Copa flavoplumosa

From Species-ID
Jump to: navigation, search
Notice: This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see page history). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.

If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.

This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Haddad C (2013) A revision of the continental species of Copa Simon, 1885 (Araneae, Corinnidae) in the Afrotropical Region. ZooKeys 276 : 1–37, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-03-06, version 31862, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Copa_flavoplumosa&oldid=31862 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Haddad2013ZooKeys276,
author = {Haddad, Charles Richard},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A revision of the continental species of Copa Simon, 1885 (Araneae, Corinnidae) in the Afrotropical Region},
year = {2013},
volume = {276},
issue = {},
pages = {1--37},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.276.4233},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4233/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-03-06, version 31862, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Copa_flavoplumosa&oldid=31862 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - A revision of the continental species of Copa Simon, 1885 (Araneae, Corinnidae) in the Afrotropical Region
A1 - Haddad C
Y1 - 2013
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 276
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.276.4233
SP - 1
EP - 37
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-03-06, version 31862, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Copa_flavoplumosa&oldid=31862 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.276.4233

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Haddad2013ZooKeys276">{{Citation
| author = Haddad C
| title = A revision of the continental species of Copa Simon, 1885 (Araneae, Corinnidae) in the Afrotropical Region
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 276
| issue =
| pages = 1--37
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.276.4233
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4233/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-22

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-03-06, version 31862, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Copa_flavoplumosa&oldid=31862 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Corinnidae
Genus: Copa

Name

Copa flavoplumosa Simon, 1885Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Type material

Female lectotype and one female paralectotype, here designated, together with one non-type male: ANGOLA: Landana [05°13'S, 12°08'E], MNHN 5338 (examined).
Type material of synonyms. Copa benina Strand, 1916. Female holotype. D.R. CONGO: Fort Beni [00°29'N, 29°27'E], Ruwenzori, leg. Expedition Adolf Friedrich Herzog von Mecklenburg, I.1908, ZMB 28199 (examined); Copa benina nigra Lessert, 1933. Syntypes? ANGOLA: one male from Chimporo and one female from Rio Mbale, MNHG (examined).

Other material examined

