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(Figs 4–7) MUSM 31099, an adult gravid female from Quebrada Yanachaga (ca. 10°22.772'S, 75°27.717'W), 2900 m elevation, Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park (Sector San Daniel), Distrito de Huancabamba, Provincia de Oxapampa, Departamento de Pasco, Peru, collected on 19 January 2012 by Edgar Lehr, Jiri Moravec, and Juan Carlos Cusi.
FMNH 282818, an adult, gravid female, collected along with the holotype.
A species of Phrynopus having the following combination of characters: (1) Skin on dorsum shagreen with small scattered tubercles, flanks tuberculate, skin on venter weakly areolate; discoidal fold absent, thoracic fold present; short postocular fold present, elongate tubercles forming discontinous dorsolateral ridges; (2) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus absent; (3) snout rounded in dorsal and lateral views; (4) upper eyelid without enlarged tubercles; width of upper eyelid narrower than IOD; cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous processes of vomers absent; (6) condition of vocal slits and nuptial pads unknown (no males found); (7) Finger I shorter than Finger II; tips of digits rounded; (8) fingers without lateral fringes; (9) ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent; (10) heel with minute tubercles; inner tarsal fold absent; (11) inner metatarsal tubercle ovoid, about twice as large as rounded outer metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles absent; (12) toes without lateral fringes; basal webbing absent; Toe V shorter than Toe III; toe tips rounded (except for slightly pointed Toe IV), about as large as those on fingers; (13) in life, dorsum reddish brown or dark grayish brown, venter dark brown with scattered minute white dots, groin dark brown with bright orange flecks on its lower half and a dark brown inguinal bar on its upper half; (14) SVL in females 19.1–21.0 mm (n = 2).
The assignment of the new species to Phrynopus is based on the structure of the digital discs that lack circumferential groves as well as the overall morphological similarity with the other members of the genus. Phrynopus badius is readily distinguished from its congeners by its small size, by having discontinuous dorsolateral ridges, and by having the dorsum reddish brown or dark grayish brown and the venter dark brown with scattered minute white dots, groin dark brown with bright orange flecks on its lower half and a dark brown inguinal bar on its upper half.
Furthermore Phrynopus badius differs from those species of Phrynopus (auriculatus, montium, peruanus) that have a tympanum (absent in Phrynopus badius), and from those species (dagmarae, horstpauli, kotosh, miroslawae, nicoleae, vestigiatus) that have dentigerous processes of vomers (absent in Phrynopus badius). Phrynopus badius shares with eight other species of Phrynopus (bracki, dagmarae, heimorum, interstinctus, nicoleae, paucari, peruanus, vestigiatus) an aposematic coloration consisting of red, orange, salmon or flesh coloured blotches in the groin. However, none of these species has the venter dark brown with scattered minute white dots, groin dark brown with bright orange flecks on its lower half, and a dark brown inguinal bar on its upper half.
Six other species of Phrynopus have been recorded from the YCNP. Those are Phrynopus auriculatus (Duellman and Hedges 2008, at 2600 m), Phrynopus bracki (Hedges 1990, at 2600 m), Phrynopus curator sp. n. (this paper, 3000 m), Phrynopus miroslawae (Chaparro et al. 2008, at 3363 m), Phrynopus nicoleae (Chaparro et al. 2008, at 3589 m),and Phrynopus tribulosus (Duellman and Hedges 2008, at 2600 m). Phrynopus miroslawae and Phrynopus nicoleae are from the puna of Santa Bárbara (Chaparro et al. 2008) which is located west of the Río Pozuzo, whereas all others are recorded east of the Río Huancabamba (see Fig. 3). Phrynopus badius lacks a tympanum (present in Phrynopus auriculatus), does not have Toe I vestigial (vestigial in Phrynopus bracki), has groin dark brown with orange flecks on its lower half and a dark inguinal bar on its upper half (groin grayish brown in Phrynopus curator), lacks X-shaped dorsal ride and dentigerous processes of vomers (both present in Phrynopus nicoleae), lacks dorsolateral folds (prominent in Phrynopus miroslawae), and has the dorsum reddish brown or dark grayish brown (green in Phrynopus tribulosus). Phrynopus badius and Phrynopus bracki are similar in being small (SVL 21.0 mm in Phrynopus badius vs. 19.8 mm in Phrynopus bracki, Duellman and Lehr, 2009) and in having a predominately dark brown coloration. However, both can be distinguished as follows: Phrynopus badius lacks a discoidal fold and dentigerous processes of vomers (both present in Phrynopus bracki), fingers without lateral fringes (present in Phrynopus bracki), ulnar tubercles not coalesced into a ridge (ridge present in Phrynopus bracki), Toe V shorter than Toe III (Toe V longer than Toe III in Phrynopus bracki), Toe I longer than wide (Toe I as long as wide, vestigial in Phrynopus bracki), iris predominately black with fine bronze reticulations and red ringlet around pupil (iris bronze in Phrynopus bracki).
