Digitonthophagus gazella (Génier, François & Moretto, Philippe 2017)

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Génier, François, Moretto, Philippe (2017) Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). Zootaxa 4248 : 39 – 52, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2018-06-26, version 168945, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Digitonthophagus_gazella_(G%C3%A9nier,_Fran%C3%A7ois_%26_Moretto,_Philippe_2017)&oldid=168945 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

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BibTeX:

@article{Génier2017Zootaxa4248,
author = {Génier, François AND Moretto, Philippe},
journal = {Zootaxa},
title = {Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)},
year = {2017},
volume = {4248},
issue = {},
pages = {39 -- 52},
doi = {TODO},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2018-06-26, version 168945, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Digitonthophagus_gazella_(G%C3%A9nier,_Fran%C3%A7ois_%26_Moretto,_Philippe_2017)&oldid=168945 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)
A1 - Génier, François
A1 - Moretto, Philippe
Y1 - 2017
JF - Zootaxa
JA -
VL - 4248
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/TODO
SP - 39
EP - 52
PB -
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2018-06-26, version 168945, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Digitonthophagus_gazella_(G%C3%A9nier,_Fran%C3%A7ois_%26_Moretto,_Philippe_2017)&oldid=168945 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

M3 - doi:TODO

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Génier2017Zootaxa4248">{{Citation
| author = Génier, François, Moretto, Philippe
| title = Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)
| journal = Zootaxa
| year = 2017
| volume = 4248
| issue =
| pages = 39 -- 52
| pmid =
| publisher =
| doi = TODO
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-28

}} Versioned wiki page: 2018-06-26, version 168945, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Digitonthophagus_gazella_(G%C3%A9nier,_Fran%C3%A7ois_%26_Moretto,_Philippe_2017)&oldid=168945 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.</ref>


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Coleoptera
Familia: Scarabaeidae
Genus: Digitonthophagus

Name

Digitonthophagus gazella Fabricius, 1787Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Description

Copris Dorcas — Fabricius 1798: 31 (diagnosis) Scarabaeus Dorcas — Illiger 1800: 228 (monograph)

Description

Onthophagus Gazella — Sturm 1826: 178 (catalog)

Description

Onthophagus Gazella — Klug 1835: 33 (distribution) Onthophagus Gazella — Dejean 1836: 157 (catalog) Onthophagus Gazella — Hope 1837: 33 (catalog) Ontophagus gazella — Reiche 1840: 243 (comment)

Description

Onthophagus gazella — Brancsik 1893: 223 (distribution)

Description

Onthophagus gazella — d’Orbigny 1911: 20 (distribution)

Description

Onthophagus gazella — Frey 1958: 73 (distribution) Onthophagus gazella — Ferreira 1959: 84 (distribution)

Description

Onthophagus (O.) gazella — Endrödi 1973b: 198 (distribution) Onthophagus gazella — Endrödi 1974: 3 (faunistic) Onthophagus gazella — Blume & Aga 1975: 735 (natural history) Onthophagus gazella — Endrödi 1976: 156 (distribution) Onthophagus gazella — Alfieri 1976: 205 (faunistic) Onthophagus gazella — Bornemissza 1976: 7 (natural history)

Description

Digitonthophagus gazella — Noriega 2002: 213 (distribution) Digitonthophagus gazella —Barbero & Palestrini 2003: 316 (distribution) Digitonthophagus gazella —Barbero et al. 2003: 333 (phylogeny)

Materials Examined

Type locality. Unspecified.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis. Pronotum rather glossy (Fig. 62); FLP sclerite subapicodorsal lobe short anteriorly (Figs. 156– 157); right lateral fold produced into a longitudinal spoon-shape process with apical portion open ventrally, ventral edge bordered with a conspicuous brush of villi (Fig. 185A), lacking well-sclerotized projection on apicoventral edge (Fig. 185 B); axial sclerite shorter than subaxial sclerite, acute apically (Fig. 156); subaxial sclerite moderately long and robust (Fig. 153).