BOTSWANA: Okavango Delta: Airstrip near Delta Camp, 19°32'S, 23°05'E, leg. K. Wilkins, 13.I.2001 (bush beating), 1♂ (NMZA 14085); Lesideng Research Camp, Near Shakawe, 18°25.822'S, 21°53.771'E, leg. C. Haddad, 25.XI.2006 (leaf litter), 1♀ (NCA 2007/936); Same locality, leg. C. Haddad, 26–29.XI.2006 (under bark), 1♀ (NCA 2007/987); Maun [19°59'S, 23°25'E], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 27.X.1978 (in deep litter, riverine forest), 2♂ (BMNH); Same locality, Government Camp house 36 [19°59'S, 23°25'E], leg. A. Russell-Smith, I–II.1977, 1♀ (BMNH); Botswana, Maun, Maphaneng Pan [19°55'S, 23°26'E], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 8.II.1976 (riverine woodland, leaf litter), 2♂ (BMNH); Moremi Game Reserve [19°15'S, 23°05'E], leg. W. & I. Barnard, 13–24.I.1991 (mopane woodland), 1♀ (NCA 91/985); Moremi Game Reserve, Maxwee [19°28'S, 23°39'E], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 2.I.1976 (mopane woodland), 1♂ 1♀ (PCRS); Samochima lagoon, Shakawe Fishing Camp, 18°25.749'S, 21°54.035'E, leg. C. Haddad, 10.XII.2006 (leaf litter), 1♂ (NCA 2007/1051); “Woody” Island, NW of Xugana Island, 19°04'S, 23°03'E, leg. B.H. Lamoral, 21–22.XI.1980, 2♂ (NMSA); Xugana Island, 130km NNW of Maun, 19°04'S, 23°03'E, leg. B.H. Lamoral, 18–21.XI.1980, 1♂ (NMSA); Same data (forest floor and logs), 4♂ 2♀ (NMSA); Same locality, leg. B.H. Lamoral, 22–24.XI.1980, 1♀ (NMSA); Same data, 1♀ (NMSA). North-East Region: Near Francistown, Selkirk Mine, 21°19.332'S, 27°44.148'E, leg. D.H. Jacobs, 28.III–5.IV.2008, 1♀ (NCA 2008/2905). CAMEROON: Bali, Bafuchu Mbu, Shum Laka, 05°51'N, 10°05'E, 1600m a.s.l., leg. H. Doutrelepont, XII.1991–II.1992 (pitfall), 1♂ (MRAC 174794); Chabal Mbabo, South-western slope, 07°25'N, 12°49'E, 1250m a.s.l., leg. Bosmans & Van Stalle, 7–13.IV.1983 (grassland with shrubs, pitfalls), 1♂ (MRAC 162220); Same locality, 1500m a.s.l., leg. Bosmans & Van Stalle, 11.IV.1983 (gallery forest, litter), 1♀ (MRAC 162222); Ebolowa, Nkoumvom [02°55'N, 11°09'E], leg. M.C. Day, 1980 (pitfall traps), 1♂ (BMNH); Faro Game Reserve, 08°24'N, 12°49'W, leg. R. Jocqué, K. Loosveldt, L. Baert & M. Alderweireldt, 3.V.2007 (river bed, pitfall), 1♀ (MRAC 221128); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, K. Loosveldt, L. Baert & M. Alderweireldt, 2.V.2007 (gallery forest, pitfall), 2♂ (MRAC 221134); Same data, 4.V.2007, 1♂ 2♀ (MRAC 221169); Same data, 5.V.2007, 3♂ 1♀ (MRAC 221229); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, K. Loosveldt, L. Baert & M. Alderweireldt, 27.IV.2007 (gallery forest, sieving), 1♀ (MRAC 221434); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, K. Loosveldt, L. Baert & M. Alderweireldt, 1.V.2007 (mature gallery forest, by hand), 1♀ (MRAC 221359); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, K. Loosveldt, L. Baert & M. Alderweireldt, 5.V.2007 (mature gallery forest, pitfall), 6♂ 2♀ (MRAC 221211); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, K. Loosveldt, L. Baert & M. Alderweireldt, 26.IV.2007 (litter, by hand), 3♀ (MRAC 221280); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, K. Loosveldt, L. Baert & M. Alderweireldt, 19.IV.2007 (wooded savanna, beating), 1♂ (MRAC 221407); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, K. Loosveldt, L. Baert & M. Alderweireldt, 3.V.2007 (litter under tree, by hand), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 221432); Mbam mountain