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Sinqasapatermes sachae sp. n.
The new genus is distinguished from other nasutitermitine genera by the unique combination of the following characteristics from the worker digestive tube: distal margin of the enteric valve (P2) not everted into the paunch (P3) but bending towards the ileum (P1), that is, directed against the flow of food; armed with one ring of six equal subtriangularly-shaped ridges, each ridge with short spines on entire surface (Fig. 14); enteric valve armature situatedonexternal face of cone, facing P1 internal wall (Fig. 15); enteric valve seating tri-lobed and separated from remaining portionof P3; P3 subdivided.
Soldier. Monomorphic. In dorsal view, head capsule with a constriction behind base of antenna. Maximum width behind constriction, at middle of posterior lobe. In profile, dorsal margin of head capsule nearly straight to base of nasus; weakly depressed at base of nasus. Nasus narrow, conical in dorsal view; about same length as head capsule; slanted slightly upward in profile. Mandibles vestigial, without points. Postclypeus moderately arcuate, in profile. Labrum wider than long, with rounded antero-lateral corners. Antenna with 11 articles. Pronotum shallowly saddle-shaped, anterior margin rounded, not emarginate. Tibial spurs 2:2:2.
Worker. Head capsule trapezoidal in dorsal view; maximum width of head capsule at base of mandibles. Fontanelle area depressed, situated at posterior third of head capsule.Postclypeus short and moderately inflated; median line weakly defined. Antenna with 12 articles. Pronotum shallowly saddle-shaped, anterior margin rounded, not emarginate. Tibial spurs 2:2:2.
Mandibles. Left mandible (Fig. 5) with apical tooth slightly as prominent as or slightly more prominent than M1+2, posterior margin of apical tooth weakly concave or truncate; right or acute angle between posterior margin of apical tooth and anterior margin of M1+2; posterior margin of M1+2 straight or slightly sinuous; third marginal tooth reduced to a vestigial node; molar tooth visible at V-shaped gap but apex hidden beneath molar prominence; molar prominence with very weakly-defined ridges. Right mandible (Figs 6–7) with apical tooth slightly more prominent than first marginal tooth, second marginal tooth not visible or vestigial (as a minute prominence); molar plate concave with very weakly defined ridges; basal notch well defined.
Digestive tube (Figs 8–15). Coiling gut in situ forming a short, broad mass. Crop (C) voluminous, partially visible in dorsal view; positioned to left halfof abdomen. Gizzard (G) with a strong musculature; well separated from crop; partially visible in ventral view. Mesenteron (M) passing through right side but not reaching medial line in ventral view. Mesenteric-proctodeal junction circular (mixed segment absent); visible in right lateral view. Malpighian tubules (TM) slightly dilated to form an ampulla at base, arranged in adjacent pairs with a common base at mesenteric-proctodeal junction on inner face. Ileum or first proctodeal segment (P1) tubular; shorter than mesenteron length. Enteric valve (P2) lying beneath P1, conical with distal margin not everted into P3 but bending towards P1, i.e., directed against the flow of food (Fig. 15); armed with one ring of six equal subtriangularly-shaped ridges, each ridge with short spines on entire surface (Fig. 14); enteric valve armature situatedonexternal face of cone, facing P1 internal wall (Fig. 15). P2 in same axis aspaunch (P3). Enteric valve seating, tri-lobed and separated from remaining portionof P3 by a constriction; another subdivision visible at P3 before protruding through mesenteric ring; distal part of P3 very prominent in dorsal view and joining colon (P4) on left side; isthmus conspicuous. Dorsal torsion well developed. P4 “U-turn” dilated. Distal colon tubular.
From Quechua, indigenous South American language, sinqa = nose and sapa = big, and Latin termes = termite, meaning termite with a big nose.
Among soldiers of neotropical genera, the long,narrow nasus and reduced number or absence of bristles on head capsule and thoracic nota are shared characters among species of Cyranotermes Araujo, Anhangatermes Constantino and Sinqasapatermes, but Cyranotermes and Anhangatermes species have antenna with 13 articles and a rounded head capsule. Soldiers of the latter two genera are also significantly larger than those of Sinqasapatermes. Agnathotermes Snyder and Paraconvexitermes Cancello & Noirot also have a conical nasus and antenna with 11 articles, but they differ from Sinqasapatermes by their chaetotaxy and head shape of the soldier.Soldiers of species of Angularitermes Emerson, Araujotermes Fontes, Atlantitermes Fontes, Coatitermes Fontes, Convexitermes Holmgren, Ereymatermes Constantino and Subulitermes Holmgren are genera that can be separated from Sinqasapatermes on the basis of different chaetotaxy arrangement and head capsule shape.
Among workers of neotropical genera, the third marginal tooth of left mandible and second marginal tooth of right mandible absent or vestigial are shared characters among species of Cyranotermes and Anhangatermes, however, molar area differs in Sinqasapatermes by having no ridges and being more concave. Reduced ridges on molar areas are found in Araujotermes, Atlantitermes, Coatitermes, Convexitermes, Ereymatermes, Paraconvexitermes, and Subulitermes, but none of these genera have lost the marginal teeth. The worker gut coiling and enteric valve features of Sinqasapatermes do not match any member of the Subulitermes-group (Kovoor 1969; Fontes 1987; Constantino 1990, 1991; Roisin 1995; Sands 1998; Cancello and Noirot 2003).
- Cuezzo, C; Nickle, D; 2011: A new genus and species of termites (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae) from the rainforest of northern Peru ZooKeys, 159: 1-9. doi
- Kovoor J (1969) Anatomie comparée du tube digestive des termites II. Sous famille des Nasutitermitinae. Insectes Sociaux 16: 195-234. doi: 10.1007/BF02223410
- Fontes L (1987) Morphology of the alate and worker mandibles of the soil-feeding nasute termites (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae) from the Neotropical region. Revista brasileira de Zoologia 3: 503-531.
- Constantino R (1990) Anhangatermes macarthuri, a new genus and species of soil-feeding nasute termite from Amapá, Brazil (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae). Goeldiana Zoologia 3: 1-6.
- Roisin Y (1995) Humivorous nasute termites (Isoptera: Nasutitermitinae) from the Panama Canal area. Belgian Journal of Zoology 125: 283-300.
- Sands W (1998) The identification of worker castes of termite genera from soils of Africa and the Middle East. CAB International, Wallingford, 512 pp.
- Cancello E, Noirot C (2003) Paraconvexitermes acangapua (Isoptera: Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae), a new genus and new species of the so-called “small Neotropical soil-feeding nasutes” from South America. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (ns) 39: 187-193.