Description

Description. Male specimen from Central Province, Zambia (Fig. 14). Measurements. Length 12.5 mm, width 7.0 mm. Head (Figs. 37–38). Anterior clypeal edge straight on median fifth in dorsal view; clypeofrontal carina broadly arcuate and interrupted at gena; vertex lacking median tubercle, surface with punctures fine to small, separated by one to four diameters. Horns rather short, slightly divergent in frontal view, parallel sided on basal four-fifths and abruptly tapering externally and narrower on apical sixth, posterointernal edge produced into low, angular projection basally, apicointernal surface lacking granules, with few scabrous punctures; genal edge slightly upturned and feebly angulate on anterior third, forming a broad angle with clypeal edge. Pronotum (Fig. 62). Surface with granulate punctures extending on posterior half, with distinct umbilicate punctures on posterior half of disc; punctures smaller posterolaterally, with distinct, minute punctures throughout. Anteromedian tubercle atrophied, simply round in lateral view, median longitudinal sulcus narrow and moderately deep; surface behind the eyes with a simple, round, shallow depression, surface of anterior angles flat; anterior half of lateral edge arcuate in dorsal and lateral view; posterior angles slightly upturned and simply arcuate in dorsal view; anterior hypomeral ridge arcuate anteriorly, anterior hypomeral depression surface slightly darker in color medially. Elytra (Fig. 14). Interval 2 with few scattered fine granules on apical declivity, interval 4 lacking fine granules from base to apex. Legs. Protibial apicointernal tooth enlarged, with dorsal ridge extending to apex. Aedeagus (Fig. 126). Parameres with dorsal and ventral edges slightly diverging toward apex in lateral view. Internal sac sclerites (Figs. 156–158). Axial sclerite broadly arcuate, with apex acute. Subaxial sclerite, gradually tapering from base to apex, slightly angled on apical third, extending straight approximately in line with apex of frontolateral peripheral sclerite apical portion, with a thick brush of villi on apical fifth. Frontolateral peripheral sclerite basoventral apophysis well developed; lacking medioventral carinae; right lateral fold produced into longitudinal spoon-shape process with apical portion open ventrally, ventral edge bordered with a brush of villi; left lateral lobe membranous, slightly developed; subapicodorsal lobe membranous, not reaching anterior edge, apex set medially in dorsal view; apical lobe round and directed obliquely on left side, left edge emarginate, apical villi irregular in shape; subapicoventral lobe round and interrupted in line with apical lobe, with few villi along apical edge only. Variation. Measurements (237 ♂♂, 169 ♀♀). Length: male 7.0–13.0 mm (10.6 ± 1.1), female 7.5–13.0 mm (10.5 ± 1.0 mm). Female specimen. Cephalic outline in dorsal view as in Fig. 78; vertex with a slightly sinuate transverse carina, dorsal edge slightly sinuous in frontal view, lateral portion abruptly sloping down; anterior pronotal tubercles well developed, external lateral edges slightly widening toward apex in dorsal view, anterolateral surface obliquely concave, anterosuperior edge slightly arcuate in dorsal view (Fig. 101), lateral portion of anterosuperior edge slightly upturned (Fig. 102). Protibia short, with external teeth more robust. Primary type data. Scarabaeus gazella Fabricius: Syntype (ZMUK): [] small green square; [ZMUC / 00508509]; [TYPE] red card; [WORLD / SCARAB. / DATABASE / WSD00029479] barcode label; [SYNTYPE ♂ / Scarabaeus / gazella / Fabricius, 1787 / vid. F. Génier, 2016] red card; [Guinea / Isert / Mus. T. Lund / Copris / gazella / ♂ / F.] handwritten [in error] see Nomenclature and taxonomy below for more details. Note. The first label, a small green square without inscription, confirms this specimen as a Fabrician type (Zimsen 1964). The last label was added after Fabricius’s time and is erroneously cited as African. See nomenclature and taxonomy below section for more details. Scarabaeus dorcas Olivier: Neotype♂ (MNHN) present designation: [[[Madagascar]] / Diego-Suarez 7 / Ch. Alluaud, 1893] partly handwritten; [MUSEUM PARIS / MADAGASCAR / COLL. CH. ALLUAUD 1904] green card; [WORLD / SCARAB. / DATABASE / WSD00030025] barcode label; [[[NEOTYPE]] / Scarabaeus / dorcas / Olivier, 1789 / des. F. Génier, 2016] red card. Note. This neotype designation is made with the express purpose of clarifying the taxonomic status and the type locality of Scarabaeus dorcas Olivier. The specimen designated agrees in morphology to the description presented above. The original type material used for Olivier’s description is lost or destroyed (Olivier Montreuil, MNHN, personal communication). The neotype has been selected to match Olivier’s description and type locality, in addition to possessing the best diagnostic character for the species. The neotype is deposited in the collection of the Museum national d’Histoire naturelle de Paris along with the remains of Olivier’s collection. MAP 9. Distribution of Digitonthophagus gazella (native range in continental Africa only).