area, near Katoupi, Western slope, 05°54'N, 10°44'E, 1550m a.s.l., leg. Bosmans & Van Stalle, 31.III.1983 (gallery forest), 2♀ (MRAC 162244). CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Bambari, 04°15'N, 21°54'E, leg. G. Pierrard, II.1969, 1♂ (MRAC 136635). D.R. CONGO: Mikembo, 11°28'S, 27°39'E, leg. M. Hasson, 26.XI.2010 (miombo woodland, Uapaca forest, pitfall traps), 1♂ (MRAC 234447), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 234384); Same locality, leg. M. Hasson, 26.XI.2010 (gallery forest, alongside river, pitfall traps), 7♂ 4♀ (MRAC 234461); Parc National Albert, Northern Sector, Talya River, area to the right of Lume, near Mutsora [00°19'N, 29°45'E], 1140m a.s.l., leg. P. van Schuytbroeck, 14.II.1955, 1♀ (MRAC 234182); Tshopo, Masako Forest, 15 km N of Kisangani, 00°35'N, 25°11'E, leg. L. de Vos, 19–27.I.1998, 1♂ (MRAC 169357); Same locality, leg. J.-L. Juakaly, 17.XII.2002 (pitfalls, young fallow), 1♀ (MRAC 214341); Same data, 2♂ (MRAC 214334); Same locality, leg. J.-L. Juakaly, 2.VII.2002 (young fallow, pitfall), 1♂ (MRAC 214363). ETHIOPIA: Yayu Coffee Forest, 08°23'N, 35°48'E, leg. N. Aklilu, 15.II.2004 (secondary forest, look down), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 229596); Same locality, leg. N. Aklilu, 14.XI–12.XII.2003 (pitfall trap), 1imm. 2♂ 4♀ (MRAC 220773); Same locality, leg. N. Aklilu, 2004 (sieving, plantation), 1♂ (MRAC 230893). GABON: Estuaire, Ntoum, 00°23'N, 09°47'E, leg. A. Pauly, 5–15.X.1985 (pelouse jardin, pièges moericke), 1♂ (MRAC 172826); Same locality, leg. A. Pauly, X–XI.1985 (piège bac d'Eau, forêt), 1♂ (MRAC 172837); Same locality, leg. A. Pauly, 7.XI.1985 (carrier de sable, piège bac d'Eau), 1♂ (MRAC 172934). GUINEÉ: F.C. de Ziama, 08°24'N, 09°17'W, leg. D. Flomo, 26.XII.1998 (pitfalls, rain forest), 1♂ (MRAC 216225); Same data, 8.I.1999, 1♂ (MRAC 216208); Same data, 21.I.1999, 2♀ (MRAC 216209); Same data, 15.II.1999, 1♀ (MRAC 216226). IVORY COAST: Appouesso, F.C. Bossematié, 06°35'N, 03°28'W, leg. R. Jocqué & Tanoh, 23.IV.1995 (pitfalls in forest), 1♂ (MRAC 204369); Same data, 7.V.1995, 1♀ (MRAC 204366), 1♀ (MRAC 204368); Same data, 20.V.1995, 1♂ (MRAC 204365), 1♂ (MRAC 204370); Same data, 8.X.1995, 1♂ (MRAC 204372); Same data, 22.X.1995, 1♂ (MRAC 204364); Same data, 5.XI.1995, 1♀ (MRAC 204367), 1imm. 1♂ (MRAC 204371); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, 1.XII.1995 (modified Malaise trap), 1♂ (MRAC 200963); Bouaflé, 06°59'N, 05°45'W, 12.I.1981, leg. J. Everts (pitfalls), 3♂ 3♀ (MRAC 174002); Same data, 14.I.1981, 2♂ 1♀ (MRAC 173992); Bouaké, F.-Foro, 07°41'N, 05°02'W, leg. G. Couturier, 3–5.VI.1974 (piège coloré), 1♂ (MRAC 216367); Same data, 15–17.VII.1974, 4♂ (MRAC 216400); Same data, 12–14.VIII.1974, 2♂ (MRAC 216484); Same data, 19–21.VIII.1974, 1♀ (MRAC 216414); Same data, 26–28.VIII.1974, 2♂ (MRAC 216456); Same data, 2–4.IX.1974, 1♂ (MRAC 216433), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 216448), 2♂ (MRAC 216420); Bouitha, near Degbézéré, 15km E of Bouaflé, 07°22'N, 06°28'W, leg. R. Schouten & J. Buysen, 21.II.1984, 3imm. 1♂ (MRAC 165970); Gagnoa [06°08'N, 05°56'W], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 30.III.1993 (pitfalls, upland rice), 2♂ 1♀ (PCRS); Mankono, Ranch de la Marahoué, 