Hydrochasma incisum

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Mathis W, Zatwarnicki T (2013) A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae). ZooKeys 363 : 1–161, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-12-16, version 40498, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Hydrochasma_incisum&oldid=40498 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Mathis2013ZooKeys363,
author = {Mathis, Wayne N. AND Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)},
year = {2013},
volume = {363},
issue = {},
pages = {1--161},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.363.6482},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/6482/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-12-16, version 40498, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Hydrochasma_incisum&oldid=40498 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)
A1 - Mathis W
A1 - Zatwarnicki T
Y1 - 2013
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 363
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.363.6482
SP - 1
EP - 161
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-12-16, version 40498, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Hydrochasma_incisum&oldid=40498 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.363.6482

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Mathis2013ZooKeys363">{{Citation
| author = Mathis W, Zatwarnicki T
| title = A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 363
| issue =
| pages = 1--161
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.363.6482
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/6482/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-28

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-12-16, version 40498, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Hydrochasma_incisum&oldid=40498 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Diptera
Familia: Ephydridae
Genus: Hydrochasma

Name

Hydrochasma incisum (Coquillett)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: Small to moderately small shore flies, body length 1.35–2.05 mm. Head: Antenna mostly dark gray; parafacial silvery white, concolorous with facial coloration; gena-to-eye ratio 0.18–0.20. Thorax: Wing with costal vein ratio 0.56–0.58; M vein ratio 0.50–0.51. Forecoxa with base silvery white to gray, apical 2/3 yellowish; forefemur lacking a distinctive, comb-like row of stout setulae along anteroventral surface; tibiae mostly gray. Abdomen: Tergites 3–4 with distinctive, deep, wedge-like lateral margin of darkened dorsum; tergite 5 of male mostly gray with posterior margin blackish. Male terminalia (Figs 91–94): Combined structures generally elongate, in posterior view height less than 3× width (2.8×), generally sparsely setulose, especially dorsally, setulae sparse medially along dorsal 2/3; epandrium lacking dorsal arch above cerci, in posterior view (Fig. 91) with apical 1/2 abruptly narrowed, mostly parallel sided, apical process wider than apical 1/2 and angled ventrolaterally, apex with very narrow apicomedial cleft, in lateral view (Fig. 92) very elongate, narrow with basal 3/4 straight, apical 1/2 narrow to just before slightly broadened and curved apex, apex narrowly rounded; aedeagus in lateral view (Fig. 94) very elongate and narrow, shallowly sinuous, mostly parallel sided, apical 1/4 [or 1/3] with complex folding and secondary structures, apex rounded, in ventral view (Fig. 93) very narrow and elongate, apical 1/4 [or 1/3] very bulbously expanded, apex broad; phallapodeme in lateral view (Fig. 94) very narrow and elongate, rod-like, hypandrial end with very narrowly pointed keel, aedeagal end straight, in ventral view (Fig. 93) elongate, narrow, truncate at both ends, slightly and gradually expanded at aedeagal end, hypandrial end with 2 narrow crossbars; gonite in lateral view (Fig. 94) as a very shallowly sinuous, rod-like process, about equal in length to phallapodeme, in ventral view (Fig. 93) nearly straight but expanded at basal 1/3 to an obtuse point, tapered at both apices; hypandrium in lateral view (Fig. 94) narrowly developed, posterior half narrowly angled, gradually expanded toward midlength, thereafter cigar-like, in ventral view (Fig. 93) moderately deeply and thickly U-shaped, with base of U rounded rectangular, robustly developed, extended lateral arms tapered, thin apically, moderately elongate.

Type material

The lectotype male of Discocerina incisa Coquillett, here designated to preserve stability and make more universal the use of this name, is labeled “Mayaguez Jan 1899./Porto Rico Aug[ust] Busck/Type No 6642 U.S.N.M. [red; “6642” handwritten]/Discocerina incisa Coq. [name and author handwritten, apparently by Coquillett; black submargin]/LECTOTYPE ♂ Discocerina incisa by Mathis & Zatwarnicki, USNM (6642) [red]. The lectotype is double mounted (glued to a paper triangle), is in good condition (structures of male terminalia exposed), and is deposited in the USNM (6642).” Coquillett (1902[6]: 183) noted that the type series comprised eight specimens with no single specimen designated as the type or holotype. Two of the eight specimens are missing (pins with labels still extant, specimens missing). From the other six specimens (Vieques Island, Fajaro, Mayaquez, Aguadillo, Utuado and Arroyo), we selected the male from Mayaquez list above as the lectotype because it is in good condition and is easily identified to species. The other specimens, here designated as paralectotypes, appear to be conspecific (we did not make dissections of the other males), but one paralectotype from Vieques Island appears to be a male of Hydrochasma leucoproctum.
The holotype male of Discocerina (Gymnoclasiopa) poecilogastra Hendel is labeled “Fortin Esteros Bolivia. III.26. D.Chaco-Exped [black border]/Discocerina poecilogastra ♀ Hend. [handwritten]/Type Hendel 1930[7] [red lettering; black border].” The holotype is double mounted (minuten in a paper card), is in good condition, and is deposited in the SMN.

Type locality

Puerto Rico. Mayaguez (18°12.1'N, 67°08.7'W).

