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- Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, 1930: 187 (orig. descrip.); Knight 1941: 114 (descrip., key, genitalia); Froeschner 1949: 172 (note, key); Carvalho 1958: 44 (cat.); Akingbohungbe et al. 1972: 9 (note); Henry and Wheeler 1988: 393 (cat.); Schuh 1995: 91 (cat.); Henry et al. 2005: 52 (list).
This species (Figs 51–54) is recognized by the brown to reddishbrown coloration, usually with the anterior half of the hemelytron paler than the posterior half; the smooth, polished pronotum; the uniformly white ostiolar auricle, lacking a red knob; and the male genitalia, particularly the right paramere (Fig. 219) forming a stout C-shaped structure and the phallotheca (Fig. 218) with a long, slender, recurving, apical process.
Male (n = 10; holotype measurements in parentheses): Length 3.60–3.96 mm (3.78 mm), width 1.16–1.18 mm (1.06 mm). Head: Width 0.76–0.78 mm (0.72 mm), interocular width 0.36-0.40 mm (0.37 mm). Labium: Length 1.36–1.42 mm (1.37 mm). Antenna: Segment I, length 0.24–0.26 mm (0.24 mm); II, 0.75–0.78 mm (0.75 mm); III, 0.44–0.48 mm (0.46 mm); IV, 0.44–0.46 mm (0.45 mm). Pronotum: Length 0.78–0.84 mm (0.80 mm), basal width 1.08–1.12 mm (1.10 mm).
Coloration: Head: Brown. Antenna: Segment I, pale brown; segment II, dark brown, paler on basal half; segments III and IV dark brown to fuscous. Pronotum: Shiny dark brown, paler anteriorly; scutellum brown, paler along margins. Hemelytron: Uniformly polished, dark brown, paler brown on clavus and basal l/2 of corium; membrane smoky black beyond apex of cuneus, pale across and between areoles. Ventral surface: Shiny brown, abdomen becoming dark brown or black. Ostiolar evaporative area: Uniformly white. Legs: Coxae pale brown, apex of procoxa sometimes reddish, base of middle coxa sometimes infuscated; femora dark brown, hind femur pale at extreme apices; tibiae brown, becoming paler on apical halves; tarsi and claws pale.
Structure, texture, and vestiture: Head: Shiny, vertex weakly granulate, frons weakly transversely rugose, with numerous long, slender, simple, brown setae. Labium: Extending to bases of hind coxae. Antenna: Segment II slender basally, gradually enlarging to apex; setae short, recumbent. Pronotum: Strongly convex, disc smooth, polished, calli granulate, depressed collar transversely striate, sparsely set with very short, palebrown, recumbent setae; scutellum with a wide band of silvery scale-like setae through middle, intermixed with long, erect, pale brown, simple setae. Hemelytron: A band of silvery scale-like setae across base of clavus (and continuous with band on scutellum) and a wider band through middle of corium and across apical l/3 of clavus, sparsely intermixed with very long, pale brown setae on clavus and inner margin of corium. Ventral surface: Abdomen sparsely set with short, pale brown, simple setae and a few longer erect setae on genital capsule; second visible abdominal segment with dull alutaceous stridulatory patch on middle half.
Male genitalia: Aperture large with a sharp, inwardly directed spine above left paramere. Left paramere (Fig. 217) relatively short and stout, quadrate on apical half, with apex pointed and curved downward; long, erect, basal process stout and bifid apically (apex somewhat variable, with secondary spine sometimes poorly developed). Right paramere (Fig. 219) stout, C-shaped. Phallotheca (Fig. 218) elongate, weakly constricted before widening distally, apex tapered into a long, slender, recurving process.
Female (n=3): Coloration and structure similar to that of male, except as noted below. Length to apex of abdomen 2.96–3.05 mm, length to apex of hemelytron 2.25–2.50 mm, width across apex of hemelytra 1.24–1.28 mm. Head: Width 1.44–1.46 mm, interocular width 0.48–0.50 mm. Labium: Length 1.44–1.46 mm. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.26 mm; II, 0.74–0.78 mm; III, 0.42–0.44 mm; IV 0.44–0.46 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.72 mm, basal width 0.70–0.74 mm.
Coloration: Head, pronotum, and scutellum: Brown. Ventral surface: Brown, abdomen becoming black, with long, slender, erect, pale setae. Ostiolar evaporative area: White. Legs similar to those of male.