08°27'N, 06°52'W, leg. J. Everts, I.1980 (riverine forest), 102imm. 40♂ 16♀ (MRAC 172282); Same data, II.1980, 19imm. 58♂ 23♀ (MRAC 172281); Same data, III.1980, 61imm. 106♂ 32♀ (MRAC 172284); Same data, IV.1980, 24imm. 39♂ 34♀ (MRAC 172283); Same data, V.1980, 8♂ 20♀ (MRAC 172280); Same data, VI.1980, 4imm. 2♂ (MRAC 172278); Pakodji, near Degbézéré, 15km E of Bouaflé, 06°59'N, 05°38'W, leg. R. Schouten & J. Buysen, 20.II.1984 (pitfall), 22imm. 19♂ 3♀ (MRAC 165977); Titekro, 20km E of Bouaflé, 06°52'N, 06°20'W, leg. R. Schouten & J. Buysen, 15.II.1984 (pitfalls), 8imm. 10♂ 4♀ (MRAC 165965); Touba [08°16'N, 07°41'W], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 19.VI.1995 (pitfalls, upland rice), 1♂ (PCRS); Warda, Bouaké [07°41'N, 05°01'W], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 7.X.1994 (pitfalls, upland rice), 3♂ 2♀ (PCRS). KENYA: Kakamega Forest, pitfall near quarry, 00°13'N, 34°54'E, 1626m a.s.l., leg. D. Shilabira Smith, 13.XII.2001, 1♂ (MRAC 212708); Same locality, leg. D. Shilabira Smith, 3.I.2001, 1♀ (MRAC 212715); Same locality, 1654m a.s.l., leg. D. Shilabira Smith, 23.II.2002, 1♂ (MRAC 212656); Mathews Range Forest, Near Kitich camp, 01°13'N, 37°18'E, 1339m a.s.l., leg. D. van den Spiegel, 9.XII.2002, 1♂ (MRAC 212743); Mount Kasigau, Jora Village, 03°50'S, 38°39'E, leg. E. Selempo, 1–3.XII.2001, 1♀ (MRAC 213056); Ngaia Forest, 00°19'N, 38°02'E, leg. Jocqué, Warui & Van den Spiegel, 24.IV.2004 (sieved litter), 1♂ (MRAC 215332); Rift Valley Province, Marich Pass Field Studies Centre, 01°32.2'S, 35°27.4'E, leg. W.J. Pulawski & J.S. Schweikert, 26–29.VII.1999, 1♂ (CAS, CASENT 9033277). MALAWI: Chisasira Forest, 25km South of Chintheche, 11°50'S, 33°13'E, leg. R. Jocqué, 1.XII.1977, 1♂ (MRAC 153232); Same data, 20.XII.1977, 3♂ (MRAC 153196); Same data, 3–20.I.1978, 1imm. 1♂ (MRAC 153649); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, 3–20.III.1978 (Brachystegia woodland), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 152985); Nyika plateau, Chelinda [10°35'S, 33°47'E], 2300m a.s.l., leg. R. Jocqué, 7–19.XII.1981 (grassland burned in 1979, pitfalls), 1♂ (MRAC 155686); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, 7–19.XII.1981 (grassland burned in 1980, pitfalls), 1♂ (MRAC 155744); Nyika plateau, Chowo rocks [not traced], leg. R. Jocqué, 6–18.XII.1981 (pitfalls in herbaceous vegetation with Philippia), 1♂ (MRAC 156302); Same data, 1♀ (MRAC 156384); Nyika plateau, Lake Kaulime [10°34'S, 33°45'E], 2200m a.s.l., leg. R. Jocqué, 6–19.XII.1981 (pitfalls on grassy bank), 2♂ 2♀ (MRAC 155886); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, 6–19.XII.1981 (pitfalls on wet bank with Lobelia), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 156021); Nyika plateau, Manyanjere Forest [not traced], 2100m a.s.l., leg. R. Jocqué, 15.XII.1981 (grassland with stones), 1♀ (MRAC 156722); Nyika plateau, near entrance gate on road Chelinda-Rumphi [not traced], 1700m a.s.l., leg. R. Jocqué, 3–22.XII.1981 (Brachystegia woodland, pitfalls), 5♂ 2♀ (MRAC 155822); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, 3–22.XII.1981 (secondary Brachystegia woodland with Uapaca, pitfalls), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 155703), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 