Other specimens examined

Nearctic: UNITED STATES. FLORIDA. Highlands: Archbold Biological Station (27°12.6'N, 81°20.9'W), 7 Feb 2000, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Archbold Biological Station (27°11.3'N, 81°20.3'W), 7 Mar-12 Nov 1999, 2000, M. A. Deyrup (3♂, 10♀; ABSF).
Neotropical. ARGENTINA. Salta: Embarcación (23°12.6'S, 64°05.8'W), 2–6 Feb 1930, R. Golbach (1♂; USNM).
BELIZE. Belize: Blackbird Caye (17°19'N, 87°48'W), 27–30 Mar 1993, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 1♀; USNM); Turneffe Islands: Calabash Cays (17°17'N, 87°48'W), 27–30 Mar 1993, W. N. Mathis (41♂, 17♀; USNM). Stann Creek: Dangriga (16°58'N, 88°13'W), 3–4 Apr 1993, W. N. Mathis (14♂, 6♀; USNM); Kendal (16°47.4'N, 88°22.9'W), 1 May 1997, R. Faitoute, P. J. Spangler (1♂, 1♀; USNM); Man of War Cay (17°13'N, 87°54'W), 8–15 Nov 1987, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Placencia Lagoon, Rum Point (16°32.8'N, 88°22.1'W), 4–5 Nov 1987, D. and W. N. Mathis (22♂, 30♀; USNM); Salt Creek (12 km N Dangriga; 17°13.4'N, 88°18.6'W), 28 Mar 1988, W. N. Mathis (2♀; USNM); Sittee River, Possum Point Biological Station (16°52.1'N, 88°22.5'W), 6 Nov 1987, D. and W. N. Mathis (7♂, 1♀; USNM); Twin Cays (south end of East Island, West Bay; 19°49.5'N, 88°06.2'W), Jan-19 Mar 1987, 1988, W. N. Mathis, C. Feller (2♂, 2♀; USNM); Wee Wee Cay (16°45.9'N, 88°08.6'W), Jan-9 Nov 1987, 1988, D. and W. N. Mathis, C. Feller (36♂, 26♀; USNM).
BOLIVIA. Beni: Huachi, Mulford Biological Expedition (14°14'S, 63°31'W), Sep 1921, W. M. Mann (3♂; ANSP). La Paz: Chulumani (2 km S; 16°23.5'S, 67°31.8'W; 1750 m), 9–10 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (12♂, 13♀; USNM); Guanay (15°29.8'S, 67°52.7'W), 460 m), 13 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (10♂, 2♀; USNM); Guanay (8 km E; 15°30.3'S, 67°50.8'W; 510 m), 13 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (4♂, 2♀; USNM); Guanay (9 km NW; 15°29.5'S, 67°53.8'W; 850 m), 13 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (7♂, 7♀; USNM); Guanay (3 km E; 15°30.2'S, 67°52.3'W; 500 m), 14 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (15♂, 1♀; USNM); Guanay (22 km SE; 15°17.8'S, 68°15.6'W; 540 m), 17 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Mapiri (15°18.6'S, 68°13'W; 720 m), 15–17 Mar 2001; S. D. Gaimari, W. N. Mathis (18♂, 4♀; USNM); San Pedro (3 km NE; 16°S, 67°35.3'W; 780 m), 12 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Tajlihui (15°40.8'S, 67°41.7'W; 590 m), 12 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (12♂, 3♀; USNM).
BRAZIL. Amazonas: Igarapé Cabeça Branca (ca. 40 km N Manaus; 02°35.1'S, 60°01.9'W; 65 m), 8 May 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (5♂, 2♀; INPA, USNM); Reserva Ducke (02°55.8'S, 59°58.5'W; 40 m), 5 May 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♂; INPA, USNM). Paraná: Antonina (25°28'S, 48°41.3'W; 13 m), 3 Feb 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (7♂; DZUP, USNM); Antonina (25°27.1'S, 48°41.1'W; beach; Ponta da Pita), 15 Feb 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (4♂; DZUP, USNM); Bocaiúva do Sul (25°16.6'S, 48°58.5'W; 770 m), 16 Feb Jan 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂; DZUP, USNM); Castro (Parque Lacustre; 24°47.4'S, 50°0.3'W; 990 m), 25 Dec 2009, D. and W. N. Mathis (17♂; DZUP, USNM); Castro (8 km N; 24°45.3'S, 49°58.9'W; 1010 m), 25–26 Dec 2009, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♂, 1♀; USNM); Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Reserva Biológica (25°26.9'S, 49°14'W; 915 m), 22 Dec-12 Apr 2009, 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (43♂, 9♀; DZUP, USNM); Matinhos (Rio da Onça; 25°47.1'S, 48°31.6'W; 3 m), 27 Jan-25 Mar 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (23♂, 1♀; DZUP, USNM); Matinhos (Rio da Onça; 25°47.4'S, 48°31.6'W; 3 m), 12 Nov 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (6♂; DZUP, USNM); Matinhos (N.; 25°46.4'S, 48°30.8'W; 1 m; beach/estuary), 30 Jan-25 Mar 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (13♂; DZUP, USNM); Paranaguá (25°30.8'S, 48°29.9'W; 3 m), 23 Jan 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂; DZUP, USNM); Prainha (5 km S Matinhos; 25°51.2'S, 48°33.6'W; beach), 15 Nov 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (3♂; DZUP, USNM); Parque Igauçu (25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W; 880 m), 16 Jan-11 Feb 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (22♂, 1♀; DZUP, USNM). Rio de Janeiro: Ilha da Marambaia (23°03.6'S, 43°59.1'W), 4 Sep 2000, W. N. Mathis (7♂, 3♀; USNM). Santa Catarina: Barra Velha (26°38'S, 48°40.9'W; beach), 29 Apr 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (5♂; DZUP, USNM). São Paulo: Ubatuba, Praia do Estaleiro (23°20.5'S, 44°53'W; beach), 30 Mar 2010, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM).
CHILE. Tarapacá: Pica (20°29.3'S, 69°19.7'W), Sep/Oct 1966, M. E. Irwin, E. Medina (1♂; USNM).
COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Bijagua, Volcán Tenorio (10°43.8'N, 85°05.9'W; 700 m), 19–27 Aug 2002, J. D. Gutierrez (14♂, 5♀; INBio); Caño Negro (10°30.2'N, 84°24'W; 20 m), 2–23 Apr 1995, R. Villalobos (3♂, 2♀; INBio); Rincón de la Vieja, San Gerrardo (10°47.2'N, 85°17.6'W; 600 m), 16–18 May 2002, D. Briceño (1♀; INBio); Río Surubres (09°56.1'N, 84°35'W; Bonnefil farm; 245 m; sweeping), 20 Oct 1909, P. P. Calvert (2♂, 1♀; ANSP); Turrúcares (09°57.6'N, 84°19.2'W), 22 Dec 1909, P. P. Calvert (5♂, 5♀; ANSP). Cartago: Cartago (09°51.4'N, 83°55.2'W), 4 Jul-27 Oct 1909, P. P. Calvert (9♂, 3♀; ANSP); Juan Viñas (09°53.6'N, 83°15.3'W), 28 Apr 1910, P. P. Calvert (2♂; ANSP); La Suiza (09°51.5'N, 83°37.5'W), 28 Jun 2001, W. N. Mathis (7♂, 3♀; ANSP, USNM); Pejibaye (09°48.1'N, 83°42.7'W; La Reserva Biológica del Copal; 1090 m), 4 Apr 2005, J. Azofeifa, D. Briceño (3♂, 2♀; INBio); Peralta (09°58.1'N, 83°36.9'W), 24 Mar 1910, P. P. Calvert (2♂; ANSP). Guanacaste: Bagaces Fortuna Z. P. Miravalles (10°43.1'N, 84°51.3'W; Sendero Cabro Muco; 980 m), 8–31 Jul 2002, J. D. Gutierrez (17♂, 8♀; INBio); Cerro Vista al Mar (10°10'N, 85°35'W; 900 m), 23 Jun 2001, A. Freidberg (1♂, 2♀; USNM); Filadelfia (Río Tempisque; 10°26.7'N, 85°32.9'W), 18 Jan 1910, P. P. Calvert (4♂, 4♀; ANSP); Volcán Miravalles, Quebrada Santa Fé (10°44.9'N, 85°09.2'W; 980 m), 17–19 Jul 2002, J. D. Gutierrez (4♂; INBio); Playa Puerto Soley (11°02.5'N, 85°40.1'W; beach), 16 Jun 2003, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Liberia, Sendero Lupo (10°38.1'N, 85°26.4'W; 300 m), 10–11 Jul 2002, D. Briceño (9♂, 13♀; INBio); Liberia, Sendero Los Borrachos (10°38.1'N, 85°26.4'W; 300 m), 3–5 Oct 2002, D. Briceño (2♀; INBio); Nandayure, Carmona, Finca Agua Fria, Rio Nandayure (09°59.6'N, 85°15.1'W; 15–50 m), 14 Feb 2006, W. Porras (3♂, 4♀; INBio); Nandayure, Costa de Oro (09°59'N, 85°19.1'W; 0–50 m), 6 Apr 2004, W. Porras (1♂; INBio); Nandayure, Estero Casa Caletas (09°46.6'N, 85°15.5'W; 0–50 m), 21 Mar 2006, W. Porras (1♀; INBio); Nandayure, Finca Pochote (10°03.2'N, 85°28'W; 100–200 m), 5 May 2004, B. Gamboa (1♀; INBio); Nosara, Río Nosara (09°59'N, 85°39'W; 0–5 m), 15 Jun 2004, M. Moraga (1♀; INBio); Palo Verde (10°23'N, 85°20'W; 0–30 m), 16 Nov 2004, W. Porras (1♀; INBio); Parque Nacional Santa Rosa (Estación; Camino Cafetal; 10°51.5'N, 85°36.7'W; 300 m), 3–5 Aug 2002, D. Briceño (5♂; INBio); Puerto Cortés Balsar, La Tigra (10°10'N, 84°30'W), 5 Jun 2005, J. D. Gutierrez (1♂, 2♀; INBio); San Antonio (09°59.5'N, 85°18.4'W; 8 m), 4 Jul 2005, J. D. Gutierrez (1♂, 4♀; INBio); Santa Cruz (14 km S; 10°10.4'N, 85°35.7'W; 180 m), 23 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (24♂, 2♀; USNM); Santa Rosa (10°49.7'N, 85°42.3'W; 300 m), 10 Aug 2002, 16–18 May 2002, D. Briceño (1♀; INBio); Santa Rosa, Bosque San Emílio (10°48.9'N, 85°36.9'W; 300 m), 10 Aug 2002, D. Briceño (3♂, 7♀; INBio); Sendero Rancho Capú, Río Piedras, Volcán Tenorio (10°23'N, 85°13'W; 740 m), 13–28 Aug 2002, J. D. Gutierrez (5♂; INBio); Sector el Hacha, Finca el Oro, 5 km SW Hacienda Alemania (11°00'N, 85°33'W; 400 m), 14–19 Apr 2002, D. Briceño (1♂; INBio); Volcán Tenorio, Montezuma (10°40.4'N, 85°0.9'W; 1000 m), 6 May 2002, J. D. Gutierrez (1♂; INBio). Heredia: Santo Domingo (Parque INBio; 09°59'N, 85°06'W), 23 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (9♂, 1♀; USNM); Santo Domingo (Parque INBio; 09°59'N, 85°06'W; laguna), 24 Feb 2003, J. Azofeifa (1♂, 1♀; INBio; INBio). Limón: Cahuita (09°44.3'N, 82°50.4'W; beach), 28 Jun 2001, A. Freidberg (1♂; USNM); Puerto Vargas (09°43.9'N, 82°48.9'W; beach), 28 Jun 2001, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Puerto Vargas, Talamanca (09°43.9'N, 82°48.9'W; beach), 9–10 Dec 2001, E. Rojas (2♂, 4♂; INBio; INBio); Parque Nacional Cahuita, Sector Puerto Vargas (09°44'N, 82°49'W; 1 m), 27–28 Jun 2001, J. D. Gutierrez (4♂, 2♀; INBio); (4♂, 3♀; INBio); Río Banano (09°50.5'N, 82°56'W), 9 Nov 1909, P. P. Calvert (1♀; ANSP); Tortugero, Río Agua Fria, Sendero Real (10°32.3'N, 83°30.1'W; 100 m), 17 Aug 2004, Y. Cardenas (1♂; INBio); Westfalia (4 km S; 9°54.5'N, 82°59'W; beach), 27 Jun 2001, W. N. Mathis (1♀; USNM). Puntarenas: Bahia Gigante (Río Lajas; 09°53.8'N, 84°56'W; beach), 22 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (3♂; USNM); Bosque Esquinas (08°44'N, 83°17'W; 200 m), May 1994, M. Segura (1♀; INBio); Cabuye (Río Lajas; 9°37'N, 85°04.8'W), 20 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (9♂, 2♀; USNM); Chomes (10°2.7'N, 84°54.7'W), 19 Jun 2001, W. N. Mathis (3♂, 5♀; USNM); Cóbano (3 km W; 09°40.2'N, 85°06.8'W), 21 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (14♂, 1♀; USNM); Corcovado, La Leona (08°27.3'N, 82°30.3'W; 100–300 m), 26 Jul 2003, M. Moraga (1♂; INBio); Dominical (6 km S; 09°13.1'N, 83°49.8'W; waterfall), 12 Jun 2003, D. and W. N. Mathis (6♂; USNM); Drake (08°41.4'N, 83°40.1'W; beach), 12 Aug 2001, D. and W.N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Estación Sirena (08°28.8'N, 83°35.4'W; 0–100 m), 20–27 Mar 1995, A. Azofeifa (1♂; INBio); Isla de San Lucas (09°56.8'N, 84°54.2'W), 10 Mar 2005, M. Moraga (2♂; INBio); Isla de San Lucas, Playa El Coco (09°56.7'N, 84°53.8'W), 9 Mar 2005, M. Moraga (1♂; INBio); Jacó (5 km E; 09°34.7'N, 84°06.4'W), 10 Jun 2003, D. and W. N. Mathis (8♂, 2♀; USNM); Llano Bonito (09°39.9'N, 84°06.4'W; 50–100 m), 28 Apr 2001, W. Porras (1♂; INBio); Malpais (09°37.6'N, 85°09.1'W; beach), 21 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♂, 2♀; USNM); Montezuma (1 km S; 09°39'N, 85°04.3'W), 20 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (15♂, 3♀; USNM); Palustrino Corral de Piedra (10°14.1'N, 85°19.9'W; 0–100 m), 10 Jul 2003, Y. Cardenas (1♂; INBio); Parrita (09°31.2'N, 84°19.6'W; 8–9 m), 10 Jun 2003, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♂, 3♀; USNM); Playa Jacó (09°36.5'N, 84°37.4'W; beach), 13 Jun 2003, D. and W. N. Mathis (10♂, 1♀; USNM); Rancho Quemado (08°41.5'N, 83°34.3'W; 200 m), Aug 1991, F. Quesada (1♂; INBio); Rincón (5 km S; 08°42.1'N, 83°30.8'W; 95 m), 10–11 Aug 2001, D. and W.N. Mathis (28♂, 9♀; USNM); Río Corcovado (08°34.2'N, 83°36.5'W; 0–10 m), 22 Mar 1955, M. A. Zumbado (1♂; INBio); Río Tigre (08°32.1'N, 83°22.1'W; 100 m), 23 Nov 1996, A. Azofeifa (1♀; INBio); San Pedrillo (08°37.2'N, 83°44.1'W), 12–14 Aug 2001, D. and W.N. Mathis (29♂, 1♀; USNM). San José: El Rodeo (09°54.6'N, 84°16.2'W; 1860 m), 26 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (27♂, 4♀; USNM); Río Paraíso (09°33.8'N, 84°07.4'W; 350–400 m), 15–17 Feb 2003, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♀; USNM); Río Virilla (near Colon; 9°55.3'N, 84°16'W), 26 Jun 2001, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Zurquí (10°02.8'N, 84°04'W), 19 Feb 2003, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM).
ECUADOR. Azuay: Río Rircay (03°20'S, 79°19'W), 31 Oct 1954, R. Levi-Castillo (4♂; USNM). Guayas: Río Bobo (01°53.8'S, 79°42'W), Aug 1955, R. Levi-Castillo (1♂; USNM). Loja: Catamayo (03°59'S, 79°21'W), Dec 1955, R. Levi-Castillo (1♂; USNM).
GUYANA. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W), 13–21 Apr 1994, 1995, 1997, W. N. Mathis (8♂, 13♀; USNM); Dubulay Ranch (small creek; 05°40.9'N, 57°51.5'W), 10 Apr 1994, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 1♀; USNM); Dubulay Ranch, Berbice River (05°40.9'N, 57°51.5'W), 9–11 Apr 1994, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 1♀; USNM); Hope Beach (06°44.7'N, 57°57.3'W), 20 Aug 1997, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Georgetown (06°48.6'N, 58°8.6'W; 340 m), 20–29 Aug 1997, W.N. Mathis (12♂, 1♀; USNM); Karanambo (03°45.1'N, 59°18.6'W), 31 Mar-1 Dec 1994, 2001, W. N. Mathis (52♂, 12♀; USNM); Karanambo, Rupununi River (ox bow; 03°45.1'N, 59°18.6'W), 2 Apr-2 Dec 1994, 2001, W. N. Mathis (8♂, 9♀; USNM); Karanambo (forest swamp; 03°44'N, 59°20.4'W; 95 m), 5 Dec 2010, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 1♀; USNM); Kumu River and Falls (25 km SE Lethem in Kanuku Mountains; 03°15.9'N, 59°43.6'W), 28–30 Apr 1995, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Lethem, Takatu River (03°22.6'N, 59°48.2'W), 4 Apr 1994, W. N. Mathis (14♂, 8♀; USNM); Mahaica (3 km E; 06°43.5'N, 57°56.6'W), 14 Apr 1994, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Moco-Moco (30 km E Lethem in Kanuku Mountains; 03°18.2'N, 59°39.0'W), 3–29 Apr 1994, 1995, W. N. Mathis (18♂, 8♀; USNM); Paramakatoi (04°42'N, 59°42.8'W), 24–25 Aug 1997, W. N. Mathis (14♂, 13♀; USNM); Pirara Ranch, Cashew Lake (03°36.7'N, 59°40.5'W), 23–27 Apr 1995, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Pirara Ranch and River (03°32.1'N, 59°40.5'W), 24–25 Apr 1995, W. N. Mathis (11♂, 14♀; USNM); Wiruni River (05°46.6'N, 58°01'W), 11 Apr 1994, W. N. Mathis (11♂, 9♀; USNM).
HONDURAS. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W), 25–26 Sep 1995, D. and W. N. Mathis (7♂; USNM).
MEXICO. Tamaulipas: Tampico (22°17.8'N, 97°50.8'W), Jul 1906, F. C. Bishop (1♂; ANSP). Veracruz-Llave: Ciudad Alemán (18°11.8'N, 96°05.1'W; 100 m), 3 May 1985, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 3♀; USNM); Ocotal Chico (18°15.6'N, 94°51.5'W; 600 m), 4–5 May 1985, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 3♀; USNM).
NICARAGUA. León: La Cruz de la India (5 km SW; 12°43.2'N, 86°19.8'W; 215 m), 22 Jun 2007, N. E. Woodley (2♂, 2♀; USNM).
PANAMA. Panama: Fort Clayton (09°01'N, 79°34.2'W), 23 Apr 1923, R. C. Shannon (1♂; ANSP).
PARAGUAY. Cordillera: San Bernardino (25°16'S, 57°19.4'W), Feb-Mar 1906, Babarczy (1♀; ANSP).
PERU. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Atalaya (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°53.3'S, 71°21.6'W; 600 m), 4 Sep 1988, W. N. Mathis (12♂, 15♀; USNM); Paucartambo, Atalaya (2 km W; 12°54.3'S, 71°22.4'W), 4 Sep 1988, W. N. Mathis (6♂, 1♀; USNM). Madre de Dios: Diamante (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°19.9'S, 70°57.5'W; 400 m), 7 Sep 1988, W. N. Mathis (20♂, 8♀; USNM); Río Manu, Cocha Salvador (11°59.9'S, 71°13.9'W 300m), 14 Sep 1988, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m), 5–6 Sep 1988, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 1♀; USNM); Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m), 9–23 Sep 1988, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM).