Materials Examined

Angola Menongue Mission Angola Caconda Angola Cacula Angola Quipungo Angola Cacula Angola Luceque Mission Angola Capelongo-Dongo Mission Angola Capelongo-Dongo Mission Australia Warrumbungle National Park Australia Gilgandra Australia Narrabri H.G. Garcia Australia Darwin S. & J. Peck Australia Darwin S. & J. Peck Australia Darwin S. & J. Peck Australia Mataranka S. & J. Peck Australia Mataranka S. & J. Peck Australia Kakadu National Park S. & J. Peck Australia Magela Creek L. Borghesio Australia Tenat Creek Australia QUEENSLAND S Ayr Australia Ravenshoe Australia Atherton Australia Lynd Australia Mareeba Australia Julatten Australia Atherton Australia Atherton Australia Mackay Australia Burketown Australia Cairns Australia Cairns Australia Cairns A Cairns Cairns Charters Towers Granite Gorge Nature Park Holloways Beach Lockerbie Mareeba Mornington Island A Petford Mount Carbine S Mount Carbine Toowoomba Munroe Yeppoon Yeppoon Botswana Yeppoon Botswana Nata Werner Botswana Nata Botswana Serowe Botswana Stevensford Game Reserve Botswana Sehitwa Holm & Jacobs & Kirsten Botswana Kasane Holm & Marais & Nel Botswana Chobe Botswana Kasane Botswana Kuke Pan Botswana Maun Brazil Otse Brazil BAHIA Cruz das Almas Brazil Brumado Brazil A Nazare das Farinhas & C. Ribeiro Brazil Sao Miguel do Araguaia Brazil Mirador Brazil Pocone Brazil Curvelandia A.L.M. LePeletier de Saint Fargeau Brazil Pocone Brazil Tangara da Serra Tangara da Serra Brazil Querecia Brazil Cotriguacu F. Vaz Brazil Cotriguacu O. Peres Brazil Cotriguacu O. Peres Brazil Cotriguacu O. Peres Brazil Tangara da Serra Tangara da Serra Brazil Vila Rica Brazil Corumba Brazil Porto Murtinho Brazil Alter do Chao Brazil A Brazil Pau d'Arco Brazil Fazenda Almas Sao Jose dos Cordeiros & M.A. Ivie Brazil Floresta Brazil Japecanga E. Barbero Brazil Guajara-Mirim Brazil Guajara-Mirim Comoros Guajara-Mirim Comoros Bandamale Comoros Fomboni Comoros Miringoni Comoros Moheli Island Comoros Nioumachoua Comoros Anjouan Comoros Mutsamudu Comoros Anjouan Comoros Pastorale Lomami Comoros Parc National de l'Upemba Parc National de l'Upemba & G. F. de Witte Comoros Parc National de l'Upemba Parc National de l'Upemba & G. F. de Witte Comoros Parc National de l'Upemba Parc National de l'Upemba & G. F. de Witte Comoros Parc National de l'Upemba Parc National de l'Upemba & G. F. de Witte Comoros Kazofu Comoros Lubumbashi Comoros Parc National de l'Upemba Parc National de l'Upemba & G. F. de Witte Comoros Kabunambo Comoros Uvira Dominican Republic Uvira Dominican Republic Juan Dolio Dominican Republic Nadi France Tavua Mayotte Chingoni Mayotte Dembeni Guadeloupe Le Gosier Le Gosier Jamaica Bay Kenya Priory Kenya Kikambala Kenya Gazi de Tiwi & Alluaud Kenya MOMBASSA Kenya Mombassa Kenya Mombassa Kenya Mombassa Kenya A Kenya Mombassa Kenya A Madagascar Voi Madagascar Ambatolampy Madagascar Antananarivo Madagascar Montagne d'Ambre Madagascar Antisiranana Madagascar Antisiranana Madagascar Marovato Madagascar Nosy Be Madagascar Nosy Be Madagascar Nosy Be Madagascar Ambalavao Madagascar Camp S. Murzin Madagascar Fianarantsoa Madagascar Isalo K. Masumoto & R.