156006), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 156062); Same locality, leg. R. Jocqué, 3–22.XII.1981 (pitfalls under large Brachystegia), 14♂ 5♀ (MRAC 156289). MOZAMBIQUE: Bartholomew Diaz Point, BD Lodge, 21°15.585'S, 35°06.851'E, 5m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & R. Fourie, 10.XII.2007 (leaf litter, mangroves), 1♂ 3♀ (NCA 2008/194); Bilene, Praia do Bilene, 25°15.649'S, 33°17.659'E, 27m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & R. Fourie, 20.XII.2007 (leaf litter, coastal forest), 1♂ (NCA 2008/210); Chidenguele, Paraiso de Chidenguele, 24°57.276'S, 34°11.860'E, 38m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & R. Fourie, 16.XII.2007 (leaf litter, dune forest), 2imm. 1♂ (NCA 2008/205); Inhaca Island, 26°01'S, 32°54'E, leg. T. Steyn, 6–20.VIII.1994 (beach and dunes, by hand), 1♂ (MRAC 215918); Same locality, leg. T. Steyn, 21.VIII–4.IX.1993 (pitfalls, coastal woodland), 1imm. 4♂ (MRAC 209025); Same data, 18.IX–2.X.1993, 2♂ (MRAC 209418); Same data, 2–16.X.1993, 1♀ (MRAC 209037); Same data, 2–16.X.1993, 2♂ 9♀ (MRAC 209044); Same data, 16–30.X.1993, 7♂ 2♀ (MRAC 208995); Same data, 13–23.XI.1993, 5♂ 5♀ (MRAC 209304); Same data, 27.XI–11.XII.1993, 4imm. 9♂ 1♀ (MRAC 209392); Same data, 25.XII.1993–8.I.1994, 13♂ (MRAC 209400); Same data, 8–22.I.1994, 6♂ 1♀ (MRAC 209468); Same data, 19.II–5.III.1994, 3♂ 3♀ (MRAC 209898); Same data, 5–19.III.1994, 1imm. 4♂ (MRAC 209441); Same data, 19.III–2.IV.1994, 1♂ (MRAC 209732); Same data, 13–30.IV.1994, 1♂ (MRAC 209888); Same data, 30.IV–14.V.1994, 3♂ 1♀ (MRAC 209750); Same data, 14–28.V.1994, 2♂ (MRAC 209774); Same data, 19–25.VI.1994, 2♂ (MRAC 209801); Same data, 9–23.VII.1994, 2♀ (MRAC 209699); Same data, 23.VII–6.VIII.1994, 2♂ (MRAC 209880); Same locality, leg. T. Steyn, 18.IX–2.X.1993, (pitfalls, open parkland), 2imm. 1♂ (MRAC 215982); Same data, 2–16.X.1993, 1♀ (MRAC 209475); Same data, 16–30.X.1993, 5imm. 6♂ 3♀ (MRAC 215999); Same data, 30.X–13.XI.1993, 1♂ (MRAC 209709); Same data, 13–27.XI.1993, 1♀ (MRAC 209414); Same data, 27.XI–11.XI.1993, 2♂ (MRAC 209418); Same data, 11–25.XII.1993, 1♂ (MRAC 209681); Same data, 11–25.XII.1993, 2♂ 2♀ (MRAC 209684); Same data, 25.XII.1993–8.I.1994, 3♂ (MRAC 209693); Same locality, leg. T. Steyn, 15–29.XI.1993 (pitfalls, wetland), 1♀ (MRAC 209325); Same data, 27.XII.1993–10.I.1994, 1♂ (MRAC 209360); Same data, 10–24.I.1994, 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 209344); Same data, 24.I–7.II.1994, 4♂ (MRAC 208950); Same data, 21.II–5.III.1994, 2♂ (MRAC 209774); Same data, 5–15.III.1994, 2♂ 1♀ (MRAC 209372); Same data, 19.III–2.IV.1994, 4♂ 1♀ (MRAC 209350); Same data, 8–23.IV.1994, 6♂ 2♀ (MRAC 209743); Same data, 23–30.IV.1994, 2♂ 1♀ (MRAC 209786); Same data, 30.IV–14.V.1994, 3♂ 1♀ (MRAC 209903); Same data, 28.V–19.VI.1994, 1♀ (MRAC 209717); Same data, 19–25.VI.1994, 1♂ (MRAC 209796); Same data, 25.VI–9.VII.1994, 1♂ (MRAC 209985); Same data, 20.VIII–3.IX.1994, 1♂ (MRAC 215949); Same data, 3–24.IX.1994, 3♂ 3♀ (MRAC 215922); Same data, 3–24.IX.1994, 3♂ (MRAC 215926); Maxixe [23°52'S, 35°20'E], I.1914, no collector, 1imm. 2♀ (SAMC B6589); Morrungulo, Morrungulo Resort, 23°13.983'S, 35°29.587'E, 12m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & R. Fourie, 