TRINIDAD and TOBAGO. Tobago. St. George: Blanchisseuse (beach; 10°48'N, 61°19'W), 25 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM). St. John: Bloody Bay River (11°18'N, 60°38'W), 14 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Charlotteville (beach; 11°19.5'N, 60°32.9'W), 16–18 Apr-10–16 Jun 1993, 1994, D. and W. N. Mathis (38♂, 27♀; USNM); Charlotteville (2 km S; 11°19'N, 60°33'W), 10 Jun 1993, 1994, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 2♀; USNM); Charlotteville (5 km S; Hermitage River and beach; 11°18.9'N, 60°34.2'W), 22 Apr-10–11 Jun 1993, 1994, W. N. Mathis (11♂, 2♀; USNM); Parlatuvier (creek; 11°17.9'N, 60°35'W), 14 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (7♂, 1♀; USNM); Speyside (11°18'N, 60°32'W), 13–15 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Speyside (Doctor River; 1 km NW; 11°18'N, 60°32'W), 12–13 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 2♀; USNM); Speyside (Doctor River; 11°18.2'N, 60°31'W), 19 Apr 1994, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂, 1♀; USNM). St. Paul: Argyle Falls (11°15'N, 60°35'W), 21 Apr 1994, W. N. Mathis (1♀; USNM); Kendall (11°14.3'N, 60°35.7'W), 21 Apr 1994, W. N. Mathis (3♂, 1♀; USNM); Roxborough (6 km NNW; 11°16'N, 60°35.4'W), 20 Apr 1994, W. N. Mathis (9♂, 6♀; USNM).
Trinidad. Caroni: San Rafael (2 km N; 10°34'N, 61°15'W; forest reserve), 22 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (1♀; USNM); Talparo (2 km N, 10°31'N, 61°17'W), 22 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM). Mayaro: Plaisance (5 km N; 10°20.3'N, 60°59.5'W), 23 Mar 1985, G. F. and J. F. Hevel (3♀; USNM). St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (5 km S; 10°28'N, 61°03'W), 20 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (3♂, 12♀; USNM); Valencia (1 km W; 10°39'N, 61°13'W), Aripo River, 20 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 2♀; USNM). St. George: Arima (8 km N; 10°41'N, 61°18'W), Verdant Vale, 19 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (1♀; USNM); Mount St. Benedict (10°39'N, 61°24'W; creek near base), 19 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (5♂; USNM). St. Patrick: Chatham (beach; 10°05'N, 61°44'W), 25 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 2♀; USNM). Victoria: Basse Terre (7 km E; 10°07'N, 61°14'W), 27 Jun 1993, W. N. Mathis (3♂; USNM).
West Indies. BARBADOS. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Swamp (13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W), 31 Aug-12 Sep 1996, 1997, D. and W. N. Mathis (7♂, 7♀; USNM); Oistins (13°03.9'N, 59°32.7'W), 22 May 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (1♂, 1♀; USNM); Rockley Beach (13°04.3'N, 59°35.2'W), 21 May-11 Sep 1996, 1997, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (43♂, 17♀; USNM). St. Andrew: Bawdens Ponds (13°14.8'N, 59°34.9'W), 2 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (21♂, 8♀; USNM); Bawdens River-Swans (13°14.2'N, 59°35.3'W), 11 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (8♂, 4♀; USNM); Baxters (13°13.2'N, 59°34.1'W), 21 May-11 Sep 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (18♂, 7♀; USNM); Belleplaine (13°14.8'N, 59°33.6'W), 21 May-1 Sep 1996, 1997, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (15♂, 10♀; USNM); Long Pond (13°15.1'N, 59°33.3'W), 21 May-11 Sep 1996, 1997, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (8♂, 4♀; USNM); Turner’s Hall Woods (13°13.8'N, 59°34.7'W), 21 May 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (10♂, 3♀; USNM); Walkers Bridge (13°15'N, 59°34.5'W), 11 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (8♂, 2♀; USNM). St. Joseph: Joes River (13°12.8'N, 59°32.3'W), 10 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (19♂, 7♀; USNM). St. Peter: Six Mens Bay (13°16.5'N, 59°38.8'W), 22 May-12 Sep 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (3♂; USNM). St. Philip: Gemswick (13°05'N, 59°28.5'W), 31 Aug 1997, W. N. Mathis (18♂, 9♀; USNM); St. Thomas: Farmers (13°12.8'N, 59°35.5'W), 2 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (3♂, 2♀; USNM).
CUBA. Cienfuegos: Jardin Botánico (22°7.5'N, 80°19.2'W), 13 Dec 1994, W. N. Mathis (4♂, 2♀; USNM); Topes de Collantes (5 km WNW; 21°56.5'N, 80°2.3'W; 600 m), 11 Dec 1994, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 1♀; USNM). Guantánamo: Baracoa (road to; 20°21'N, 74°30.1'W), 28 Feb 1992, M. von Tschirnhaus (1♂, 3♀; USNM). Havana: Ojo de Aqua (23°54.6'N, 82°29.1'W), 8 Dec 1994, W. N. Mathis (6♂, 7♀; USNM); San Antonio de los Baños (22°54.9'N, 82°29.3'W), 8 Dec 1994, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 1♀; USNM). Holguín: Holguín (N; 20°55.5'N, 76°15.8'W), Feb 1992, M. von Tschirnhaus (1♀; USNM); Santa Lucia (3 km N; 21°03.3'N, 76°59.7'W), 22 Feb 1992, M. von Tschirnhaus (1♂, 1♀; USNM). Pinar del Rio: Soroa (22°47.7'N, 83°W), 4–6 Dec 1994, W. N. Mathis (21♂, 13♀; USNM); Soroa (2 km E; 22°47.7'N, 83°W), 29 Apr 1983, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 1♀; USNM); Soroa (2 km NW; 22°48.6'N, 83°1.0'W), 4–5 Dec 1994, W. N. Mathis (4♂; USNM). Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes (21°55.2'N, 80°02'W; 350 m), 10 Dec 1994, W. N. Mathis (3♂, 1♀; USNM); Topes de Collantes (21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W; 670 m), 9–11 Dec 1994, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 3♀; USNM).
