Errinopora zarhyncha

From Species-ID
Jump to: navigation, search
Notice: This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see page history). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.

If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.

This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Cairns S, Lindner A (2011) A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters. ZooKeys 158 : 1–88, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2011-12-22, version 20097, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Cairns, Stephen D. AND Lindner, Alberto},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters},
year = {2011},
volume = {158},
issue = {},
pages = {1--88},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.158.1910},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2011-12-22, version 20097, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters
A1 - Cairns S
A1 - Lindner A
Y1 - 2011
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 158
IS -
UR -
SP - 1
EP - 88
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2011-12-22, version 20097, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.158.1910

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Cairns2011ZooKeys158">{{Citation
| author = Cairns S, Lindner A
| title = A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2011
| volume = 158
| issue =
| pages = 1--88
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.158.1910
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-11-20

}} Versioned wiki page: 2011-12-22, version 20097, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Filifera
Familia: Stylasteridae
Genus: Errinopora


Errinopora zarhyncha Fisher, 1938Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Errinopora zarhyncha Fisher, 1938: 539-541, pl. 68, pl. 69, fig. 1.—Boschma 1957[1]: 58.—Thomson and Chow 1955: 23, 30 (mineralogy).—Not Naumov 1960[2]: 559.—Lowenstam 1964[3]: 377 (mineralogy).—Lowe 1967[4]: 82.—Cairns 1983b[5]: 462.—Cairns and Macintrye 1992[6]: 100-101 (mineralogy).—Cairns et al. 1999[7]: 43 (listed).—Heifetz 2002[8]: 22 (listed).—Wing and Barnard 2004[9]:27, 57, fig. 27.—Lindner 2005[10]: 123-127, fig. 4.2D, 4.10, 4.20 (redescription, key).—Heifetz et al. 2005[11]: 133, 137 (listed).—Stone and Shotwell 2007[12]: 108 (listed).—Jamieson et al. 2007[13]: 224 (listed).—Lindner et al. 2008[14]: 3, and supplemental Table S1: 3 (phylogeny and DNA sequences).
  • Errinopora zarhincha: Lowenstam 1964[3]: 382-383 (misspelling).

Type material

Holotype, Alb-3480, a dry male colony 14 cm in height, USNM 42874 (Fig. 5E). Paratypes: Alb-3480, 3 dry female branches, USNM 52247; Alb-3480, 1 branch, CAS 28186. Type locality. Alb-3480: 52°06'N, 171°45'W (Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands), 518 m.

Material examined

Shishaldin, 53°56'24'N, 179°49'31"E, 318 m, 14 May 2000, 1 male, USNM 1123447; Shishaldin, 54°54'05"N, 178°37.27'E, 410 m, 11 Feb 2000, 3 female branches, and SEM stubs 1542–43, USNM 1123448; Vesteraalen 941–59, 52°02'00"N, 172°12'W, 658 m, 14 Jun 1994, 3 branches of a female colony, both dry and in alcohol, USNM 96234; Vesteraalen 941–62, 51°58'N, 172°40'W, 207 m, 15 Jun 1994, 1 female, USNM 96233; Vesteraalen, 51°13'17"N, 179°05'57"E, 488 m, 4 Jun 2000, 1 male, USNM 1071915; 51°13'43"N, 179°49'31"E, 465–529 m, 13 Jun 2000, large male colony, USNM 1123446; Types.


Colonies uniplanar or multiplanar, robust, with fairly close dichotomous branching, leaving little space between branches; branch anastomosis occurs but uncommon. Largest colony 26 cm in height and 27 cm in width, with a massive basal branch 4.3 cm in diameter (USNM 1123446). Branches circular to slightly flattened in cross section, attenuating to thick (7–15 mm in diameter), blunt tips. Parasitic spionid polychaete worms form tubes along branch axes in two colonies (USNM 96233, 96234), the tubes Fig. 8 in cross section. Coenosteum quite porous in texture (Fig. 9E–H), consisting of a reticulum of thin (25 µm), spinose ridges, separated by wide slits or series of pores. This texture also present on ampullae and dactylopore spines, in the latter the coenosteal strips forming longitudinal ridges. Coenosteum orange.
Dactylopore spines occur on all branch surfaces and are quite variable in orientation, sometimes forming rows of 10–13 spines laterally fused into a short tier on one side of a pore row (unilaterally), the dactylotomes usually facing upward (abcauline), but dactylopore spines also oriented with their dactylotomes facing downward (adcauline) or laterally, and occasionally are isolated; compound dactylopore spines common. Dactylopore spines quite large and thick-walled, up to 3 mm in height and 1.5 mm in width, the dactylotome occupying one-fourth to one-third width of spine; exterior surface longitudinally ridged. Small, circular, flush secondary dactylopores, measuring only 0.08–0.11 mm in diameter, occur on walls of dactylopore spines, often several on each spine. Whereas dactylopore spines are quite large, dactylostyles are small and thin, only about 30–35 um in width, bearing short spines up to 23 µm in length and 14 µm in diameter.
Gastropores circular and quite variable in size, up to 1.1 mm in diameter, often arranged linearly in valleys created by adjacent rows of dactylopores. Large gastropores often sit directly adjacent to much smaller ones; secondary gastropores about 0.38 mm in diameter. Gastropore fairly shallow, lacking a ring palisade, affording an easy view of base of pore, as the gastrostyle occupies only a small part of gastropore cavity. Gastrostyles lanceolate and slender, up to 0.9 mm in height, and bear longitudinal anastomosing ridges, the gastrostyle size commensurate with diameter of gastropore tube.
Female ampullae inconspicuous (Fig. 9J) and not common, rarely seen in cross section branch fracture. Female ampullae hemispherical, often overshadowed by tall dactylopore spines or becoming incorporated into dactylopore spines. Efferent pores elusive; when detectable they are lateral in position, and about 0.7 mm in diameter, but more often a spent female ampulla lacks its upper half or is simply a crater in the coenosteum, a function of its thin, porous coenosteal cover. Male ampullae equally inconspicuous (Fig. 9C), roughly hemispherical, highly porous, and only about 0.6–0.7 mm in diameter.


