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- Takahashia citricola Kuwana 1909: 153; Kuwana 1917: 53.
- Saissetia citricola: Takahashi and Tachikawa 1956: 7; Kawai 1972: 17; Kawai 1980: 157; Tang 1991: 216; Ben-Dov 1993: 304; Kozár et al. 1998: 152.
- Pulvinaria gamazumii Kanda 1960: 119. syn. n.
- Parasaissetia citricola: Yang 1982: 178.
(measured specimens are indicated by asterisks). 4 females*, Japan: Ôsaka [Osaka](34°33'N, 135°35'E - 34°46'N, 135°23'E), 5.v.1954, R. Takahashi coll., host: Cinnamomum camphora (deposited in SEHU). 1 female*, Japan: Aomori, Towada (40°25'N, 141°20'E - 40°39'N, 140°50'E), no date indicated, S. Kanda coll., host: Viburnum wrightii (deposited in OMNH; a syntype of Pulvinaria ganazumii). 5 females*, Japan: Tiba [Chiba], Matudo [Matsudo], Kamihongô [Kamiongo] (35°47'N, 139°55'E), 23.iv.2005, H. Tanaka coll., host: Ilex integra (deposited in TUA). 4 females, Japan: Tôkyô [Tokyo], Meguro (35°35'N, 139°39'E - 35°39'N, 139°44'E), 26.iv.1972, S. Kawai coll., host: Illicium anisatum (deposited in TUA); 1 female, Japan: Tôkyô [Tokyo], Hutyû [Fuchu], Saiwai-tyô [Saiwai-cho](35°41'N, 139°29'E), 10.v.1974, S. Kawai coll., host: Laurus nobilis (deposited in TUA).
(based on adult female). Body nearly round, broadest across thorax and anterior abdomen. Body strongly lifted by ventral ovisac. Anal plates posteriorly elongate; each plate with posterior margin about two times as long as anterior margin, with 3 fine apical setae and a well-developed discal seta. Three types of ventral tubular ducts present; smallest type forming complete broad submarginal band.
Living appearance. Body nearly round, broadest across thorax and anterior abdomen. Prior to oviposition, dorsum reddish light brown posteriorly and dark brown anteriorly (Fig. 1), changing to reddish brown with a dark brown marginal ring at full-maturity. Mature adult females produce an ovisac mainly from beneath abdomen. No wax present on dorsum at oviposition. Post-oviposition females sclerotised and not shrivelled. Ovisac white, very convex, nearly hemispherical. Body strongly lifted posteriorly by ovisac.
Slide-mounted material (measured individuals: n = 10).Body elongate-oval, 2.9–4.0 mm long, 2.9–4.0 mm wide, margin with a shallow indentation at each stigmatic cleft; anal cleft 1/5–1/6 body length.
Dorsum. Derm membranous when young. Dermal areolations well developed. Dorsal setae spiniform, 7–12 mm long, frequent, scattered over entire dorsum, each with a well-developed basal socket. Preopercular pores each ring-like, conspicuous, 3.5–7.0 mm wide, consisting of a compact group of 2–11 pores anterior to anal plates. Dorsal tubular ducts absent. Dorsal microductules frequent throughout. Dorsal tubercles absent. Anal plates posteriorly elongated; each plate with posterior margin about two times as long as anterior margin, each with 3 fine apical setae and a discal seta; length of plates 214–249 mm; width of single plate 85–122 mm; each plate with well-developed supporting bars. Ano-genital fold with 2 pairs of setae along anterior margin and 1 or 2 pairs laterally. Anal ring with 6–8 setae (mostly 8). Eyespot present near margin
Margin.Marginal setae spinose, each with a simple pointed apex and a well-developed basal socket; length highly variable, each seta 20–107 mm long, with 10–13 setae present on each side between stigmatic clefts. Stigmatic clefts shallow, each with 0–3 (mostly 3) stigmatic spines in each cleft, longest spine 92–134 µm long, about 3–4 times as long as lateral spines.