-P. Dechambre Madagascar Vondrozo Madagascar Ananalava Madagascar Environs Ambodimanga Madagascar Mandritsara Madagascar Nosy Beraphia Madagascar Majunga Madagascar Majunga K. Masumoto Madagascar Ambatondrazaka Madagascar Perinet Madagascar Antanambe Madagascar Antanambe Madagascar Antanambe Madagascar Perinet Madagascar Tamatave Madagascar Tsiroanomandidy Madagascar Maroantsetra Madagascar Alaotra Madagascar Ankilimary Madagascar Beloha Madagascar Betioky K. Masumoto & R.-P. Dechambre Madagascar Betroka Madagascar Taolagnaro Madagascar Lavanono Madagascar Sakaraha Malawi Sakaraha Malawi CENTRAL Malawi Sani Malawi SOUTHERN REGION Malawi Chikwawa C. Ribeiro Malawi Bay C. Ribeiro Malawi Phalula Malawi Nkopola Forest Malawi A Malawi San Nicolas Tolentino Malawi Guamuchil Malawi Yecora Mozambique Corral Nuevo Mozambique Parque Nacional Quirimbas F. & S. Genier & M. Denja Mozambique Parque Nacional Quirimbas F. & S. Genier & M. Denja Mozambique Pemba F. Vaz Mozambique Quissico M.A. Ivie Mozambique Camping Mozambique Chimoio Mozambique Chimoio Mozambique Lourenco Marques Mozambique Mission Rikatla Mozambique Lumbo Mozambique SOFALA NW Beira & Bornemissza Mozambique Caia Mozambique Caia Mozambique Caia Mozambique Caia Mozambique Caia Mozambique Caia Mozambique Caia Mozambique Caia Mozambique Canxixe Mozambique Chemba Mozambique Chemba Mozambique Chemba Mozambique Gorongoza National Park Mozambique Nova Chupanda Namibia Immelman Namibia Park Mann Namibia Tsunkwe District D. J. Mann Namibia Nova Mann Namibia Nova Mann & Marais Namibia Nova Mann Namibia Divundu D. J. Mann Namibia Khaudom Game Reserve D. J. Mann Namibia Rundu District Mann Namibia Novo area Mann & Marais Namibia Shamvura Camp R. Perissinoto Namibia Tsumkwe District Mann Namibia Tsumkwe district D. J. Mann Iceland NORTH PROVINCE Iceland La Foa La Foa & Route & Nordistes & Bourail Iceland Bouloupari Sentier du Pic de Ouitchambo Iceland NO Iceland Nagada Mission Iceland Nagada Mission Iceland Lae Iceland Black Rock C. Ribeiro Iceland East Dr. Iceland East Iceland East Iceland Grahamstown Iceland Forest Iceland Pondoland Iceland Pondoland Iceland Port St. John Iceland Marine Sanctuary Iceland Mthatha Iceland Boshof Iceland Bloemfontein Iceland Florisbad Iceland Kimberley Iceland Kimberley Iceland Vredefort Perissinoto Iceland GAUTENG SW Johannesburg Iceland Southern Iceland Boekenhoutskloof Iceland Boekenhoutskloof Iceland Boekenhoutskloof Iceland Boekenhoutskloof Iceland Castel Gorge W Pretoria & Bornemissza Iceland Die Wilgers Silverton Iceland Heidelberg Iceland Johannesburg Iceland Pretoria Iceland Onderstepoort Iceland Onderstepoort Iceland Pretoria J.W. van Lansberge Iceland Pretoria Almas, Sao Jose dos Cordeiros Iceland Pretoria Iceland Pretoria A.L.M. LePeletier de Saint Fargeau Iceland