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This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Sam Y, Takano A, Ibrahim H, Záveská E, Aziz F (2016) Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), a new genus from Borneo. PhytoKeys (75) : 31–55, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2016-11-29, version 108260, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Sam, Yen Yen AND Takano, Atsuko AND Ibrahim, Halijah AND Záveská, Eliška AND Aziz, Fazimah},
journal = {PhytoKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), a new genus from Borneo},
year = {2016},
volume = {},
issue = {75},
pages = {31--55},
doi = {10.3897/phytokeys.75.9837},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2016-11-29, version 108260, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), a new genus from Borneo
A1 - Sam Y
A1 - Takano A
A1 - Ibrahim H
A1 - Záveská E
A1 - Aziz F
Y1 - 2016
JF - PhytoKeys
JA -
VL -
IS - 75
UR -
SP - 31
EP - 55
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2016-11-29, version 108260, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/phytokeys.75.9837

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Sam2016PhytoKeys">{{Citation
| author = Sam Y, Takano A, Ibrahim H, Záveská E, Aziz F
| title = Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), a new genus from Borneo
| journal = PhytoKeys
| year = 2016
| volume =
| issue = 75
| pages = 31--55
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/phytokeys.75.9837
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-20

}} Versioned wiki page: 2016-11-29, version 108260, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Zingiberales
Familia: Zingiberaceae


Borneocola Y.Y.Sam gen. nov.Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile


Similar to Scaphochlamys and Myxochlamys. Borneocola has thin, translucent and marcescent floral bracts, absence of coloured streaks on labellum and two dorsal knobs on the stigma versus the coriaceous and persistent floral bracts, coloured streaks on labellum and absence of dorsal knobs on the stigma in Scaphochlamys. The mucilage on the floral bracts and the versatile anther of Myxochlamys are absent in Borneocola.

Type species

Borneocola reticosus (Ridl.) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov. Gastrochilus reticosa Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 44: 195 (1905).


Terrestrial rhizomatous herb, evergreen, rarely exceeding 50 cm in height. Rhizome creeping on the ground, terminal decumbent, rhizome elements short or long; roots fine, extensive, not tuberous. Leafy stem unifoliate, enclosed by a few bladeless sheaths at base, bladeless sheaths linear, papery, glabrous to hairy, light green or light brown, decaying early, leaf sheath glabrous or hairy, base swollen, margin thin and narrow; ligule membranous, inconspicuous, decaying early; petiole channelled in cross section, glabrous, lamina narrowly ovate to elliptic, rarely oblong, asymmetric, margin entire, smooth.
Inflorescence flowering from base to apex; peduncle short, usually hidden within leaf sheath; spike composed of compact rachis and 2–5 (–13) fertile bracts, bracts spirally and closely overlapping (rarely distichous), boat-shaped, 2-keeled, pink, pale brown, pale or light green, thin, translucent, glabrous or hairy, decaying early, marcescent, amplexicaul at the base of the bract, cincinni compact, 2–3 flowers in each cincinnus. First bracteole directly opposite floral bract and enclosing all the flowers and subsequent bracteoles, linear-shaped, 2-keeled, shorter than bracts, rarely same length. Flowers thin, delicate, ephemeral. Calyx tubular, splitting unilaterally on one side, floral tube long slender, usually puberulent externally, inner surface with a groove enveloping the style, corolla lobes 3, triangular ovate, translucent, glabrous, dorsal lobe apex hooded, lateral lobes 2, narrower than dorsal lobe. Staminodes elliptic to narrowly obovate, white, light yellow or green, spreading laterally, lined with translucent veins from base to apex, covered with glandular hairs on adaxial surface. Labellum obovate, flat, bilobed distally, rarely entire, translucent veins spread from base to apical part, pale white, pink, lilac or violet, median band light yellow or greenish yellow, without coloured streaks or patches beside the band, adaxial surface covered with glandular hairs. Stamen bends forward over labellum, usually white and covered with glandular hairs on abaxial surface, filament grooved, short, anther theacae 2, linear, dehiscing along entire length, basal ending with or without short spur, anther crest short, not recurved. Ovary ellipsoid, glabrous or sparsely hairy, unilocular, with basal placentation, less than 10 locules. Stigma small, held at apex of thecae, near oblate, 2 dorsal knobs, ostiole forward facing, ciliate. Epigynous glands 2, filiform, yellow. Fruit a capsule, ellipsoid or ovoid. Seeds not seen.


This new genus is named after the island of Borneo and -cola (Latin) means dweller or inhabitant. This is to recognise the extremely rich and unique biodiversity that is found in Borneo.


Borneo. The genus is currently known to occur only in the northwest and possibly central Borneo. Eight species are recorded from Sarawak, Malaysia and many more are undescribed.

Key to Borneocola species (modified from Ooi and Wong 2014[1])

Original Description

  • Sam, Y; Takano, A; Ibrahim, H; Záveská, E; Aziz, F; 2016: Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), a new genus from Borneo PhytoKeys, (75): 31-55. doi

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ooi I, Wong S (2014) Scaphochlamys stenophylla (Zingiberaceae): a new species from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Willdenowia 44(2): 241–245. doi: 10.3372/wi.44.44205