Schacontia themis

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Goldstein P, Metz M, Solis M (2013) Phylogenetic systematics of Schacontia Dyar with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae). ZooKeys 291 : 27–81, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-04-17, version 33947, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Schacontia_themis&oldid=33947 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Goldstein2013ZooKeys291,
author = {Goldstein, Paul Z. AND Metz, Mark A. AND Solis, M. Alma},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Phylogenetic systematics of Schacontia Dyar with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae)},
year = {2013},
volume = {291},
issue = {},
pages = {27--81},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.291.3744},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/3744/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-04-17, version 33947, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Schacontia_themis&oldid=33947 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Phylogenetic systematics of Schacontia Dyar with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae)
A1 - Goldstein P
A1 - Metz M
A1 - Solis M
Y1 - 2013
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 291
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.291.3744
SP - 27
EP - 81
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-04-17, version 33947, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Schacontia_themis&oldid=33947 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.291.3744

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Goldstein2013ZooKeys291">{{Citation
| author = Goldstein P, Metz M, Solis M
| title = Phylogenetic systematics of Schacontia Dyar with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 291
| issue =
| pages = 27--81
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.291.3744
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/3744/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-07-17

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-04-17, version 33947, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Schacontia_themis&oldid=33947 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Lepidoptera
Familia: Crambidae
Genus: Schacontia

Name

Schacontia themis Solis & Goldstein sp. n.Wikispecies linkZooBank linkPensoft Profile