DOMINICA. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W), 2225 Mar-19 Jun 1989, 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (9♂, 7♀; USNM); Clarke Hall (15°24.3'N, 61°24.1'W), 1–8 Aug 1964, T. J. Spilmann (1♂; USNM); Coulibistri (15°27.4'N, 61°26.9'W), 21 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Dublanc (15°30.9'N, 61°29.8'W), 21 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (43♂, 10♀; USNM); Hampstead River (15°34.5'N, 61°22.3'W), 22 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (3♂, 1♀; USNM); Rosalie (15°22.3'N, 61°15.3'W), 23 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 5♀; USNM); Toucari (15°36.6'N, 61°27.8'W), 21 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (8♂, 4♀; USNM); Toucari (2 km S; 15°36.3'N, 61°27.7'W), 21 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (8♂, 10♀; USNM).
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8'N, 70°44.7'W), 19 May 1998, D. and W. N. Mathis (4♂, 1♀; USNM); Padre Las Casas (8 km NE; 18°46'N, 70°53'W; 580 m), 3–4 Oct 1991, R. Davidson, J. E. Rawlins, S. Thompson, C. Young (3♂; CMP). Barahona: Cabral (canals E of Cabral; 18°15.2'N, 71°13.4'W), 16 May 1995, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Cortico, La Mina (18°06.7'N, 71°13.4'W; 1300 m), 23 Mar 1999, W. N. Mathis (15♂, 2♀; USNM); Los Patos (17°57.6'N, 71°10.9'W), 15 May 1995, W. N. Mathis (5♂, 1♀; USNM); Ojeda (17°58.2'N, 71°10.6'W), 22 Mar 1999, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Paraíso (5 km N; 18°01.5'N, 71°11.6'W; 150 m), 21 Mar 1999, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM). Dajabon: Loma de Cabrera (10 km S; 19°20'N, 71°37'W; 650 m), 12 Jul 1992, R. Davidson, J. E. Rawlins, S. Thompson, C. Young (19♂, 7♀; CMP). El Seibo: Pedro Sáchez (18°51.4'N, 69°6.5'W), 26 May 1998, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Rincón (near; 18°45.3'N, 68°55.7'W), 12 May 1995, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 3♀; USNM). Hato Mayor: Hato Mayor (5.5 km E; 18°46.4'N, 69°12.5'W), 26 May 1998, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM). Independencia: Duvergé (2 km S; 18°22'N, 71°31.4'W), 24 Mar 1000, W. N. Mathis (14♂, 1♀; USNM); La Descubierta (18°34.1'N, 71°43.8'W), 25 Mar 1999, W. N. Mathis (12♂, 1♀; USNM); Los Bolos (18°37.8'N, 71°39.2'W; 1050 m), 25 Mar 1999, W. N. Mathis (1♀; USNM); Puerto Escondido (18°19.6'N, 71°35'W; 1370 m), 24 Mar 1999, W. N. Mathis (9♂, 1♀; USNM). La Altagracia: Boca de Chavon (7 km NNE; Río Chavon; 18°28'N, 68°52'W; 20 m), 3 Jul 1992, R. Davidson, J. E. Rawlins, S. Thompson, C. Young (1♀; CMP). La Vega: Constanza (ca. 14 km SE; 18°51.4'N, 70°41.2'W; 1505 m), 15 May 1998, D. and W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); El Rio (9.5 km E; 19°0.9'N, 70°33.5'W; 980 m), 6–24 May 1995, 1997, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 1♀; USNM); Jarabacoa (1–2 km S; 19°06.9'N, 70°37'W; 520 m), 8–21 May 1995, 1997, W. N. Mathis (5♂, 7♀; USNM); La Cienega de Manabao (19°03.9'N, 70°51.8'W; 1050 m), 28 Mar 1999, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Loma del Casabito (19°03'N, 71°31'W; 1390 m), 3 Nov 2002, J. E. Rawlins, C. Staresinic, Thompson, C. Young, W. A. Zanol (1♀; CMP); Río Camu (3.5 km NW La Vega; 19°13.7'N, 70°35.2'W; 100 m), 10–18 May 1995, 1997, W. N. Mathis (6♂; USNM). Pedernales: Cabo Rojo (30 km N; 18°07'N, 71°39'W; 1070 m), 23–24 Jul 1990, J. E. Rawlins, S. Thompson, C. Young (10♂, 9♀; CMP); Cabo Rojo (26 km N; 18°06'N, 71°38'W; 730 m), 31 Jul 1990, J. E. Rawlins, S. Thompson, C. Young (3♂, 5♀; CMP); La Abeja (38 km NNW Cabo Rojo; 18°09'N, 71°38'W; 1160 m), 13 Jul 1987, J. E. Rawlins, R. Davidson (2♀; CMP); Río Mulito (13 km N Pedernales; 18°09'N, 71°46'W; 230 m; riparian woodland), 17 Jul 1990, J. E. Rawlins, S. Thompson, C. Young (1♂; CMP). Puerto Plata: Rio Camu (14 km E Puerto Plata; 19°41.9'N, 70°37.5'W), 23 May 1998, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Río Pérez (near Imbert; 19°44.1'N, 70°50.2'W), 24 May 1998, D. and W. N. Mathis (4♂; USNM). San Cristobal: Río Haina (18°25.9'N, 70°00.4'W), 27 May 1998, D. and W. N. Mathis (6♂, 2♀; USNM).
GRENADA. St. Andrew: Balthazar (12°07.7'N, 61°39.3'W), 15 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (3♂; USNM); Grand Étang (lake; 12°05.6'N, 61°41.7'W), 14 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (14♂, 3♀; USNM); La Force Bridges (12°07.6'N, 61°39.8'W), 13 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (7♂, 2♀; USNM). St. George: Grand Anse (12°01.3'N, 61°45.6'W), 15 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (5♂, 3♀; USNM); Point Salines Airport (W end; 12°00.3'N, 61°47.7'W), 12–19 Sep 1996, 1997, W. N. Mathis (9♂, 3♀; USNM); True Blue Beach (11°59.9'N, 61°46.1'W), 15 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 3♀; USNM); Vendôme (1 km E; 12°04.8'N, 61°42.2'W), 17 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 1♀; USNM). St. John: Concord Falls (12°07.1'N, 61°43'W), 12–21 Sep 1996, 1997, W. N. Mathis (5♂, 3♀; USNM); Concord Valley (12°06.9'N, 61°43.9'W), 14 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Palmiste (12°08.7'N, 61°44.4'W), 21 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (11♂, 1♀; USNM); Palmiste Lake (12°08.3'N, 61°44'W), 19 Sep 1996, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 1♀; USNM). St. Patrick: Bathway Beach (12°12.6'N, 61°36.7'W), 13–20 Sep 1996, 1997, W. N. Mathis (23♂; USNM).