Structure, texture, and vestiture: Labium: Extending to hind coxae. Pronotum: Quadrate, shiny brown, strongly convex, sides rounded, disc and calli continuously rounded, disc shiny, not cleft, calli weakly rugose, anterior flattened, collar-like area short, but distinctly transversely striate, downward sloping posterior end of disc rugose, posterior margin flattened, posterior angles flared outward. Scutellum: Depressed through middle, apex with a patch of silvery scale-like setae. Hemelytron: Brachypterous, polished, narrow on basal half, flaring wider apically, strongly depressed across basal third to half, apical half of corium with a shiny, glabrous swelling, claval suture absent, fusing clavus and corium, cuneal fracture absent, apex truncate, apical margin cutting inward forming a shallow V with both hemelytra together; patch of silvery scale-like setae at base of corium and a semicircular band extending from middle of outer corial margin around inside of hump and back across apex to outer margin of cuneal area, claval area and inner corial margin with long, erect, pale brown setae; apical three abdominal segments exposed beyond hemelytra.
Previously known in the United States from Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Wisconsin (Henry and Wheeler 1988, Henry et al. 2005). New state records are Arkansas, Indiana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Henry et al. (2005) reported taking Campsis camela from trumpet creeper, Campsis radicans (L.) Seem [Bignoniaceae], and poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze [Anacardiaceae]. In addition to these hosts, A. G. Wheeler and I have collected Pilophoropsidea camela from a broad range of plants and habitats, including Celtis sp. (hackberry) [Ulmaceae], Fraxinus sp. (ash) [Oleaceae], Quercus stellata Wangenh. (post oak) [Fagaceae], Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. (Virginia creeper) [Vitaceae], Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. (winged elm) [Ulmaceae], thickets of Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau [Bignoniaceae], and from a thick hedge-row of vegetation. Specimens usually are beaten from dense vegetation or from larger, often moss- or lichen-covered branches of trees, particularly species of Quercus, such as post oak. This wide assortment of collection sites and hosts suggests that this mirid is an opportunistic predator, probably seeking injured, dead, or dying soft-bodied arthropods as prey.
We also have observed a general association of this mimetic species with ants. In Arkansas, we found Pilophoropsidea camela more common when Crematogaster clara Mayr was present. A specimen of Crematogaster lineolata (Say) in the USNM collection is associated with a male of Pilophoropsidea camela collected by R. C. Froeschner in Missouri (23 July 1942).
Type specimens examined
Holotype: ♂: USA: Illinois: Champaign Co.: “Urbana, Ill., Aug. 21, 1926, Vera Smith”  (USNM). Paratypes: USA: Illinois: Champaign Co.: Urbana [40.11056EN, 88.20722E W], 21 Aug 1926, Vera Smith, 1♀ (allotype) (00071557) (USNM).
Other specimens examined
USA: Arkansas: Perry Co.: Rt. 60, near Conway, Toadsuck Park, 35.07198EN, 92.52377EW, 91 m, 12 Jun 1987, T. J. Henry and A. G. Wheeler, Jr, 2♂♂ (00071562, 00071563), 1♀ (00071564) Campsis radicans (Bignoniaceae), Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Vitaceae), and Toxicodendron radicans (Anacardiaceae), 1♂ (00071561) Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), 1♂ (00071560) (USNM). Pope Co.: Lake Dardanelle State Park, Rt. 64, 13 Jun 1987, T. J. Henry and A. G Wheeler, Jr., Quercus stellata (Fagaceae), 1♀ (00285689) (USNM). Russellville, Arkansas Tech University, 35.27842EN, 93.13379EW, 13 Jan 1987, T. J. Henry and A. G. Wheeler, Jr, 1♂ (00071574) Ulmus crassifolia (Ulmaceae), 1♀ (00071575), 3♂♂ (00071576-00071578) (USNM). Illinois: Madison Co.: Glen Carbon, 38.74833EN, 89.98306EW, 04 Sep 1950, J. A. Slater, 1♂ (00138451) (AMNH). Indiana: Cass Co.: Logansport, Dykeman Park, 1 Jul 1984, T. J. Henry, from thick hedgerow of Campsis radicans (Bignoniacaeae), 1♀ (USNM). Kentucky: Fulton Co.: CR-430, nr Mississippi River, 2.1 mi. N. of Sassafras Ridge, 36.55555EN, 89.22388EW, 19 Jun 2001, T. J. Henry and A. G Wheeler, Jr., Toxicodendron pubescens (Anacardiaceae), 1♂ (00285685) Campsis radicans (Bignoniaceae), 1♂ (00285686), 1♀ (00285687) (USNM). Missouri: Cole Co.: Jefferson City, 38.5584EN, 92.17203EW, 30 m, 23 Jul 1942, R. C. Froeschner, willow, 1♀ (00071559) (USNM); 11 Jul 1944, W. W. Dowdy, 1♂ (00285691) (USNM). St. Louis Co.: Saint Louis, 38.62722EN, 90.19778EW, 03 Sep 1939, R. C. Froeschner, 1♂ (00071558) (USNM). Nebraska: Nemaha Co.: Peru, Neal Park, 40.46972EN, 95.73277EW, 09 Jul 1986, T. J. Henry and A. G. Wheeler, Jr, beaten from thick hedge of mixed vegetation 1♂ (00285690) (USNM). Oklahoma: Choctaw Co.: Hugo Lake, Wilson Pt., Rt. 147, 34.04EN, 95.37638EW, 95 m, 16 Jun 1999, T. J. Henry and A. G Wheeler, Jr., Quercus stellata (Fagaceae), 2♀♀ (00071569, 0071570) (USNM). Murray Co.: I77, at I-35 W. of Doughtery, 316 m, 34.39444EN, 97.13861EW, 13 Jun 1999, T. J. Henry and A. G Wheeler, Jr., Ulmus crassifolia (Ulmaceae), 1 (?sex) (00071565), 1♂ (00071566), 1♀ (00071567) (USNM). Sequoyah Co.: Applegate Cove, Kerr Lake, 6 mi. S. of Sallisaw, 18 Jun 1999, T. J. Henry and A. G Wheeler, Jr., Quercus stellata (Fagaceae), 1♂ (00285688) (USNM). Texas: Brazos Co.: College Station, 30.62778EN, 96.33417EW, 15 May 1933, H. G. Johnston, 3♂♂ (00071571-00071573) (USNM). College Station, 30.62778EN, 96.33417EW, 20 May 1929, H. G. Johnston, 1♂ (02467796) (TAMU); 15 May 1933, H. G. Johnston, 1♂ (02467799) (TAMU); 18 May 1933, H. G. Johnston, 1♂ (02467798) (TAMU); 19 May 1933, H. G. Johnston, light trap, 1♂ (02467800) (TAMU); 23 May 1933, H. G. Johnston, 1♂ (02467801) (TAMU); 24 May 1933, H. G. Johnston, 1♂ (02467797) (TAMU). Kerr Co.: Kerrville, VI–16–64, M. H. Sweet, 1♀ (TAMU). Uvalde Co.: 29.20968EN, 99.78617EW, 26 May 1910, F. C. Pratt, 1♂ (00071568) (USNM). Wisconsin: Jackson Co.: no specific locality, 44.43718EN, 90.91126EW, 259 m, 08 Aug 1970, C. F. Koval, 1♂ (00329553) (CNC).
- Henry, T; 2015: Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae) ZooKeys, (490): 1-156. doi
- Knight H (1941) The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 22: 1–234.
- Froeschner R (1949) Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri. Part IV. Hebridae, Mesoveliidae, Cimicidae, Anthocoridae, Cryptostemmatidae, Isometopidae, Miridae. American Midland Naturalist 42: 123–188. doi: 10.2307/2421794
- Carvalho J (1958) Catalogue of the Miridae of the World. Arquivos Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Part III. Orthotylinae 47: 1–161.
- Akingbohungbe A, Libby J, Shenefelt R (1972) Miridae of Wisconsin (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). University of Wisconsin Research Bulletin R 2396, 24 pp.
- Henry T, Wheeler A (1988) Family Miridae Hahn, 1833. In: Henry T Froeschner R (Eds) Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. Brill EJ, Leiden and New York, 251–507.
- Schuh R (1995) Plant Bugs of the World (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae). Systematic catalog, distributions, host list, and bibliography. New York Entomological Society, New York, 1329 pp.
- Henry T, Covell C, Wheeler A (2005) An annotated list of the plant bugs, or Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), of Kentucky. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 113: 25–76. doi: 10.1664/0028-7199(2005)113[0024:AALOTP]2.0.CO;2