Pretoria Iceland Pretoria Iceland Pumulani J.S. Hunter III Iceland Pretoria Iceland Rivonia M.A. Ivie Iceland Soetvelde L. G. Le Iceland Pretoria Iceland Pretoria Experimental Farm Iceland Nongoma Iceland A S Bergville Iceland A Iceland A Iceland Busland's Halt Iceland Cathedral Peak State Forest Iceland Colenso Iceland Durban Iceland Mseleni Perissinoto Iceland Mseleni Perissinoto Iceland Estcourt Iceland Estcourt Perissinoto Iceland Frere Iceland Drakensberg Iceland Hluhluwe Game Reserve Iceland Hluhluwe Game Reserve Sao Jose dos Cordeiros Iceland Hluhluwe Game Reserve Iceland Hluhluwe Game Reserve E. Jane Iceland Hluhluwe Game Reserve Iceland Hluhluwe Game Reserve Dung Beetle Research Unit Iceland Ithala Game Reserve Iceland Ladysmith Iceland Ladysmith Dr. Iceland Malvern Iceland Maritzburg Iceland Maritzburg Iceland Mkuze Iceland Mtunzini Perissinoto Iceland Ndumu Game Reserve Iceland Newcastle Iceland Nongoma Perissinoto Iceland Nongoma Iceland Durban Iceland Durban De Iceland Royal Natal Park Iceland The Caverns Drakensberg Iceland Umfolozi Game Reserve Iceland Umfolozi Game Reserve Iceland Umfolozi Game Reserve Iceland Umfolozi Game Reserve Iceland Game Reserve P. B. Edwards Iceland Weenen Iceland Weenen Iceland Weenen Iceland Kruger National Park Iceland Lephalale Iceland Nylsvaley Iceland Nylsvaley Guernsey Klaserie Guernsey Klaserie Guernsey Klaserie Guernsey North Guernsey Langjan Guernsey Langjan Nature Reserve Guernsey Makapan Guernsey Mmabolela Guernsey Musina Guernsey Nwanedzi Perissinoto Guernsey Radium Guernsey Sentrum Guernsey Shiluvane Guernsey Steenbokpan Guernsey Hoedspruit Jansen Guernsey Vaalwater T.H. Larsen Guernsey Waterpoort Guernsey Letsitele Guernsey Kruger National Park C.E.A. Gerstaecker Guernsey Barberton Guernsey Kruger National Park Guernsey Kaapmuiden Guernsey Klaserie Nature Reserve Guernsey Klaserie Nature Reserve Guernsey Leeuwfontein Guernsey Mariepskop Guernsey Kruger National Park Guernsey Satara Kruger N. Guernsey Ad Guernsey Skukuza Camp Guernsey Kruger National Park Guernsey Kruger National Park Guernsey Kruger National Park Guernsey Kruger National Park Guernsey Timbavati Game Reserve Guernsey Kruger National Park Guernsey Kruger National Park Guernsey Brits Guernsey Bothaville Guernsey Baberspan Guernsey Dinokana Guernsey Nieverdiend Holm & Jacobs & Kirsten Guernsey Potchefstroom Guernsey Vryburg Guernsey Zeerust Guernsey Farm Klipkoppies Guernsey A Guernsey Koegrabie Farm Guernsey Pneil Road Guernsey Bb Swaziland WESTERN CAPE Tanzania Mlilwane Wildlife Sanctuary Tanzania Zanzibar Tanzania ARUSHA Tanzania Arusha Tanzania Salaam Tanzania A Tanzania Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania Dar-es-Salaam J.F.W. Herbst Tanzania Salaam Tanzania Yombo R.R. Blume Tanzania Mkimbizi Mountain Tanzania Mkimbizi-Bima Mountain Tanzania Mtokokuyana Local Tanzania Morogoro P. Holter Tanzania Selous Game Tanzania Kisaki Local Tanzania Magubike Tanzania Mhonda-Ouzingua Station du