Material examined

Type material. Holotype (♂,CMNH). Dominican Republic: La Altagracia. 2 km N Bayahibe, 18-23N, 68-51W, 10 m, 3 July 1992, C. Young, R. Davidson, S. Thompson, J. Rawlins, Dry seasonal forest on limestone, USNM ENT 00808538, DNA 2012 (1♂) [GenBank Accession #KC789515]. Paratypes (41♂, 19♀) USNM, except where otherwise designated. Costa Rican paratypes with an INBio barcode label deposited at INBio. Brazil (5♂, 1♀, 1 sex undet.): Unit. Amaz. Taperinha b. Santarem 1–10 VI ’27, Zerny (1♂) [NHMV]; Unit. Amaz. Taperinha b. Santarem, 1–10 VIII ‘27, Zerny (1♂) [NHMV]; Unit. Amaz. Taperinha b. Santarem, 21–31 VII ’27, Zerny (1♂) [NHMV]; Unit. Amaz. Taperinha b Santarem 1–10 VII ’27, Zerny, 86 (1♂) [NHMV]; Col. Becker 105713, Brasil: BA Jequié, 600–750 m, 11–22 xi 1995, V.O. Becker Col. [1 sex undet.]; Unit. Amaz. Taperinha b. Santarem 1–7 IX ’27, Zerny, 43, genitalia slide by JAL ♀ USNM 108,870 (1♀); Unit. Amaz. Taperinha b. Santarem 1–10 VII ’27, Zerny, 43, Genitalia slide by JAL ♂ USNM 108,880 (1♂). Cayman Islands (7♂, 1♀): N.B. Certain Cayman Islands specimens have multiple data labels with conflicting dates. 17 iv–26.viii 1938, Oxf. Un. Cayman Is. Biol. Exped., Coll. by C.B., G.H. Thompson, 18 v 1938, Cayman Brac., N. coast of Stakes Bay, Light trap A, [yellow tag PARATYPE, in errato], Proboscontia amica Munroe, CNC (2♂); 17 iv –26 viii 1938, Oxf. Un., Cayman Is. Biol. Exped., Coll. by C.B. Lewis, G.H. Thompson, 4 v 1938, Grand Cayman, N coast of Rum Point, Light trap (1♂) [BMNH] [red Holotype label, in errato]; 17 iv –26 viii 1938, Oxf. Un. Cayman Is. Biol. Exped., Coll. by C.B. Lewis, G.H. Thompson, 1 vii 1938, Grand Cayman, East end of Interior, The Cliff, Light trap, ♀ Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 19801, Slide No. 3663 MS (1♀) [BMNH]; 17 iv –26 viii 1938, Oxf. Un. Cayman Is. Biol. Exped., Coll. by C.B. Lewis, G.H. Thompson, 14 v 1938, Grand Cayman, East End light trap B (1♂) [BMNH]; 17 iv –26 viii 1938, Oxf. Un. Cayman Is. Biol. Exped., Coll. by C.B. Lewis, G.H. Thompson, 7 v 1938, Grand Cayman, N coast of, Rum Point, Light trap (1♂) [BMNH]; 17 iv –26 viii 1938, Oxf. Un. Cayman Is. Biol. Exped., Coll. by C.B. Lewis, G.H. Thompson, 22 v 1938, Cayman Brac., N coast of Stakes Bay, Light trap A, ♂ Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 19802 (1♂) [BMNH]; 17 iv –26 viii 1938, Oxf. Un. Cayman Is. Biol. Exped., Coll. by C.B. Lewis, G.H. Thompson, 11 vii 1938, Grand Cayman, N coast of North Side, Light trap B (1♂) [BMNH]. Costa Rica (5♂, 6♀, 1 sex undet.): Guanacaste. Voucher INBio data base Costa Rica 97-SRNP-2346 Testigo Base de datos INBio Costa Rica (1♂); Voucher INBio data base Costa Rica 97-SRNP-2354.2 Testigo Base de datos INBio Costa Rica, Genitalia slide ♀ by JAL(1♀); Voucher INBio data base Costa Rica 97-SRNP-2349 Testigo Base de datos INBio Costa Rica (1♀); Sirena, Corcovado Nat. Pk. Osa Penin. Costa Rica 10–12 Aug. 1980, D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs, Genitalia slide by DA ♀ USNM 107,907, INBio Barcode #CR1001 115167, “Head illustrated” (1♀); Est. Cacao, 1000–1400 m, Lado SO Vol. Cacao, P.N.G. Prov. Guan, Costa Rica, C. Chaves, Abr 1991, L-N-323300, 375700 (1♀); INBio Barcode # CR1000 700522, Est. Santa Rosa, Prov. Guana, Costa Rica, 300 m, 25 Feb–5 MAR 1995, B. Gamboa, L N 313300 #4730 (1♀); INBio Barcode # CR1000 187409, Est. Sirena, 0–100 m, P.N. Corcovado, Prov. Punt., Costa Rica, G. Fonseca, May 1991, L-S-270500, 508800, INBio Barcode # CR1000 563282 (1♀); Voucher INBio data base Costa Rica 97-SRNP-2352 Testigo Base de datos INBio Costa Rica, “S. mootii #4” (1♂); Voucher INBio data base Costa Rica 97-SRNP-2354.1 Testigo Base de datos INBio Costa Rica, genitalia slide ♂ by JAL (1♂); Sirena, Corcovado Nat. Pk., Osa Penin., Costa Rica 5–11 Jan 1981, D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs, Genitalia slide by DA ♂ USNM 107, 908, INBio Barcode #CR1001 115168 (1♂); 80.SRNP.47, Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, D.H. Janzen, genitalia slide ♂ by JAL (1♂); 1sex undet.: Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste Prov., Costa Rica, 1 May 1980, D.J. Janzen & W. Hallwachs, INBio Barcode # CR1002 506841. Cuba (2♂):Col. Becker 72733, Cuba: Gtnmo Imias, 10 m, 17 vii 1990, V.O. Becker, 17, Genitalia slide by JAL ♂, USNM ENT 00808541, DNA 2012 (1♂); Col. Becker 73068, Cuba: Stgo. Siboney, 20 m, 23 vii 1990, V.O. Becker, 15, genitalia slide by JAL ♂, USNM ENT 00808540, DNA 2012 (1♂). Dominican Republic (1♂, CMNH): Same data as holotype, USNM ENT 00808539 [GenBank Accession # KC789516] (1♂). Jamaica (9♂, 1♀): Jamaica: Clar. Par., Mason River Station 4 mi NW Kellits , DNA 2012, 2200 ft, 16–19 Apr ’73, Don & Mignon Davis (1♂); Jamaica: Clar. Par., Portland Ridge nr. Jackson Bay Cave, 40 ft, 4 May 1973, Don & Mignon Davis (1♂); Jamaica: Ann Par., nr. Runaway Bay Cave, 50 ft, 1–2 May 1973, Don & Mignon Davis (1♂); Jamaica: Clar. Par., nr. Jackson Bay Cave, 1.5 mi SE Jack. Beach, 50 ft, 4 May 1973, Don & Mignon Davis (6♂, 1♀) [incl. 1♂ genitalia slide ♂ by JAL USNM 108,879, + 1♀ genitalia slide ♀ by JAL USNM 108,868]. Panama (5♂, 2♀males): Panama: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Isl., 21 Mar 1979, Silberglied/Aiello, at light, 35, Genitalia slide by JAL USNM 108,874 (1♂); Panama: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Isl., 7 Mar 1979, Silberglied/Aiello, at light (1♂); Panama: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Isl., 31 Mar 1979, Silberglied/Aiello, at light (1♂); Panama: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Isl., 19 Mar 1979, Silberglied/Aiello, at light (1♂); Panama: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Isl., 18 Mar 1979, Silberglied/Aiello, at light (1♂); Panama: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Isl., 12 Mar 1979, Silberglied/Aiello, at light, 34, Genitalia slide ♀ by JAL USNM 108,873 (1♀); Panama: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Isl.,1 Apr 1979,Silberglied/Aiello, at light (1♀). Puerto Rico (4♂, 2♀): Puerto Rico, Guanica, Bosque Estatal de Guanica, 3.6 km E Guanica, 17-58-11N, 66-52-28W, Thornscrub, 100 m, 12 June 1996, J. Rawlins, R. Davidson, C. Young, M. Klingler, W. Zanol, S. Thompson, Carnegie Museum Specimen Number 65,312 (1♂) [CMNH]; Puerto Rico, Guanica, Bosque Estatal de Guanica, 3.6 km E Guanica, 17-58-11N, 66-52-28W, thornscrub, 100 m, 12 June 1996, J. Rawlins, R. Davidson, C. Young, M. Klingler, W. Zanol, S. Thompson, Carnegie Museum Specimen Number 65,695 (1♂) [CMNH]; Col. Becker 67784, Puerto Rico, Guanica, 170 m, 20 viii 1987, V.O. Becker (2♂, 1♀ ) [incl. 1 genitalia slide ♂ by JAL]; Col. Becker 67782, Puerto Rico, Guanica, 170 m, 20 viii 1987, V.O. Becker (1♀). Venezuela (3♂):Venezuela, Guarico, Hato Masaguaral, 45 km S Calabozo 8.57N, 67.58W, Galry For #10, 75 m, 23–24 Apr 1988, uv lt., M. Epstein & R. Blahnik (2♂); Venezuela, Guarico, Hato Masaguaral, 45 km S Calabozo 8.57N, 67.58W, Galry Forest #20, 75 m, 13–16 May 1988, uv lt., M. Epstein & R. Blahnik [x2 incl. 1w/Genitalia slide ♂ by JAL USNM 108,869] (1♂) [Fig. 6].