Venter.Derm membranous. Pregenital disc-pores each with 8–11 loculi (mainly 10), present around genital opening and on mediolateral areas of all abdominal segments and metathorax; a small group also present laterad of each coxa. Spiracular disc-pores each with 5 loculi, present between margin and each spiracle in band 1–5 pores wide; anterior bands with 30–63 pores and posterior bands with 45–80 pores. Ventral microducts evenly distributed throughout venter. Three types of ventral tubular ducts present: type I with well-developed terminal gland and a stout inner ductule, present medially on head and thorax; type II rather narrower with a long, much thinner inner ductule, shallow cup-shaped invagination, and a well-developed terminal gland, sparse medially on posterior abdominal segments and also in a submarginal band with ducts of type III; type III ducts similar to type II, but with a short, filamentous inner ductule and very small terminal gland, mainly present in a broad submarginal band. Ventral setae: 3 pairs of long pregenital setae and 3–6 pairs of long setae between antennae; other setae short and fine. Spiracles as usual for family; width of each peritreme: anterior 47–60 mm, posterior 58–70 mm. Legs well developed; each with tibio-tarsal articulation and articulatory sclerosis; all claws without denticle; both claw digitules rather broad and slightly shorter than thin tarsal digitules; trochanter + femur 240–306 mm, tibia 162–198 mm, and tarsus 92–118 mm. Antennae each with 7 or 8 segments (mostly 8); total length 342–412 mm. Labium approximately 47–118 mm wide.
Host plants in Japan
Aquifoliaceae: Ilex integra (Kawai 1980); Ilex chinensis (Kawai 1980). Araliaceae: Fatsia japonica (Takahashi and Tachikawa 1956, Kawai 1980). Adoxaceae: Viburnum odoratissimum (Takahashi and Tachikawa 1956, Kawai 1980); Viburnum wrightii (Kanda1960).Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki (Takahashi and Tachikawa 1956). Sapindaceae: Aesculus turbinata (Kawai 1980). Schisandraceae: Illicium anisatum (Kawai 1980). Lauraceae: Cinnamomum camphora (Takahashi and Tachikawa 1956, Kawai 1980); Laurus nobilis (Takahashi and Tachikawa 1956, Kawai 1980); Machilus thunbergii (Kawai 1980); Lindera erythrocarpa (Kawai 1980). Magnoliaceae: Magnolia kobus (Takahashi and Tachikawa 1956, Kawai 1980). Pentaphylacaceae: Eurya japonica (Kawai 1980); Ternstroemia gymnanthera (Kawai 1980). Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum tobira (Kawai 1980). Rosaceae: Pyrus pyrifolia (Takahashi and Tachikawa 1956, Kawai 1980). Rubiaceae: Gardenia jasminoides (Kawai 1980). Rutaceae: Citrus sp. (Kuwana 1909). Styracaceae: Styrax obassia (Kawai 1980). Theaceae: Camellia sinensis (Kawai 1980).
Thisspecies occurs widely across central and northern parts of Japan from Honsyû [Honsyu], Kyusyû [Kyushu] and Sikoku [Shikoku] districts.
A good photograph of ovisac-producing adult females is presented in Kawai (1980). Kuwana’s type material of this species could not be found in the Kuwana collection of the National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Tukuba [Tsukuba] and is presumed lost.
- Tanaka, H; 2012: Redescription of Takahashia citricola Kuwana, 1909, and its transfer to the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Coccoidea, Coccidae) ZooKeys, 217: 1-10. doi
- Kuwana S (1909) Coccidae of Japan (III). First supplemental list of Japanese Coccidae, or scale insects, with description of eight new species. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 17: 150-158.
- Kuwana S (1917) [Coccidae of Japan, vol II. ]. Nishigahara Sousyo Kankoukai, Tokyo, 157 pp.
- Takahashi R, Tachikawa T (1956) Scale insects of Shikoku (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Transactions of the Shikoku Entomological Society 5: 1-17.
- Kawai S (1972) [Diagnostic notes and biology of the coccid species occurring on cultivated or wild trees and shrubs in Japan (Homoptera: Coccoidea)]. Bulletin of the Tokyo-to Agricultural Experiment Station 6: 1-54. [In Japanese]
- Kawai S (1980) [Scale Insects of Japan in Colors]. Zenkoku Nôson Kyouiku Kyoukai, Tokyo, 455 pp.[In Japanese]
- Tang F (1991) [The Coccidae of China]. Shanxi United Universities Press, Taiyuan, 377 pp. [In Chinese]
- Ben-Dov Y (1993) A Systematic Catalogue of the Soft Scale Insects of the World (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Flora and Fauna Handbook, No. 9. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, 536 pp.
- Kozár F, Konczné Benedicty Z, Drozdják J (1998) Coccidae. In: Kozár F (Ed). Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea. Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest: 41-164.
- Kanda S (1960) Descriptions of the Coccidae from Japan (Homoptera). Kontyû 28: 116-123.
- Yang P (1982) [General classification of scale insects in China]. Shanghai Science and Technology, Shanghai, 425 pp. [In Chinese]