Sacre-Coeur de Mhonda Tanzania Savane de Mikesse Tanzania Uluguru Mountains Tanzania Ngezi Forest Tanzania PWANI Tanzania Bagamoyo Tanzania Mandera Tanzania Mwetemo Tanzania Chalinze Tanzania Mafia Island Tanzania TANGA Tanzania Tanga Alluaud Tanzania Tanga Uganda Tanga Uganda Tero Forest United States of America A United States of America ARIZONA United States of America Harshaw Creek United States of America Paynes Prairies Preserve State Park United States of America Ewa United States of America Ewa United States of America Honolulu L.J. Reiche United States of America Honolulu L.J. Reiche United States of America Honolulu L.J. Reiche United States of America Honolulu L.J. Reiche United States of America Point United States of America Makapuu Point United States of America Honolulu D. M. Tsuda & D.R. Maddison United States of America Waianae Mountains United States of America Wailupe Valley United States of America Waipio United States of America Waipio United States of America Point United States of America Point United States of America Hana United States of America Hwy NW McBee United States of America TEXAS United States of America Hondo J.-P. Lumaret United States of America Presidio County Mann United States of America Humphrey Ranch Mann United States of America Miller Ranch Mann United States of America Presidio J.-P. Lumaret Vanuatu Ruidosa Mann Zambia Epi Zambia Lilemone Zambia Chunga Zambia Mukambi Lodge Junction F. Genier Zambia Mukambi Lodge Junction F. Genier Zambia Chunga F. Genier Zambia Chisamba S. Beynon Zambia Mayukuyuku Camp Josso & Juhel Zambia Mukambi Safari Lodge F. Genier Zambia Mukambi Safari Lodge F. Genier Zambia Kafue National Park J. F. Josso Zambia Kafue National Park J. F. Josso Zambia Zambeef Farming Limited S. Beynon Zambia Zambeef Farming Limited S. Beynon Zambia Zambeef Farming Limited S. Beynon Zambia Zambeef Farming Limited S. Beynon Zambia Chingola Zambia Chingola Zambia Rural Ndola Zambia LUSAKA PROVINCE Zambia River Zambia Chimfunzi Nature Reserve Zambia Chocha Zambia Chocha Zambia Kaputa Zambia Lake Zambia Sumbu Zambia Choma Zambia Bruce-Miller Game Farm Zambia Miller Game Farm Zambia Bruce-Miller Game Farm Josso & Juhel Zambia Livingstone Zambia Livingstone Zambia Livingstone Zambia Namwazi Zambia Namwazi Zambia Nkwali Camp R. Smith Zambia Sesheke Zambia Lealui Zimbabwe Lealui Zimbabwe Bulawayo Zimbabwe HARARE Zimbabwe A Zimbabwe Harare Zimbabwe Salisbury Zimbabwe A Zimbabwe Salisbury Zimbabwe A Zimbabwe Salisbury Zimbabwe A Zimbabwe Mutare N Umtali & Bornemissza Zimbabwe Mutare Zimbabwe Mutare Zimbabwe Chivhu Zimbabwe Marandellas J. Srin Zimbabwe Marandellas Bornemissza Zimbabwe Karoi S. Rojkoff Zimbabwe Atlantica NW McBee Zimbabwe Bubi River Zimbabwe Lake Zimbabwe Lake Zimbabwe Main Camp J. Srin Zimbabwe Inyati Zimbabwe Lonely Mine Zimbabwe Lonely Mine Zimbabwe Lonely Mine Zimbabwe Lonely Mine Zimbabwe Pan J. Srin Zimbabwe Gwanda Zimbabwe Matopos Zimbabwe Ngezi Recreational Park

