♂; USNM); Silver Mine (37°33.4'N, 90°29.1'W), 4 Sep 1952, A. H. Sturtevant (1♂; USNM).
MONTANA. Silver Bow: Pipestone Pass (45°51.6'N, 112°26'W), 3 Jul 1925, A. L. Melander (1♂; ANSP).
NEBRASKA. Adams: Hastings (40°35.2'N, 98°23.3'W), 22 Aug 1950, M. R. Wheeler (6♀; USNM).
NEW MEXICO. Taos: Questa, Red River (36°42.2'N, 105°34.7'W), 26 May 1969, W. W. Wirth (1♂; USNM).
OHIO. Preble: Hueston Woods State Park (39°34.4'N, 84°44.5'W), 25 Jun 1975, J. Regensburg (1♂; USNM).
OKLAHOMA. Osage: Burbank (36°41.7'N, 96°43.9'W), 13 Sep 1952, A. H. Sturtevant (2♂; USNM).
SOUTH DAKOTA. Yankton: Yankton (42°52.3'N, 97°23.8'W), 25 Jun 1948, A. H. Sturtevant (1♂, 1♀; USNM).
TEXAS. Hays: San Marcos (29°53'N, 97°56.5'W), 8 Nov 1962, A. H. Sturtevant (1♀; USNM). Travis: Austin (30°16'N, 97°44.6'W), 15 Oct 1950, M. R. Wheeler (9♂, 3♀; USNM).
VIRGINIA. Alleghany: Covington (37°47.6'N, 79°59.6'W), 25 Jun 1933, A. L. Melander (1♂; ANSP). Arlington: Chain Bridge (38°55.5'N, 77°06.5'W), 20 Aug 1922, J. R. Malloch (1♂; USNM).
WISCONSIN. Columbia: Dells (43°37.5'N, 89°45.9'W), 8 Jul 1933, A. L. Melander (1♂; USNM).


(Fig. 48). Nearctic: Canada (Alberta, Northwest Territories, Ontario, Yukon Territory). United States (Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin). Palearctic: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Morocco, Romania, Russia (European Territory), Spain.


This species is rarely collected and may be uncommon in nature. In the Delmarva States (United States), this species occurs along the coastal plain and in the Alleghany and is expected to be found between these zones.
Although uncommon, this species is relatively distinctive and is similar to Gymnoclasiopa bohemanni, in having pale, usually yellowish maxillary palpi, antennae, and foretibiae. This species is distinguished from Gymnoclasiopa bohemanni as follows (also see key): The anterolateral area of the mesonotum, just mediad of the area from the postpronotum through the notopleuron is thinly microtomentose and is subshiny to shiny with some metallic luster; the lateral mesonotal area from and including the postpronotum and notopleuron in males is thinly whitish microtomentose, similar to the central mesonotal microtomentum; and the midtibiae are dark colored.

Taxon Treatment

  • Mathis, W; Zatwarnicki, T; 2012: A revision of the New World species of Gymnoclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae) ZooKeys, 248: 1-69. doi

Other References

  1. Meigen J (1830) Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. 6, Schulz-Wundermann, Hamm, 401+xi pp.
  2. Macquart M (1835) Diptères. In: Roret N (Ed) Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Collection des suites à Buffon, Formant avec les oeuvres de cet auteur un cours complet d’histoire naturelle. Tome deuxième. Vol. 2. Pourrat Frères, Paris, 703 pp.
  3. Becker T (1905) Ephydridae. In: Becker T Bezzi M Kertész K Stein P (Eds) Katalog der paläarktischen Dipteren Vol. 4, G. Wesselényi in Hódmezövásárhely, Budapest, 185–215.
  4. Czerny L (1909) Cyclorrhapha Schizophora Holometopa. In: Czerny L Strobl P Spanische D. III. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 59: 247-290.
  5. Deonier D (1964) Keys to the shore flies of Iowa (Diptera, Ephydridae). Iowa State Journal of Science 39 (2): 103-126.
  6. Deonier D (1965) Ecological observations on Iowa shore flies (Diptera, Ephydridae). Iowa Academy of Science 71: 496-510.
  7. Cresson E (1942) Synopses of North American Ephydridae (Diptera) I. The subfamily Psilopinae, with descriptions of new species. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 68: 101-128.
  8. Wirth W (1965) Ephydridae. Pp. 734–759. In: Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR (Eds) A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Handbook 276, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1696 pp.
  9. Cole F (1969) The flies of western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 693+xi pp.
  10. Mathis W, Zatwarnicki T (1995) A world catalog of the shore flies (Diptera: Ephydridae). Memoirs on Entomology, International 4: 1-423.
  11. Becker T (1896) Dipterologische Studien IV. Ephydridae. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 41 (2): 91-276.
  12. Becker T (1902) Die Meigen’schen Typen der sogen. Muscidae acalypterae (Muscaria holometopa) in Paris und Wien. Zeitschrift für systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 2(5): 209–256, 289–349.
  13. Cresson E (1925) Studies in the dipterous family Ephydridae, excluding the North and South American faunas. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 51: 227-258.