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♂, Cape Verde Isl., Boavista, rock N of Sal Rei, 20.x.2009 [20 October 2009], J. Batelka & J. Straka lgt. (SEMC).
Boavista: 1♂, 2♀♀, Cabo Verde 00/41, Ilha de Boavista, Sal Rei–S, 10 m, 30.12.2000 [30 December 2000], leg. Aistleitner (EAFC); 4♂♂, Cabo Verde, Boavista, Costa de BoaEsperança, (NE Sal Rei), 50 m, 1.1.2001 [1 January 2001], leg. Aistleitner/ 46 (EAFC); 2♀♀, Cabo Verde 00/47, Ilha de Boavista, Ribeira de Rabil, 10–20 m, 2.1.2001 [2 January 2001], leg. Aistleitner (EAFC); 3♀♀, Cabo Verde 00/48, Ilha de Boavista centr., Estancia de Baixo, 60 m, 2.1.2001 [2 January 2001], leg. Aistleitner (EAFC); 1♂, 3♀♀, Cape Verde Isl., Boavista – Sal Rei, on the beach, 1.X.2009 [1 October 2009], J. Straka & J. Batelka lgt. (JSPC, FISC); 1♂, 1♀, Cape Verde Isl., Boavista – Sal Rei, dunes, sweeping, 19.X.2009 [19 October 2009], J. Batelka & J. Straka lgt. (JSPC); 3♂♂, Cape Verde Isl., Boavista – rock N of Sal Rei, 20.X.2009 [20 October 2009], J. Batelka & J. Straka lgt. (JSPC); 1♀, same data as holotype except: Sal Rei on the beach, 1.x.2009 [1 October 2009], J. Straka & J. Batelka lgt. (SEMC); Sal: 1♂, 4.11.1980 [4 Noveber 1980], SAL, Straße Flughafen – Sta. Maria, n. v. Algodoeiro, Islas do Cabo Verde – 1980, H. Hölzel, W. Lobin, P. Ohm [collectors] (FISC); 1♂, 2♀♀, Cabo Verde 00/2, Ilha do Sal, Espargos, Boa Terra, 60 m, 28.11.2000 [28 November 2000], leg. Aistleitner (EAFC); 4♂♂, 3♀♀, Cabo Verde 00/6, Ilha do Sal, Pedra Lume, Ostküste, 20–40 m, 29.11.2000 [29 November 2000], leg. Aistleitner (EAFC); 1♂, Cabo Verde 00/7, Ilha do Sal, Mte. Grande–S, 70–170 m, 30.11.2000 [30 November 2000], leg. Aistleitner (EAFC); 1♂, the same as previous except 250 m (EAFC); 2♂♂, Cabo Verde 00/54, Ilha do Sal, Mte. Grande–E, 60 m, 9.1.2001 [9 January 2001], leg. Aistleitner (EAFC); 1♀, Cabo Verde, Ilha do Sal, Pedra Lume, 19.3.2004 [19 March 2004], leg. Aistleitner (EAFC); 1♀, Cape Verde Isl., Sal – Murdeira, ribeira, 2.–3.XI.2011 [2–3 November 2011], 16°41'N, 22°55'W, J. Batelka & J. Straka lgt. (JSPC).
Sal: 1♀, Cape Verde Isl., Sal – Monte Grande, 16.XI.2011 [16 November 2011], 20–350 m, 16°49'22"N, 22°54'22"W, J. Batelka & J. Straka lgt. [remnants of meso and metasoma] (JSPC); Santiago: 4♀♀; Ilhas do Cabo Verde, S. Tiago, Tarrafal, Triebe, Goh leg., 18.–20.10.79 [18–20 October 1979] (FISC, JSPC); 1♀, the same as previous except: Goh, Lobin leg., 10.79 [October 1979] (FISC); São Nicolau: 1♀, Ilhas do Cabo Verde, S. Nicolau, Goh, Lobin leg., 10.79 [October 1979] (FISC).