Description of holotype
Head narrower than body, slightly wider than long, HW 101.2% of HL; HW 34.0% of SVL; HL 33.5% of SVL; snout short, rounded in dorsal and lateral views (Figs 4, 5), ED larger than E-N distance; nostrils protuberant, directed dorsolaterally; canthus rostralis short, slightly concave in dorsal view, rounded in profile; loreal region slightly concave; lips rounded; upper eyelid without enlarged tubercles; EW narrower than IOD (EW 60.9% of IOD); supratympanic fold short and low, extending from posterior corner of eye to level of jaw articulation, barely distinguishable in preservation; tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus absent; postrictal tubercles indistinguishable from surrounding tuberculation. Choanae small, ovoid, not concealed by palatal shelf of maxilla; dentigerous processes of vomers absent; tongue narrow and long, much longer than wide, not notched posteriorly, posterior half free.
Skin on dorsum shagreen with small scattered tubercles, short postocular fold present, elongate tubercles forming discontinuous dorsolateral ridges; skin on flanks tuberculate; skin on throat smooth, that on chest and belly weakly areolate; discoidal fold absent, thoracic fold present; cloacal sheath short; large tubercles absent in cloacal region. Outer surface of forearm without minute tubercles; outer and inner palmar tubercles low, ovoid, outer about twice the size of inner palmar tubercle; supernumerary tubercles indistinct in preservative; subarticular tubercles low, barely discernible except for prominent, ovoid subarticular tubercles on base of fingers; fingers without lateral fringes; Finger I shorter than Finger II; tips of digits rounded, lacking marginal grooves (Fig. 7A).
Hind limbs short and robust, TL 37.2% of SVL; FL 41.4.9% of SVL; upper surface of hind limbs tuberculate; posterior and ventral surfaces of thighs areolate; heel with minute tubercles; outer surface of tarsus with small tubercles; inner metatarsal tubercle ovoid, about twice as large as rounded outer metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles absent; subarticular tubercles low, ovoid in dorsal view; toes without lateral fringes; basal webbing absent; toe tips rounded (except for pointed tip of Toe IV), lacking marginal grooves, about as large as those on fingers; relative lengths of toes: 1 < 2 < 3 > 5 < 4; Toe V shorter than Toe III, Toe I less than half the size of Toe II (Fig. 7B).
Measurements (in mm) of holotype:SVL 19.1; TL 7.1; FL 7.9; HL 6.4; HW 6.5; ED 2.1; IOD 2.3; EW 1.4; IND 1.9; E-N 1.5.
Coloration of holotype in life
(Fig. 4): Dorsum dark grayish brown with white dots and reddish brown mottling; narrow, dark brown interorbital bar and a dark brown blotch on each side in the scapular region; dorsal surface of forearms with a dark brown bar; hind legs each with three dark brown diagonal stripes; ill-defined dark brown canthal stripe, supratympanic stripe broad, dark brown and outlined by tan; broad, dark brown bar on upper lip below eye bordered by narrow, tan stripe on each side; flanks coloured as dorsum with broad diagonal stripe at the anterior half; axilla dark brown with a small orange fleck; groin dark brown with orange flecks on its lower half and a dark inguinal bar on its upper half extending onto dorsal surface of thigh; posterior surfaces of thighs and concealed surfaces of shanks dark brown with few white dots; throat reddish brown with white dots; chest, belly, and extremities dark brown with white dots; fingers and toes gray, palmar and plantar surfaces gray with white mottling; iris predominately black with fine bronze reticulations and red ringlet around pupil.
Coloration of holotype in preservative
(Figs 5A, B): As described above but slightly paler and orange coloration being white; iris gray.
The female paratype (Fig. 6) is larger than the holotype, less tuberculate, and has elongate tubercles forming ill-defined dorsolateral ridges restricted to the anterior half of its body. The overall coloration pattern is similar to the holotype, however the dorsal coloration is reddish brown, the venter has more white dots and the groin has more orange flecks.
Measurements (in mm) of female (FMNH 282818): SVL 21.0; TL 7.5; FL 8.5; HL 7.0; HW 7.6; ED 2.3; IOD 2.4; EW 1.4; IND 1.9; E-N 1.7.
The specific name badius is the Latin adjective meaning chestnut-brown or reddish-brown and refers to the coloration of the new species.
Distribution, ecology, and threat status
The species is only known from the type locality where it was found at 1.00 pm in the leaf litter and under moss in a primary cloud forest at 2900 m elevation. The axilla region of the left arm of the paratype bears two ectoparasites (mites). Syntopic anurans include Rhinella yanachaga (MUSM 31100, FMNH 282819) which is recorded herein for the first time outside its type locality of San Alberto (Lehr et al. 2007). We classify Phrynopus badius as “Data Deficient” according to the IUCN red list criteria and categories based on the limited information on its geographic range.
- Lehr, E; Moravec, J; Cusi, J; 2012: Two new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae) from high elevations in the Yanachaga-Chemillén National park in Peru (Departamento de Pasco) ZooKeys, 235: 51-71. doi
- Duellman W, Hedges S (2008) Two new minute species of Phrynopus (Lissamphibia: Anura) from the Cordillera oriental in Peru. Zootaxa 1675: 59-66.
- Hedges S (1990) A new species of Phrynopus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Peru. Copeia 1990: 108-112. doi: 10.2307/1445826
- Chaparro J, Padial J, De la Riva I (2008) Two sympatric new species of Phrynopus (Anura: Strabomantidae) from Yanachaga Chemillén National Park (central Peruvian Andes). Zootaxa 1761: 49-58.
- Lehr E, Trueb L (2007) Diversity among new world microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae): morphological and osteological comparisons between Nelsonophryne (Günther 1901) and a new genus from Peru. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 2007: 583-609. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00270.x