|Notice:||This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see
). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.
If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.
This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Citation formats to copy and paste
TY - JOUR
- Zemacrosaldula pangare Larivière, Marie-Claude, 2015, Zootaxa 3955: 260-265.
Description. Body length 4.65–5.63 (5.10) mm; broad-ovate (Fig. 4). Dorsal colour largely dark brown to black, with distinctive maroon hue, uniformly dark lateral margins of pronotum, and very few individual (not coalesced) whitish markings on hemelytra; exocorium nearly immaculate but frequently with a rather large (more rarely small) subquadrate medial mark subapically. Facial colour (Fig. 10) not contrasted. Head, pronotum and scutellum strongly shiny, contrasting moderately against mostly shiny hemelytra. Dorsal pubescence very short, reclined to semi-erect, whitish to slightly golden, very sparse (reduced) and quite unevenly distributed (more so than in Z. whakarunga). Dorsal microsculpture very slightly rugulose on head; similarly developed although partly lacking on pronotum and scutellum. Macropterous. Head black. Face (Fig. 10) glabrous (pubescent in other species). Transverse swelling black or, very rarely, more lightly coloured at sides or near facial midline (but still mostly black); lateral portions contiguous or, rarely, separated by a narrow to rather wide dark gap near facial midline. Mandibular plates, maxillary plates, anteclypeus, and labrum black; maxillary plates seldom marked with brown speckles; anteclypeus and labrum sometimes lighter brown or narrowly marked with brown apically. Antennae3.98 –4.00x longer than pronotum + collar medially, largely dark; segment I black or with apical fourth to half dark yellowish brown or pale brown (not distinctly striped as in Z. whakarunga); segment II dark brown to black, often shortly paler subapically, 2.59–2.61 x longer than segment I; segments III–IV dark brown to black. Thorax. Lateral margins of pronotum subrectilinear to slightly convex, uniformly black. Underside black, with barely contrasting narrowly to very narrowly pale (rarely completely dark) acetabulum I, narrowly pale to completely dark acetabulum II, completely dark (rarely very narrowly pale) acetabulum III, and completely dark lateral margins; rarely, if ever, with lateral margins narrowly pale brown near posterior edge; pubescence very sparse or evanescent (overall mostly glabrous). Legs largely dark; fore, mid, and usually hind femora entirely black, at most shortly tinged with dark yellowish brown or pale brown subapically; tibiae with dark brown to black dorsal stripe over most of length (hind tibiae often infuscate only) and black subapical annulus, otherwise dark yellowish brown with dark spines; hind tibiae about 2.87–2.91 x longer than tarsal segments II+III combined; tarsal segment II not of barely darkened apically, otherwise yellowish brown, segment III completely dark brown to black (often paler in basal half on hind tarsus); pretarsal claws rather short, about a third of the length of tarsal segment III. Scutellum black, 1.61–1.89 x longer than pronotum + collar medially. Hemelytra: costal margin (Fig. 4) convex and embolium basally explanate as in Z. whakarunga; embolar modification of female moderately developed (strongly developed in other species); corium (Fig. 14) largely black with very few irregular, rather small, individual (not coalesced) whitish markings; markings lacking in basal third on each side of R vein (as opposed to Z. whakarunga); endocorium with a line of three pale spots (often reduced to one or two) along R vein, with or without additional speckles subapically along membrane (as opposed to Z. whakarunga); exocorium without coalesced markings (as opposed to Z. australis) or a subquadrate mark at about midlength (as opposed to Z. whakarunga and Z. kapekape), with very few individual markings and a rather large subquadrate medial marking subapically (often reduced, sometimes absent); colour pattern in female consistent with that of male but regularly with a larger subapical medial mark on exocorium; corium in darkest individuals almost entirely black and barely speckled; clavus largely pruinose; corium partially pruinose (inner endocorium, subbasal exocorium, especially embolium); basal pale spot of clavus absent; subapical pale spot of clavus present or, more rarely, absent; membrane brown to black basally, without pale mark near tip of clavus, brown medially within cells and around margin, pale within cells on each side of brown medial mark, and with dark brown to black veins. Abdomen. Venter black, with or without posterior margin of at least some segments narrowly pale. Pubescence much shorter than in other Zemacrosaldula species, very sparse along middle, nearly lacking elsewhere, silvery, appressed in both sexes. Male parandria as in Z. whakarunga (see Fig. 20). Male paramere (Fig. 18) with distinct, slightly developed processus sensualis bearing less than 10 setae; processus hamatus broadly rounded at tip. Apical half of male aedeagus, in lateral view, with 3 main visible sclerites as in Z. whakarunga (see Fig. 22). Male filum gonopori coiled 1.25 times as in Z. whakarunga (see Fig. 25). Female subgenital plate (segment VII, ventrally) completely black or at most with apical half of sides pale. Other characters as in generic description. Geographic distribution (Fig. 26). South Island west coast, in the vicinity of the Fox and Franz Josef glaciers.
