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- Cyamops Melander 1913: 291. Type species: Cyamops nebulosus Melander, by original designation. Sturtevant 1954: 557–559 [revision]. Hennig 1958: 633 [generic characters, relationships], 1969: 610–613 [discussion]. Sabrosky 1958: 169–171 [revision], 1965: 820 [Nearctic catalog]. Khoo 1985: 527–536 [revision, Australian species]. Khoo and Sabrosky 1989: 551 [Australasian/Oceanian catalog]. Baptista and Mathis 1994: 1–25 [revision, New World species], 2000: 481–506 [review]. Grimaldi 2009: 23–27 [revision, Fiji].
Adult: Small flies, body length 1.65–3.30 mm, with slender habitus.
Head: Typically dark brown in ground color; fronto-orbits below the insertion of fronto-orbital setae, parafacial and genal region usually with silvery white microtomentum; occipital region shiny, sparsely microtomentose; lower face usually strongly microtomentose below genal region; median plate of clypeus shiny brown; head usually broader than thorax; postcranium strongly concave; eye bearing interfacetal setulae, shape of eye in profile more or less diagonal, lower anterior facets enlarged and encroaching on facial region more in males than in females (males and females of two species from Oceanic Region have the face with almost the same width); eyes closer together at lower edge of frons than at top of head; frons slightly longer than wide; ocellar tubercle small, situated near vertex; mesofrons somewhat depressed, concave; antennal form as for other Periscelididae; arista 3-segmented (see D.K. McAlpine 1983), branched, in some species with basal bifurcate rays; face in profile nearly straight to distinctly angulate, ventral portion (below narrowest gap between eyes) more broadly developed, sometimes shallowly carinate medially, carina narrow to broad, but always broader in females; lower epistomal margin of midface extended around oral opening to form a narrow peristomal area; clypeus a large inverted U, somewhat retracted in males but easily visible in females; palpus short, compressed, with silver luster when viewed under certain angles. Chaetotaxy: Lateral vertical seta slightly to strongly divergent, curved outward; medial vertical and postocellar setae lacking; 2 pairs of fronto-orbital setae, inner pair reclinate, sometimes oriented outward, outer pair proclinate, in most cases pointed inward; inner fronto-orbital seta usually about 3/4 length of outer, rarely shorter; fronto-orbits typically bearing small setulae below setae; true vibrissa apparently absent, but uppermost pair of facial setae developed as porrect, anaclinate “pseudovibrissae,” followed by a row of peristomal setulae and setae at margin of gena; pseudovibrissae sometimes placed externally to row of peristomal setae.
Thorax: Shiny, brown to dark brown, sparsely whitish microtomentose, microtomentum more dense at lower portion of katepisternum; calypter brown; postscutellum developed; greater ampulla convex; prosternum bare. Chaetotaxy: Acrostichal setulae in 2 more or less regular rows, slightly diverging behind, being strongly reduced in some species; dorsocentral setae 0+1 or 0+2, 1st seta, when present smaller, 1 row of dorsocentral setulae in front of setae; some setulae also present between acrostichal and dorsocentral rows in some species; supra-alar seta 1, preceded by small setulae, which can be sometimes strongly reduced; scutellum typically with 1 or 2 pairs of setae, basal pair, when present, smaller, notopleural setae 1+1, 1st seta usually longer; katepisternal seta 1, located dorsally (sometimes a 2nd, smaller and weaker seta is present); anepisternum bare or with 1 seta and few setulae along posterior margin. Wing: Costal vein without true costal breaks, but with a weakness before end of vein R1; costal vein extended to vein M; crossvein bm-cu either present, delimiting discal cell from cell bm (species in Afrotropical, Australian, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, and Palearctic Regions), or absent (some Oceanian species); anal vein sometimes strongly reduced in length; anal cell present, well delimited. Legs: Posteroventral setulae of forefemur sometimes differentiated as a row of distal small, spine-like setulae; mid tibia bearing an apicoventral spine.
Abdomen of Male: Sparsely microtomentose, brown to dark brown; 6th tergite somewhat narrowed, asymmetrical, extended more on right side near 6th sternite; 7th tergite narrow, asymmetrical, fused to 6th and 7th sternites on left side; 7th right spiracle, sometimes also the left, in 7th tergite; surstyli articulated with epandrium, asymmetrical (left usually longer), connected with hypandrium posteriorly by a weak membrane; cerci small, weakly sclerotized to completely membranous, bearing some setae on posterior half; hypandrium asymmetrical, expanded posteriorly on each side into convex, bowl-shaped structures, sometimes bearing a ventral projection on left side, visible near base of 6th sternite (“hypandrial projection”); parameres apparently absent (a single, setulose postgonite in Cyamops nebulosus);gonopods present; aedeagal apodeme long, free or joined posteriorly with hypandrium; aedeagus completely sclerotized; ejaculatory apodeme developed, variously shaped.
Abdomen of Female: Syntergosternite 6 a complete ring (tergite and sternite fused), with spiracle within sclerotization; tergite and sternite 7 either fused (Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceanian species), forming a syntergosternal ring enclosing spiracle, or separate (Australian), with spiracle in sternite; segment 8 with tergite and sternite separate, sternite either free (Nearctic and Neotropical species) or partially fused with 7th (Australian species); 2–4 spherical to oblong spermathecae (2 in Australasian/Oceanian species, 3 in Nearctic species, and 4 in Neotropical species).
The Australasian/Oceanian fauna demonstrates variation in characters that are constant in American and Afrotropical species, i.e., sexual dimorphism in the shape of the face (absent in Cyamops micronesicus and an undescribed species from Ponape) and presence of crossvein bm-cu. All species, however, have a single pair of dorsocentral setae, and the anepisternum lacks setae along the posterior margin.
Key to Australasian/Oceanian Species of Cyamops
- Mathis, W; Sueyoshi, M; 2011: New species of the genus Cyamops Melander from New Zealand (Diptera, Periscelididae, Stenomicrinae) ZooKeys, 114: 29-40. doi
- Melander A (1913) A synopsis of the dipterous groups Agromyzinae, Milichiinae, Ochthiphilinae and Geomyzinae. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 21:283-300.
- Sturtevant A (1954) Nearctic flies of the family Periscelidae (Diptera) and certain Anthomyzidae referred to the family. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 103 (3332):551-561.
- Hennig W (1958) Die Familien der Diptera Schizophora und ihre phylogenetischen Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen. Beiträge zur Entomologie 8(5/6): 505–688.
- Sabrosky C (1958) New species and notes on North American acalyptrate Diptera. Entomological News 69:169-176.
- Khoo K (1985) The Australian species of Cyamops Melander (Diptera: Periscelididae). Australian Journal of Zoology 32:527-536.
- Khoo K, Sabrosky C (1989) 75. Family Stenomicridae. In: Evenhuis, NL (Ed) Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions. B. P. Bishop Museum special publication 86 and E. J. Brill, Honolulu and Leiden, 551.
- Baptista A, Mathis W (1994) A revision of New World Cyamops Melander (Diptera: Periscelididae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 563:1-25.
- Baptista A, Mathis W (2000) Notes on the genus Cyamops Melander (Diptera: Periscelididae), including description of ten new species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 102:481-506.
- Grimaldi D (2009)The Asteioinea of Fiji (Insecta: Diptera: Periscelididae, Asteiidae, Xenasteiidae). American Museum Novitates 3671:1-59.
- McAlpine D (1983) A new subfamily of Aulacigastridae (Diptera: Schizophora), with a discussion of aulacigastrid classification. Australian Journal of Zoology 31:55-78.