Errinopora zarhyncha is one of three species in the genus having a predominantly unilateral arrangement of dactylopore spines in which only one row of laterally fused spines (usually the proximal row) have their dactylotomes facing a gastropore or gastropore row, the other species being Errinopora nanneca and Errinopora dichotoma (see Dichotomous Key and Table 1). Errinopora zarhyncha differs from the other two species in having very tall dactylopore spines, relatively small dactylostyles, large robust colonies, and gastropore tubes that are much larger than their gastrostyles (see Dichotomous Key and Table 1). Naumov (1960)[2] reported this species from the Kurile Islands, but based on his description in which he reports gastropore diameters of only 0.20-0.25 mm and dactylopore spines only 0.6 mm in height, we conclude that he is referring to a different, and as yet unknown species. Of the 8 lots of specimens examined, 4 are female, and 4 male. Coralla were determined to be calcitic by Thompson and Chow (1955)[15] and Cairns and Macintrye (1992)[6].


Endemic to Aleutian Islands in a somewhat disjunct distribution: Amchitka Pass, Bowers Bank, and off Seguam Island; 207-658 m.

Taxon Treatment

  • Cairns, S; Lindner, A; 2011: A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters ZooKeys, 158: 1-88. doi

Other References

  1. Boschma H (1957) List of the described species of the order Stylasterina. Zoologische Verhandelingen 33: 1-72.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Naumov D (1960) Hydroids and Hydromedusae of the USSR. Keys to the fauna of the USSR published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR 70: 1-660.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Lowenstam H (1964) Coexisting calcites and aragonites from skeletal carbonates of marine organisms and their strontium and magnesium contents. In: Miyake Y Koyama T (Eds). Recent Researches in the Fields of Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, and Nuclear Geochemistry, Maruzen C. , Ltd, Tokyo: 373-403.
  4. Lowe T (1967) A Comparative Study of Stony Hydroids, Order Stylasterina, of Southern South America and Adjacent Antarctic Regions. MS thesis, Washington DC, USA, George Washington University, Washington D.C., 116 pp.
  5. Cairns S (1983b) A generic revision of the Stylasterina (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Part 1. Description of the genera. Bulletin of Marine Science 33 (2): 427-508.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Cairns S, Macintrye I (1992) Phylogenetic implications of the calcium carbonate mineralogy in the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Palaios 7: 96-107. doi: 10.2307/3514799
  7. Cairns S, Hoeksema B, Land J van d (1999) Appendix: list of extant stony corals. Atoll Research Bulletin 459: 13-46.
  8. Heifetz J (2002) Coral in Alaska: distribution, abundance, and species associations. Hydrobiologia 471: 19-28. doi: 10.1023/A:1016528631593
  9. Wing G, Barnard D (2004) A field guide to Alaskan Corals. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-146, NOAA, US Dept of Commerce, 67 pp.
  10. Lindner A (2005) Evolution and Taxonomy of Stylasterid Corals (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae). PhD thesis, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Duke University, 165 pp.
  11. Heifetz J, Wing B, Stone R, Malecha P, Courtney D (2005) Corals of the Aleutian Islands. Fisheries Oceanography 14: 131-138. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2005.00371.x
  12. Stone R, Shotwell S (2007) State of deep coral ecosystems in the Alaskan region: Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands. In: Hourigan TF et al. (Eds) The State of Deep Coral Ecosystems of the United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP-3, NOAA, Silver Spring, 65–108.
  13. Jamieson G, Pellegrin N, Jesson S (2007) Taxonomy and zoogeography of cold-water corals in coastal British Columbia. In: George RY, Cairns SD (Eds) Conservation and Adaptive Management of Seamount and Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems, University of Miami, Miami, 215–229.
  14. Lindner A, Cairns S, Cunningham C (2008) From offshore to onshore: multiple origins of shallow-water corals from deep-sea ancestors. PLoS One 3(6): e2429. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002429
  15. Thompson T, Chow T (1955) The strontium-calcium atom ratio in carbonate-secreting marine organisms. Deep-Sea Research (Supplement) 3: 20-39.