Material examined. A total of 44 specimens including types (NZAC), from the following localities. South Island. WD —Junction of Clearwater River & Gillespies Beach Road (NZAC); Junction of Waikukupa River & Highway 6 (NZAC); Franz Josef (NZAC).
Biology and Ecology
Biology. Altitudinal range. Lowland (50–200 m). Habitat. Found along a sandy silty stream in a glacial moraine entering a main river, on waterlogged sand and seepages with sparse dead leaves and algae (several specimens, Junction Waikukupa River and Highway 6); in glacial moraine, among cushion plants (one specimen, Franz Josef); on bare silty ground patch along an otherwise stony riverbank (one specimen, Junction Clearwater River and Gillespies Beach Road). Apparently not obligatory saxicolous. Seasonality. Adults collected in March; newly emerged adults (tenerals) also found in March. Food. Predatory or scavenger. Behaviour. Sluggish, jumping for a distance of 15 cm or less, if jumping at all, when disturbed (several specimens, Junction Waikukupa River and Highway 6). Presumably heliophilous like other Zemacrosaldula species.
Remarks. The species name ‘pangare’ means beardless in Maori. It refers to the smooth, hairless face of this species and its overall shinier, more glabrous appearance, compared to other Zemacrosaldula species. It is mostly the above mentioned appearance and structural differences in the male genitalia that set Z. pangare apart from Z. whakarunga. The maroon hue of the dorsum, best seen in oblique lateral view, appears mostly due to the pruinosity of the hemelytra. A similar colour hue can, to some extent, also be seen on the eyes and antennae. The following characters are also diagnostic for Z. pangare: face almost entirely black; hemelytra lacking markings in the basal third of the corium on each side of R vein and bearing a subquadrate medial mark subapically on the exocorium. While all other Zemacrosaldula species are primarily saxicolous and live close to the waterline of main river channels, Z. pangare favours waterlogged soil and ground seepages located at some distance from stony-gravelly riverbanks and riverbeds. See also Remarks under Z. whakarunga.