6.XII.2007 (leaf litter, dune forest), 1♂ 1♀ (NCA 2008/185); Near Marracuene, Blue Anchor Inn, 25°35.124'S, 32°39.568'E, 50m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad & R. Fourie, 28.XI.2007 (sifting leaf litter, savanna), 1imm. 2♂ (NCA 2008/165); Near Marracuene, Marracuene Lodge, 25°46.379'S, 32°41.046'E, 12m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 1.XII.2007 (leaf litter, riverine forest), 1imm. 1♀ (NCA 2008/171); Vilankulos, Casa Chibububo, 22°01.231'S, 35°19.237'E, 3m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & R. Fourie, 12.XII.2007 (leaf litter, coastal bush), 1imm. 2♀ (NCA 2008/199); Xai-Xai, Montego's Camp, 25°03.659'S, 33°40.633'E, 28m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 2.XII.2007 (leaf litter, dune forest), 2♀ (NCA 2008/179). NAMIBIA: Caprivi Strip, Popo Falls, 18°07.366'S, 21°34.971'E, leg. R. Lyle, 17.XII.2006 (leaf litter, riverine forest), 1♂ (NCA 2008/4279); Hoarusib River, leg. Museum Expedition, I.1926, 1♀ (SAMC B7110). NIGERIA: Borgu Game Reserve [10°19'N, 03°56'E], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 5–6.V.1973 (flood debris by river bank), 1♀ (BMNH); Ibadan, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture [07°29'N, 03°53'E], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 24.V.1973 (bush fallow), 2♂ 5♀ (BMNH); Same data, VII.1973, 4♂ (BMNH); Same data, 25–29.V.1975, 1♂ (PCRS); Same locality, leg. A. Russell-Smith, 22–26.VI.1973 (cultivated plots), 1♂ 2♀ (BMNH); Iseri [06°30'N, 03°16'E], leg. B. Malkin, 26–30.III.1949, 1♀ (CAS, CASENT 9033106). RWANDA: P.N. Akagera, 50 km north of la pêcherie Ihema, près du lac Mihindi, 01°32'S, 30°43'E, leg. Jocqué, Nsengimana & Michiels, 23.XI–6.XII.1985 (pièges en forêt sèche), 3♂ 2♀ (MRAC 165007); Same locality, leg. Jocqué, Nsengimana & Michiels, 23.XI–6.XII.1985 (bordure de forêt), 1♂ (MRAC 165020); Same locality, leg. Jocqué, Nsengimana & Michiels, 14.XI–3.XII.1985 (Forêt sêche à Sansevieria, pièges), 5♂ 1♀ (MRAC 165416). SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape Province: Grahamstown [33°18'S, 26°31'E], leg. W.F. Purcell, X.1905, 1♂ (SAMC B7539); Great Fish River at Selbourne, 33°28'S, 27°08'E, leg. M. Burger, 5.XII.1993 (pitfall trap), 1♂ (NCA 96/59); Kentani district [32°30'S, 28°18'E], leg. Abernethy, 1903, 1♂ (SAMC 1289); Mkambathi Nature Reserve, 31°17.364'S, 30°00.284'E, 52m a.s.l., leg. University of KwaZulu-Natal students, 29.I.2008 (pan traps, grassland), 1♂ (NCA 2008/2906); Same locality, 31°15.816'S, 30°02.098'E, 28m a.s.l., leg. Inland Invertebrate Initiative – University of KwaZulu-Natal, 29.I.2008 (pan traps, grassland), 1♀ (NCA 2010/233), 1♀ (NCA 2010/234); Sterkstroom district, Hazelmere Country Lodge, 31°30.126'S, 26°40.815'E, 1542m a.s.l., leg. R. Lyle & R. Fourie, 3–7.XI.2008 (pitfall traps, poplar trees), 1♂ (NCA 2008/4284); Sundays River Valley, 33°23'S, 25°26'E, leg. H. Potgieter, 23.I.1999 (pitfalls in citrus), 3♂ 5♀ (NCA 2000/237); Same data, 23.XI.1999, 3♂ 1♀ (NCA 2000/238). Free State Province: Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve, Site 3, Acacia karroo trees, 28°30.272'S, 26°47.527'E, leg. R. Fourie & A. Grobler, 30.IX–28.X.2009 (pitfall traps, woodland), 1♂ (NCA 2009/3590); Kroonstad