Additional material examined:

British Virgin Islands (BVI) (29♂, 16♀): Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana Island, 0–80 m, 5–23 July 1985, S.E. & P.M. Miller, Clubhouse 60 m, U.V. light trap, 9–15 July 1985 (1♂); same as previous, 36, VOB ♀ USNM 108,875 (1♀); Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana Island, 0–80 m, 5–23 July 1985, S.E. & P.M. Miller (5♂); same as previous, VOB ♂ USNM 95900 (1♂); Col. Becker 66651, Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana I., 0–80 m, 9–23.vii.1987, V.O. Becker & S.E. Miller, Genitalia 1260 (1 sex undet.); Col. Becker 70821, Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana X. 1989 V.O. Becker (10♂, 3♀) [incl. ♂ “slide 21”, hair pencils and abdominal coremata present]; same as previous, Genitalia slide by JAL ♂ (1♂, 1♀); same as previous, Genitalia 1261 and 1262 (2♀); Col. Becker 66649, Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana I., 0–80 m, 9–23 vii 1987, V.O. Becker & S.E. Miller, 11, Genitalia Slide ♂ by JAL (1♂) [hair pencils and abdominal coremata present]; Col. Becker 66651, Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana I, 0–80 m, 9–23 vii 1987, V.O. Becker & S.E. Miller (1♂, 2♀); Col. Becker 66650, Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana I., 0–80 m, 9–23 vii 1987, V.O. Becker & S.E. Miller (3♂, 1♀); Col. Becker 66649, Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana I, 0–80 m, 9–23 vii 1987, V.O. Becker & S.E. Miller (2♂, 5♀); same as previous, Genitalia 1296 [Abdomen remains on specimen (!)] (1♂); Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana Island, 0–80m, 13–26 July 1986, S.E. Miller & M.G. Pogue, North Bay, Coccoloba forest, U.V. light trap. sea level, 15–25 July 1986, [note label dates contradict], #25 (1♂); Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana I, 0–80 m, 24–31.x. 1990, S.E. Miller & T.M. Kuklenski, Collectors Bishop Museum, n. gen. + sp, Schacontiinae det. E.G. Munroe, 1991, Schacontia n. sp. det. M.A. Solis (1♂); Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana I, 0–80 m, 10–25.vii.1988, S.E. Miller & C. O’Connell, Colls. Bishop Museum, 89: 13 Apr #1 EGM (1♂); Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana Island, 1–14 July 1984, S.E. & P.M. Miller, 39, Genitalia Slide by JAL ♀ USNM 108,878 (1♀); Anomalous BVI specimens with tibial hair pencils but no abdominal coremata (3♂): Col. Becker 70821, Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana X. 1989 V.O. Becker, 23, Genitalia slide ♂ by JAL (1♂); Col. Becker 66650, Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana I., 0–80 m 9–23.vii.1987 V.O. Becker & S.E. Miller, 13, Genitalia slide ♂ by JAL (1♂); Brit. Virgin Isl., Guana Island, 0–80 m, 5–23 July 1985, S.E. & P.M. Miller, Clubhouse, 60 m, U.V. light trap, 9–15 July 1985, 38, VOB ♂ USNM 108,877 (1♂). Mexico (4♀). Chichen Itza. Yucatan, Mexico. EC Welling Coll. 5.III.1956 (1♀) [CNC]; Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, EC Welling Coll., 2.III.956 (1♀) [CNC]; Mexico, Mazatlan, July 10, 1969, El 50’, James H. Baker collection 1978 (1♀); Taboga Isl Pan, Febr 12 August, Busck (1♀). United States (1♀): Florida. “Sanibel Island, Lee Co., FLA.”, “30-VI-1984 Leg. W.L. Adair”, MGCL slide no. 687 [MGCL].