Locality (standard)AreaCode Latitude Longitude Aniseed Valley NN -41.3878 173.1608Aparima River, 14 km S of Mossburn SL -45.7833 168.1833Aparima River, 4.2 km S of Wreys Bush SL -46.0000 168.1333Arthurs Pass National Park, Poulter River NC -42.8753 171.8611Banks Peninsula, Birdlings Flat MC -43.8261 172.7078Banks Peninsula, near Lake Ellesmere MC -43.7300 172.4400Boyle River, Dans Creek Bridge, Engineers Camp BR -42.5647 172.3558Buller River, Gowan River Bridge BR -41.7000 172.5500Cameron River MC -43.4236 171.0847Carluke, Rai River SD -41.2000 173.5833Clarence River mouth KA -42.1667 173.9167Clarence River, 12 km inland via Clarence Valley Road KA -42.1000 173.8333Clutha River CO -45.6500 169.4000Clutha River, junction with Highway 8A, 9 km SE of Luggate CO -44.7500 169.3333Coromandel Range, Stony Bay CL -36.5167 175.4167Coromandel Range, West of Kirikiri Saddle CL -37.1628 175.6136Coromandel Range,Tapu River Valley CL -36.9807 175.5279Craigieburn Forest Park, Craigieburn Ski Field MC -43.1175 171.7039Craigieburn Forest Park, Dracophyllum Track MC -43.1594 171.7033Dannevirke, Manawatu River, Aerodrome Road end WA -40.2333 176.0833Danseys Pass CO -44.9478 170.3819Dart Hut OL -44.5219 168.5544Dipton West, Oreti River SL -45.9000 168.3833Duntroon, Maerewhenua River DN -44.8500 170.6833Fox River BR -42.0401 171.4080Franz Josef WD -43.3887 170.1824Glenorchy, Buckler Burn OL -44.8500 169.4000Greenstone River OL -44.9053 168.1617Hakataramea, Hakataramea River SC -44.7167 170.4833Harihari, Wanganui River mouth WD -43.1411 170.5547Headlong Peak OL -44.5403 168.5969Headlong Peak, South Basin Stream OL -44.5581 168.6078Highway 73, 15 km W of Springfield MC -43.3167 171.8000Hundalee, Conway River KA -42.5833 173.4167Hunter Mountains, South Borland River FD -45.7456 167.3803Hurunui Bridge (N side)NC -42.8969 173.0978Inangahua area, White Cliffs, Buller River BR -41.8000 171.8700Inglewood, Manganui River TK -39.1581 174.2755Iron Hill, Iron Lake NN -41.1056 172.6155Junction Hope River & Highway 7NC -42.5833 172.4500Junction of Clearwater River & Gillespies Beach Road WD -43.4500 169.9000 Junction of Danseys Pass Road & S Branch of Maerewhenua River DN - 44.9333 170.5833 Junction of Kowhai River & Postmans Road KA - 42.3667 173.5833 ......continued on the next page......continued on the next page Urewera National Park, Waimana River Valley, Pohatu Track, 3.2 km BP - 38.2911 177.1004 E Tauwhare
Locality (standard)AreaCode Latitude Longitude Junction of Waikukupa River & Highway 6WD -43.4333 170.0667Junction of Wanganui River & Highway 6WD -43.1500 170.6167Kahutara River mouth KA -42.4333 173.5833Kaimai Range, Dickey Flat Road end BP -37.4387 175.7473Kairaki Beach NC -43.3856 172.7114Karakatuwhero River Valley, by upper ford GB -37.6761 178.2706Karamea River mouth NN -41.2561 172.1047Kaweka Forest Park, Lawrence Road access,Tutaekuri River HB -39.3667 176.3667Kawhatau River, Junction Toetoe & Potaka Roads RI -39.7833 175.8833Kimberley Scenic Reserve (S of Levin), Ohau River WN -40.6669 175.3133Lake Hawea OL -44.6119 169.2615Lake Mapourika WD -43.3167 170.2164Lake Moeraki WD -43.7167 169.2667Lake Pukaki, Whale Stream MK -43.9500 170.1167Lake Sylvester NN -41.1065 172.6286Lake Sylvester, bushline Hut NN -41.1060 172.6447Lake Taupo TO -38.6900 176.0800Lees Valley, Ashley River bridge NC -43.1856 172.1503Little Sylvester Lake NN -41.1060 172.6447Lowburn Valley mouth CO -45.0000 169.2167Makaretu River, 2 km N of Takapau WA -40.0000 176.3500Mangaotaki River, S