JAMAICA. Clarendon: Grantham (18°09.3'N, 77°23.8'W; 340 m), 16 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (5♂, 2♀; USNM). Manchester: Mandeville (18°03.5'N, 77°31.9'W), 7–13 May 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (1♂; USNM). Portland: Berridale (18°06.5'N, 76°20'W), Rio Grande River, 25 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Hollywell (18°05.5'N, 76°43.6'W; 70 m), 27 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (2♂; USNM); Long Bay (2.3 km W; 18°06.5'N, 76°20'W), 24 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (7♂, 2♀; USNM); Reach Falls (Drivers River; 18°01.9'N, 76°18.7'W; 70 m), 25 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM); Reach (4 km N; 18°03.6'N, 76°20.4'W), 15 May 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (5♂; USNM). St. Andrew: Cinchona (18°04.4'N, 76°39.3'W; 1400 m), 29 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (6♂, 1♀; USNM); Clydsdale (18°04.9'N, 77°40.2'W; 1030 m), 29 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (1♂, 2♀; USNM); Mavis Bank (1.7 km E; 18°02.4'N, 77°39.5'W; 575 m), Yallahs River, 21–22 Apr-1 May 2000, W. N. Mathis (13♂, 6♀; USNM); Silver Hill Gap (18°05.1'N, 76°41.2'W; 980 m), 26 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (1♀; USNM); Silver Hill Gap (18°05.3'N, 76°43'W; 940 m), 29 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM). St. Ann: Runaway Bay (18°27.4'N, 77°19.6'W), Feb 1969, W. W. Wirth (1♂, 1♀; USNM). St. Elizabeth: Brae River (2 km S; 18°04.2'N, 77°39.5'W), 10 May 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (9♂, 2♀; USNM); Elim (18°07.1'N, 77°40.5'W), 14 Apr 2000, W. N. Mathis (3♂, 1♀; USNM); near Port Kaiser (17°52.3'N, 77°34.9'W), 8 May 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. Williams (1♀; USNM). St. Mary: Annotto Bay (18°16.2'N, 76°46.2'W), 25 Feb 1969, W. W. Wirth (2♂; USNM). St. Thomas: Bath Fountain Spring (17°57.6'N, 76°21.3'W), 15 May 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (1♂; USNM); Bath River, Bath (17°56.8'N, 76°21.6'W), 16 May 1996, D. and W. N. Mathis, H. B. Williams (3♂; USNM). Trelawny: Rio Bueno (18°28.7'N, 77°28.3'W), 21 Feb 1969, W. W. Wirth (1♂; USNM). Westmoreland: Negril Beach (8 km E; 18°16.4'N, 78°21.2'W; fresh marsh), 12 Mar 1970, W. W. Wirth (1♂, 5♀; USNM); Negril Beach (18°16.4'N, 78°21.2'W; mangrove, rocky shore), 13 Mar 1970, W. W. Wirth (1♂; USNM).
PUERTO RICO. Adjuntas (18°09.8'N, 66°43.2'W), 22 Sep 1995, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♀; USNM); Arroyo (17°56.9'N, 66°03.7'W), Feb 1899, A. Busck (1♀; paratype; USNM); Fajardo (18°19.5'N, 65°39.1'W), Feb 1899, A. Busck (1♂, 1♀; paratypes; USNM); Fajardo, Las Crosbas, Seven Seas Beach (18°23'N, 65°37'W), 17 Feb 1996, W. E. Steiner, J. M. Swearingen (9♂, 2♀; USNM); Maricao (18°11.1'N, 66°58.9'W), 21 Sep 1995, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♂, 1♀; USNM). Playa de Guayanilla (18°0.4'N, 66°46.1'W), 19 Sep 1995, D. and W. N. Mathis (4♂, 1♀; USNM); Utuado (18°15.9'N, 66°42'W), Jan 1899, A. Busck (1♂; paratype; USNM).
ST. LUCIA. Anse la Raye, Anse Galet (1 km SSW Anse la Raye; 13°56'N, 61°03'W; 50 m), 21–30 Jun 1991, J. E. Rawlins, S. A. Thompson (3♂; CMP); Castries (13°59.6'N, 61°0.4'W), Oct 1967, N. L. H. Krauss (2♂; USNM); Castries (5 km S; 13°59'N, 60°00'W), 16 Jun 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (4♂, 3♀; USNM); Dauphin Boguis (1.6 km S Marquis; 14°01'N, 60°55'W), 17 Jun 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (3♂, 2♀; USNM); Fond St. Jacques (13°50'N, 61°02'W), 13–14 Jun 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (9♂, 12♀; USNM); Micoud (13°49'N, 60°54'W), 15 Jun 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (4♂; USNM); Soufrière Botanical Garden (13°51'N, 61°04'W), 12 Jun 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (33♂, 11♀; USNM); Sulphur Spring (13°50'N, 61°03'W), 14 Jun 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (3♂, 1♀; USNM).
ST. VINCENT. Charlotte: Montreal (13°12'N, 61°11'W), 26 Mar-3 Sep 1989, 1991, 1997, A. Freidberg, D. and W. N. Mathis (18♂, 5♀; USNM); South Rivers (13°14.6'N, 61°09.3'W), 8 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (6♂, 1♀; USNM); Yambou River (13°09.8'N, 61°08.7'W), 8–10 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (1♂; USNM). St. Andrew: Buccament Bay (near beach; 13°11'N, 61°16'W), 25–28 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (2♂, 5♀; USNM); Camden Park (13°10.2'N, 61°14.7'W), 4 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (3♂; USNM); Layou (13°12'N, 61°17'W), 8 Jun 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♀; USNM); Vermont (13°13'N, 61°13'W), 5–8 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (9♂, 1♀; USNM). St. George: Kingston, Botanical Garden (13°9.7'N, 61°13.7'W), 25–27 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (4♂; USNM); Yambou Head (13°09.8'N, 61°08.6'W), 27 Mar 1989, W. N. Mathis (1♀; USNM). St. Patrick: Cumberland River (3 km E Spring Village; 13°15'N, 61°14'W), 10 Jun 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (5♂, 7♀; USNM); Hermitage (13°15'N, 61°12.9'W), 9 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (6♂, 2♀; USNM); Palmiste Park (13°12.7'N, 61°14.9'W), 5 Sep 1997, W. N. Mathis (15♂, 2♀; USNM); Wallilabou (beach; 13°15'N, 61°16'W), 27 Mar-8 Jun 1989, 1991, D. and W. N. Mathis (2♀; USNM).