Diagnosis

Habitus (Fig. 6). Unlike many Schacontia, there is little to no contrast between the medial area and the rest of the forewing; although this holds for both Schacontia rasa and Schacontia clotho as well, those two are readily distinguished on other grounds. Male Schacontia themis exhibit the full range of secondary sexual features known from the genus (flattened hind tibial spur, elongate hind tibial scales with embedded dark patch, epipleural setae, and concave metatarsal structure) as well as long abdominal coremata (Fig. 19; Table 1); Schacontia rasa (below), the putative sister species of Schacontia themis, has none of these (but see remarks). Two other Schacontia species (Schacontia clotho and Schacontia lachesis) do share these features in part, but not the genitalic configuration that characterizes Schacontia themis and Schacontia rasa (see below). Male and female genitalia (Figs 49–51). As with the remaining Schacontia, males of this species are most readily diagnosed by a combination of genitalic and external secondary sexual characteristics. The male genitalia best distinguish this species and its putative sister, Schacontia rasa (below), from other Schacontia: The uncus has a characteristic, expansive trefoil-shaped tip and lateral edges that appear swollen or re-enforced (as Schacontia lachesis and Schacontia atropos do), and a raised, pronounced medial ridge (as they do not). The intrasaccular flange is robust and forms a trigger-shaped process at the latero-ventral edge of the valva.

Table 1. Species diagnoses for the Schacontia nyx complex based on male genitalia and secondary sexual characters. Format inspired by Ferguson (1992: 259)[1].
Thorax Abdomen Genitalia
Flattened hind tibial spur Elongatehind tibial scales Dark patch embedded within tibial scales Epipleural setal tufts Concavemeta-tarsal structure Coremata Saccular bend or ulna Ventro-medial setal comb Distribution of ventro-marginal setae Hook-shaped decumbent costal setal cluster
themis + 0/+ 0/+ + + Short NA 0 0 0
rasa 0 0 NA 0 0 NA NA 0 0 0
nyx + + 0 0 + Short Round + Localized 0
clotho + + + + + Long Round + Localized +
lachesis + + 0/+ + + Short Angled 0 Even +
atropos 0 0 NA 0 0 NA Angled 0 Even +