Description

Nomenclature and taxonomy. An application was submitted to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature on 20 October 2016 (Génier & Krell 2017) and was assigned case number 3722. The application is made to maintain prevailing usage of the species name D. gazella for the widely introduced species through the process of setting aside all previous type fixations for the nominal species Scarabaeus gazella Fabricius and the designation of a neotype. The circumstances with the type material of Scarabaeus gazella are more intricate. In this case we are in presence of three putative syntypes. Unlike the syntypes of S. catta, these three specimens all bear a small green square typical of Fabrician types (Zimsen 1964). There is a well-developed male (10.5 mm), a small male (8.0 mm) with secondary sexual characters resembling a female, and a moderately large female (10.0 mm). The large male and the female bear a handwritten label with the following information: “ Guinea, Isert, Mus. T. Lund, Copris gazella F.” These labels were added at least 14 years after the species was originally described, as the generic name used on these labels is Copris, a genus Fabricius used for the first time in Fabricius (1801). After a careful study of these three specimens, which include the dissection and examination of the internal sac sclerites of the two males, we conclude that this series is a mixture of two species. The large male is a representative of the oriental species D. catta and the small male and female are representative of the West African species D. falciger. At this point, there is no realistic possibility of finding out the true historical details about these specimens. The most likely chain of events is that Fabricius had only the large male specimen lacking geographic information when he described the species in the appendix of the second volume of Mantissa Insectorum published in December 1787 (Evenhuis 1997; Bousquet 2016). The original description is clear: “occipite cornubus duobus arcuatis”, and can only apply to the specimen with two well-developed cephalic horns. We can only speculate on the number of specimens seen by Fabricius at the time of the description. Subsequently, Fabricius had received two additional specimens from Tønder Lund collected in Africa (Guinea), which he identified as his S. gazella and added the new information on the distribution five years later in the Entomologia systematica (Fabricius 1792). The currently recognized synonymy for D. gazella was established by d’Orbigny (1913). The first species listed is Scarabaeus catta Fabricius, the entry is preceded by a question mark indicating that this synonymy is dubious. There is, however, no indication as to why d’Orbigny considered this synonymy dubious. This synonymy is here resolved on the principle of priority and the name D. catta is valid for an oriental species. The second synonym listed is Scarabaeus dorcas Olivier, described from Madagascar. This name is as a synonym of D. gazella assuming that the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature rules on the conservation of the name D. gazella for the widely introduced species. The third species listed is Copris metallicus Fabricius, described from India. The holotype (by monotypy) of the species has been studied and despite the fact that it is missing the head and prothorax, it can be stated here that it does not belong to the genus Digitonthophagus. It is an Onthophagus of the Onthophagus orientalis species group and most likely belonging to the subgenus Sinonthophagus Kabakov. The species is therefore here removed from synonymy with D. gazella and considered valid with the following combination Onthophagus metallicus (Fabricius). It should be noted here that a junior homonym, Onthophagus metallicus Fåhraeus, exists as a synonym of Proagoderus bicallosus (Klug). The fourth species listed is Copris antilope Fabricius, also described from India. Three syntypes are in ZMUC and an additional specimen in the ZMUK. The examination of the specimens revealed that they do not belong to the genus Digitonthophagus but rather belong to the genus Onthophagus and are similar to Onthophagus (Colobonthophagus) dama (Fabricius). The species is therefore here removed from synonymy with D. gazella and considered valid with the following combination Onthophagus antilope (Fabricius). Again, it should be noted here that a junior homonym, Onthophagus antilope Motschulsky exists, the latter is a synonym of Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) vacca Linnaeus. It is beyond the scope of this work to determine if O. antilope is synonymous with O. dama. The fifth name listed as synonyms is Onthophagus intermedius Reiche with a type locality “ Sénégal.” This name was first listed as “ O. gazella var. intermedius Dupont ” a variety of Onthophagus gazella in Dejean (1836) and is a nomen nudum. A specimen of D. sahelicus with a small manuscript label stating “1395” and a second manuscript label stating, “ intermedius Reiche.gazella? Fab. Senegal ” was found in the BMNH collection. It is not clear if this is a specimen acquired from Dupont’s collection by The Natural History Museum of London. Reiche (1840) stated that Dupont, who was a prominent natural history specimen merchant in the 19th century (Cambefort 2006), was the first to use the name O. intermedius for specimens in his collection. The name O. intermedius Reiche is, however, unavailable as it was first published in an available work as a synonym of “ Onthophagus gazella ” (Article 11.6; International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999).

Taxon Treatment

  • Génier, François; Moretto, Philippe; 2017: Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), Zootaxa 4248: 39-52. doi
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