Thyreus denolii is one of the most distinctive of the Cape Verde Island species of Thyreus. The species can be readily recognized in the male by the sixth metasomal tergum with lateral white patches of the same size as on the fourth and fifth terga (rarely with the white patches of the sixth tergum reduced, but when so, then the patches are also reduced on the preceding terga) (Figs 1, 3). The female has a combination of the ventral and ventrolateral parts of the mesepisternum with distinct shiny interspaces among the punctures; the mesoscutum with plsa (anterior posterolateral mesoscutal) present and bordering the anterior portion of the tegula, but not meeting pls (posterolateral mesoscutal) posteriorly (Fig. 4); the apical depression of the fifth metasomal tergum densely punctate medially and densely setose; and the fifth tergum with lateral white patches of the same size as those on the fourth and third terga (Figs 2, 4). Both sexes have the combination of the apicolateral corners of mesoscutellum weakly pointed, forming an angle of more than 40° (although more sharply pointed in the female than the male), and the mesoscutellum finely punctate, with punctures separated, at least on the disc, by 0.5–1 times a puncture width.
♂: Total body length 9.9 mm (7.5–9.9 mm); forewing length 7.4 mm (6.0–7.9 mm). Head wider than long (length 2.4 mm, width 3.0 mm); upper interorbital distance 1.8 mm; lower interorbital distance 1.3 mm. Intertegular distance 2.4 mm (2.0–2.6 mm); mesoscutellar posterior margin often sinuate, sometimes weakly so, such that apicolateral angle projects as a prominent, broad spine and with a defined median emargination [degree of this sinuation is variable and so some males have spines and median emargination less prominent, but margins from apicolateral corners to midpoint are never straight as is usual for species such as Thyreus hohmanni Schwarz, typical Thyreus ramosus (Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau), or several Asiatic species]. Inner anterior angle of metatibia not swollen or projecting into prominence or point between metatibial spurs (e.g., in some Palearctic species this area of metatibia is prominently developed: e.g., Lieftinck 1968). Apex of seventh metasomal tergum with apicolateral prominences distinct, truncate margin between straight, without medial emargination or swelling; male terminalia as in Figures 7–11.
Labrum with coarse, irregular, contiguous punctures except basolateral impunctate areas, such areas longer than wide and therefore ovoid in shape, basomedially with short V-shaped furrow; clypeus with small contiguous punctures, integument between (where evident) smooth; face as on clypeus except punctures slightly larger, nearly contiguous, and somewhat weaker on supraclypeal area; punctures weaker and shallower on vertex and on ocellocular area, with small impunctate area bordering lateral ocellus; punctures coarse, shallow, and nearly contiguous on gena and posterior area of postgena, anterior area of postgena smooth and impunctate. Pronotum with coarse, shallow, nearly contiguous punctures; mesoscutum with well-defined punctures separated by less than a puncture width, slightly more widely spaced around parasidal lines and medioposteriorly such that punctures are separated by about 0.5–2 times a puncture width, integument between punctures smooth and shining; mesoscutellum, including axilla, with punctures as on medioposterior section of mesoscutum except punctures separated by 0.5–1 times a puncture width; pleura with coarse, nearly contiguous punctures, integument between punctures (where evident) smooth and shining; hypoepimeral area with impunctate area bordering scrobe; propodeal lateral and posterior surfaces with coarse, shallow, ill-defined, nearly contiguous punctures. Metasoma with small punctures separated by less than a puncture width, punctures coarser, larger, and somewhat more poorly defined on more apical terga, integument between finely imbricate, apical margins narrowly impunctate and finely imbricate; sterna with similar punctation except those on discs of more basal sterna more widely spaced and becoming more poorly defined on more apical sterna.
Integument black except dark brown on tarsi, mouthparts, and apically on seventh metasomal tergum and on apical sterna. Wing membranes hyaline and slightly infumate, veins dark brown to black.