Description

Male. (Fig. 6). Forewing length: 5.3–10.0 mm. Head - Ocelli present; proboscis with pale basal scales in males, light brown basal scales in females. Vertex and frons yellowish white in males, intermixed with brownish-gray scales in females; frons of normal (convex) contour; maxillary palpi uniformly grayish brown; labial palpi grayish brown in males, fading to gray apically in females; labial and maxillary palpi porrect, extending well beyond clypeus; antennal scape and pedicel yellowish white, flagellomeres grayish brown. Thorax - Thoracic collar, tegula and mesoscutum yellowish white in males, brownish gray in females. Males with flattened hind tibial apical spur, hind tibial tuft of long black scales intermixed with pale yellowish-white scales, epipleural setae, and shallow concave metatarsal modification. Females with two pair of hind tibial spurs (medial pair present). Forewingground color straw, with few contrasting markings other than jagged chocolate-brown antemedial and postmedial lines, postmedial line outwardly bulging only slightly, towards costa. Medial area unicolorous with basal area and postmedial areas. Fringe darkened apically. Hindwing. Almost uniformly pale, shaded brown at subterminal area. Abdomen - Dorsal surface straw brown. Scales arranged in two terminal black dorsal spots in males. Lobe-like extensions resembling rudimentary coremata on 4th abdominal sternum. Tympanal organs. (Fig. 26). As for ysticalis-themis group, vide supra. Male genitalia (Figs 49, 50) - Tegumen divided into two obliquely opposed oval sections meeting caudally near base of uncus and diverging widely anteriorly towards valvae. Teguminal sulcus short, such that anterior margin of tegumen appears deeply invaginate, two oblong teguminal lobes joined obliquely. Uncus with prominent medial ridge; uncal tip hastate, trefoil-like; lateral edges of uncus swollen, appearing re-enforced and lending a shovel- or scoop-like appearance to uncus. Gnathal plate narrowed to a transverse band with arms at each corner and a small, nub-like process arising centrally; dorsal arms wrap around anal tube while a ventral pair extend to termini of vinculum. Vinculum variously U-shaped or horseshoe shaped with pronounced pockets or eyelets at each terminus. Juxta robust, V-shaped; valvae complex, robust costa arising near vincular terminus, extending almost length of valva, and tapering to a point. A serrate, trigger-like ventral spine arises from ventral margin of sacculus; robust, spine-like setae at base of valva; saccular margin angled close to vinculum, not at saccular mid-point; ventro-marginal setae concentrated at venter or saccular ulna; valva with secondary fleshy subcostal setose lobe, setal plume recurved/decumbent. Elongate saccular process at outer saccular margin; saccular margin with several stout setae. Inner surface of valvae dorsal to saccular area with a small, circular setal cluster. Phallus moderately sclerotized; vesica with two large cornuti. Female genitalia (Fig. 51) - Papillae anales separate, not especially swollen; anterior and posterior apophyses threadlike, approximately equivalent in length; antrum/ductus bursae conspicuously sclerotized with a partial ventral collar or sleeve ventrally anterior to colliculum; a sharp constriction between ductus bursae and colliculum; colliculum a short sclerotized ring immediately posterior to corpus bursae with a narrow differentially sclerotized band around its center; corpus bursae membranous, more or less round, without signa or conspicuous appendices except single posterio-dorsal lobe; ductus seminalis appears to originate from antrum.

Immature stages

Unknown.

Variation

This species varies most obviously in size (5.3 mm–10.0 mm in male forewing length), and based on the examination of several anomalous specimens from the British Virgin Islands, the presence of male secondary sexual characteristics (tibial hair pencils and abdominal coremata) do not perfectly covary: Hair-penciled males with and without coremata are noted from Guana Island, examples annotated and/or segregated in “Material examined” section above; see also Discussion.

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to the Greek Titaness and embodiment of divine order and is treated as a noun in apposition.

Biology

Possibly associated with Capparaceae. (http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu/caterpillars/database.lasso). Phenology, based on examined material: January–April, August in Costa Rica; March–April in Panama; April–May in Jamaica & Cayman Islands; July in Dominican Republic; June–July in Cuba; June, August in Puerto Rico; April–May in Venezuela; July–August in Brazil.

Distribution

Brazil, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida (USA), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Venezuela. The Sanibel Island, Florida record represents the only known United States occurrence of any Schacontia.

Remarks

Schacontia themis is among the more widespread and collected species of Schacontia. It seems likely that more cryptic species (like Schacontia rasa, below) exist.

Original Description

  • Goldstein, P; Metz, M; Solis, M; 2013: Phylogenetic systematics of Schacontia Dyar with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) ZooKeys, 291: 27-81. doi

Other References

  1. Ferguson D (1992) Franclemontia interrogans (Walker), a new genus for an old species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100 (2): 257-266.

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