Distribution

(Fig. 95). Nearctic: United States (Florida). Neotropical: Argentina (Salta), Belize (Belize, Stann Creek), Bolivia (Beni, La Paz), Brazil (Amazonas, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo), Chile (Tarapacá), Costa Rica (Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José), Ecuador (Azuay, Guayas, Loja), Guyana, Honduras (Cortés), Mexico (Tamaulipas, Veracruz-Llave), Nicaragua (León), Panama (Panama), Paraguay (Cordillera), Peru (Cuzco, Madre de Dios), Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, St. Vincent).

Remarks

This is a widespread and common species in much of the Neotropics. We have relied primarily on structures of the male terminalia to accurately identify this species, especially the elongated, slender, ventral epandrial process, which distinguishes this species. This structure is often partially or wholly exposed, allowing for identification in dried, pinned males.
We have observed slight variation in some specimens, usually whether the aedeagal apex is slightly inflated or not, but also in the length of the ventral epandrial process. We interpret this variation to be intraspecific, which may be an artifact in part of how specimens were preserved.

Taxon Treatment

  • Mathis, W; Zatwarnicki, T; 2013: A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae) ZooKeys, 363: 1-161. doi

Other References

  1. Cresson E (1946) A systematic annotated arrangement of the genera and species of the Neotropical Ephydridae (Diptera) I. The subfamily Psilopinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 71: 129-163.
  2. Wirth W (1968) 77. Family Ephydridae. In: Papavero N (Ed) A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura. São Paulo, 1-43.
  3. Mathis W, Zatwarnicki T (1995) A world catalog of the shore flies (Diptera: Ephydridae). Memoirs on Entomology, International 4: vi+423 pp.
  4. Mathis W (1997) The shore flies of the Belizean Cays (Diptera: Ephydridae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 592: vi+1–77.
  5. Cresson E (1938) Notes on, and descriptions of, some Neotropical Ephydridae (Dipt.). Revista de Entomologia 8(1–2): 24-40.
  6. Coquillett D (1902) New Acalyptratae Diptera from North America. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 10(4): 177-191.
  7. Hendel F (1930) Die Ausbeute der deutschen Chaco-Expedition 1925/26. Diptera. XIX. Ephydridae. Konowia 9(2): 127-155.

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