Pubescence generally fuscous to black over entire body except for presence of plumose white setae on face (Fig. 5), posterior of vertex, upper gena, outer surface of protibia, outer surface of mesotibia, outer basal surface of metatibia, and on mesosoma (using annotation system of Lieftinck 1962, 1968) as follows: deps (dorsal mesepisternal) and lpn (lateral pronotal) present; als (anterolateral mesoscutal) present but reduced, often faint; ms (median mesoscutal) present, although often reduced and faint; mls (mediolateral mesoscutal) present; plsa (anterior posterolateral mesoscutal) present along anterior half to two-thirds of border with tegula, not meeting pls (posterolateral mesoscutal) posteriorly; t (tegular) present and prominent posteriorly on tegula; pls (posterolateral mesoscutal) present, not extending laterally to meet plsa (anterior posterolateral mesoscutal); ps (parascutellar) and s (mesoscutellar) absent; deps (dorsal mespisternal), hypm (hypoepimeral area), and lp (lateral propodeal) present, veps (ventral mesepisternal) absent (Figs 1, 3). Mesoscutellum with dense patch of long, plumose, white setae extending posteriorly from undersurface of mesoscutellum medially, patch wide but not reaching to apicolateral corners. Metasomal terga with prominent patches of appressed, plumose white setae as follows: first metasomal tergum with large, L-shaped patches laterally; second metasomal tergum with lateral patch transverse, slightly wider than twice as long, never L-shaped and without rounded secondary anterior patch; third through sixth metasomal terga with more or less transverse to rounded lateral patches (Figs 1, 3).
♀: As described for the male except in usual gender differences and as follows: Total body length 8.1–10.6 mm; forewing length 6.4–7.4 mm. Head wider than long (length 2.4 mm, width 3.0 mm); upper interorbital distance 1.9 mm; lower interorbital distance 1.3 mm (Fig. 6). Intertegular distance 2.1–2.5 mm; mesoscutellar posterior margin as in male but sometimes sinuate margin weaker and apicolateral angle not forming as prominent a spine. Apical depression of fifth tergum densely punctate and setose. Pygidial plate relatively narrow, margins converging apically, largely straight, apex narrowly rounded, surface imbricate, basal half with shallow, coarse punctures.
Clypeus with small punctures more widely spaced than in male, separated by less than a puncture width, punctures variable in size placed apically, but rather uniform medially, integument between smooth. Mesoscutum with well-defined punctures separated by less than a puncture width anteriorly and laterally, slightly more widely spaced on disc and posteriorly, there separated by 0.5–1.5 times a puncture width; mesoscutellum with punctures separated by less than a puncture width, less frequently separated by as much as a puncture width, axilla with punctures separated by less than a puncture width.
Integument and pubescence as in male except dark brown on pygidial plate; second through fifth metasomal terga with more or less transverse to rounded lateral patches (Figs 2, 4).
The specific epithet is a patronym honoring António de Noli (ca. 1415–d. ?), a Genoese navigator who, exiled from his homeland and working on behalf of Portugal, discovered the Cape Verde Islands around 1456.
The five females collected from Santiago are not designated as part of the type series. While they most closely agree with this species the shape of the pygidial plate is slightly different and this series could possibly represent a separate species. However, given that this is the only fixed difference we can find at this time and that we lack males from Santiago, we have tentatively assigned these individuals to Thyreus denolii pending the discovery of additional material. Analogously, a single female from S. Nicolau that is clearly of Thyreus denolii is also not designated as part of the type series. This might be a mislabeled specimen, a normal part of Thyreus denolii’s distribution, or even a different species. This particular female specimen of Thyreus denolii is unique in its L-shaped white patch on the second tergum. More material and collecting are needed so as to permit a more accurate characterization of the distribution and possible variation within the species.
- Straka, J; Engel, M; 2012: The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae) ZooKeys, 218: 77-109. doi
- Lieftinck M (1968) A review of Old World species of Thyreus Panzer (= Crocisa Jurine) (Hym., Apoidea, Anthophoridae) Part 4. Palearctic species. Zoologische Verhandelingen 98: 1–139, +4 pls.
- Lieftinck M (1962) Revision of the Indo-Australian species of the genus Thyreus Panzer (= Crocisa Jurine) (Hym., Apoidea, Anthophoridae) Part 3. Oriental and Australian species. Zoologische Verhandelingen 53: 1–212, +3 pls.