of PioPio WO -38.5209 174.9063Mangatewainui River, Junction with Gundry Road WA -40.0667 176.1667Mangatuna GB -38.3019 178.2686Mangaweka, Rangitikei River bridge RI -39.8247 175.7845Mangorei TK -39.0893 174.1024Maruia River, Maruia Falls BR -41.8600 172.2528Morere GB -38.9809 177.7903Mount Algidus MC -43.2386 172.2031Mount Aspiring National Park, Arawata Bivouac WD -44.4136 168.6081Mount Aspiring National Park, Arawata River WD -44.4064 168.5931Mount Aspiring National Park, Cameron Flat OL -44.4833 168.8000Mount Egmont (N side)TK -39.2600 174.0500Mount Ruapehu, Whakapapanui Stream above Chateau TO -39.2097 175.5446Mt Ruapehu, Whakapapanui Stream, dam TO -39.1914 175.5312Napenape Scenic Reserve, Hurunui River mouth NC -42.9139 173.2744Nelson Creek domain, beside Nelson Creek WD -42.5036 171.6036Nelson Lakes National Park, Lake Rotoiti, head BR -41.8169 172.8372Nelson Lakes National Park, Mount Robert BR -41.8325 172.8108Nevis Crossing CO -45.1756 168.9958Ngatiawa River WN -40.9123 175.1230Oaro KA -42.5164 173.5044Oaro Beach KA -42.5094 173.5081
Locality (standard) Oaro, Omihi Stream mouth AreaCode KA Latitude -42.4944Longitude 173.5169Okuku River, 5km W of Loburn Omoeroa River, S of Franz Josef Oparara River Opouri River, junction with Tunakino Valley Road NC WD NN SD -43.2461 -43.4028 -41.2000 -41.2000 172.4665 170.0971 172.1000 173.6167Otaki, 6 km S/SE Otaki Forks Otekaieke, Otekaieke River WN WN DN -40.7911 -40.8333 -44.8167 175.1486 175.2500 170.5667Owhango, Whakapapa River Palmerston, Shag River Papatea, Waiti Stream Pariwhakaoho River mouth TO DN BP NN -38.9959 -45.4667 -37.6649 -40.7740 175.3982 170.7167 177.8417 172.7393Peak 2.5 km W of Mount Tyndall Pearce River Resurgence Pelorus Bridge Scenic Reserve Pelorus River, Daltons Bridge OL NN NN MB -44.5310 -41.2106 -41.2994 -41.2667 168.6179 172.7403 173.5733 173.6333Porters Pass, Lake Lyndon Porters Pass, Lake Lyndon Punakaiki, Bullock Creek Rakaia River MC MC BR MC -43.3033 -43.2955 -42.1014 -43.7397 171.7025 171.7111 171.3650 172.0306Rotokohu, Inangahua River South Highway 72, W of Staveley Tangoio, near Taupo BR MC HB TO -41.9667 -43.6524 -39.3289 -38.6861 171.8667 171.4455 176.9125 176.0708Te Awha Stream, Rangitukia Road Temuka, Opihi River near Waiapi The Remarkables, Rastus Burn GB SC CO -37.7347 -44.2606 -45.0553 178.4975 171.2289 168.8139Thomas River, N branch Totara River, near Moorhouse Road Tukituki River, Pourerere Road, 10km E of Waipawa Urewera National Park, Aniwaniwa MC WD HB GB -43.2086 -45.9000 -39.9500 -38.7453 171.7053 168.3833 176.6833 177.1633Urewera National Park, Te Taita a Makaro GB -38.6828 177.0569 Vinegar Hill, Junction of Vinegar Hill Road & Rangitikei River RI - 39.9167 175.6333 Waimakariri Gorge MC -43.3600 172.0503 Waimakariri Gorge, N of Waddington MC -43.3500 172.0500 Waimakariri River MC - 43.4039 172.1100 Waioeka Gorge, N of Oponae and S of Opotiki BP - 38.2005 177.3008 Wairau River, 2.5 km N of Leatham Road MB - 41.6333 173.2167 Wairau River, Church Lane end MB - 41.5333 173.5500 Wakarara, upper Waipawa River HB - 39.7831 176.2656 Whakapapanui Stream, Junction Mahuia Rapid & Highway 47 TO - 39.1333 175.5000 Whangaehu River, 5km N of Mangamahu WI -39.8000 175.3500 Winton, Oreti River SL - 46.1333 168.2833
- Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André; 2015: Zemacrosaldula, a new genus of Saldidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from New Zealand: taxonomy, geographic distribution, and biology, Zootaxa 3955: 260-265. doi