district, Doornkloof farm, 27°43.376'S, 27°42.042'E, leg. R. Fourie & A. Grobler, 29.X–5.XII.2009 (pitfall traps, grassland), 1♂ (NMSA 22690); Mpetsane Conservation Estate, near Clocolan, 28°48'S, 27°39'E, leg. C. Haddad, 9.III.2007 (Rhus lancea leaf litter), 1imm. 1♀ (NCA 2008/558); Sandveld Nature Reserve, 27°40'S, 25°41'E, leg. C. Haddad, 25.X.2003 (leaf litter under Acacia erioloba), 1♀ (NCA 2002/511); Same data, 25.XI.2003, 1♂ (NCA 2005/77); Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve, 30°29'S, 26°11'E, leg. L. Lotz & C. Haddad, 13.X.2008 (active searching, dense Acacia woodland), 1♂ (NMBA 12623). Gauteng Province: Balmoral, 25°49.013'S, 28°51.970'E, leg. R. Koko, 11.VII.2006 (pitfall traps), 1♀ (NCA 2008/2782); Buffelsdrift, 25°24.251'S, 28°03.581'E, 1700m a.s.l., leg. R. Koko, I.2006 (incidentals), 1♀ (NCA 2008/2780); Pretoria, Weavind Park, 25°43'S, 28°16'E, leg. C. Anderson, 15.III.1997 (in house), 1♂ (NCA 96/455); Pretoria National Botanical Gardens, 25°44'S, 28°16'E, leg. E. Kassimatis, 6.X–24.XI.2007 (pitfall traps), 1♀ (NCA 2008/1966); Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, Heidelberg, 26°30.102'S, 28°14.165'E, 1830m a.s.l., leg. H. Roux, 13.XI.2001 (pan trap, grassland plateau), 1♂ (NCA 2008/4278). KwaZulu-Natal Province: 15km N of Richard's Bay, 28°40'S, 32°13'E, leg. T. Wassenaar, 5.XII.1995 (rehabilitated coastal forest, sweep net), 1♀ (NCA 96/492); Same locality, leg. T. Wassenaar, 10.XII.1996 (pitfalls, rehabilitated coastal forest), 1♀ (NCA 97/840); Same data, 27.II.1997, 1♂ (NCA 97/842); Botha's Hill [29°43'S, 30°44'E], leg. R.F. Lawrence, XI.1953, 1♀ (NMSA 5951); Cathedral Peak, 28°58.688'S, 29°15.586'E, 1916m a.s.l., leg. Maluti-Drakensburg Transfrontier Park survey, 18.IX.2005 (white pan trap 5, grassland), 1♂ (NCA 2008/1911); Cathedral Peak Forest Station, 75 km WSW of Estcourt [28°56'S, 29°13'E], 1400 m a.s.l., leg. S. & J. Peck, 7–31.XII.1979 (dung traps, veld pasture), 1♂ (AMNH); Drummond [29°45'S, 30°41'E], leg. R.F. Lawrence, XII.1939, 1♂ (NMSA 2633); Empangeni, 28°45'S, 31°54'E, leg. P. Reavell, 1.X.1983 (in pool), 1♀ (NMSA); Enseleni Game Reserve, 13km N Richard's Bay [28°41'S, 31°59'E], leg. P. Reavell, 10.III.1981, 1♀ (NCA 81/198); Garden Castle, 29°44.700'S, 29°12.663'E, 1842m a.s.l., leg. Maluti-Drakensburg Transfrontier Park staff, 2.XI.2005 (white pan trap 5, grassland), 1♂ (NCA 2008/1913); iSimangaliso Wetlands Park, False Bay Park, 27°55'S, 32°16'E, leg. J. Esterhuizen, 13.X.2003 (tsetse fly traps), 1♀ (NCA 2004/769); Same data, 22.X.2003, 1♂ (NCA 2004/765); Same locality, 27°54.014'S, 32°23.543'E, leg. Earthwatch team 9, 15.I.2005 (yellow pan traps, open savanna), 1imm. 1♀ (NCA 2007/1309); Ithala Game Reserve, Near ruins, Ngubhu loop, 27°30.817'S, 31°14.304'E, leg. C. Haddad, 1.VII.2007 (leaf litter), 11imm. 1♂ 1♀ (NCA 2007/2809); Kosi Bay [26°52'S, 32°52'E], leg. R.F. Lawrence, VII.1936, 1♂ (NMSA 158); Same locality, Banga Nek, near third lake, 27°05.134'S, 32°50.533'E, leg. P. & G. Van Niekerk, X. Combrink & J. Warner, 27.II.2007 (sweeps in grass), 1♀ (NCA 2009/4608); Illovo Beach, Mount Edgecombe [30°07'S, 30°51'E], leg. C. Cilliers, 7.I.1977, 1imm. 1♀ (NCA 2007/1137); Mkuzi Game Reserve, 27°40.356'S, 32°15.065'E, leg. Earthwatch Team 1, 18.III.2005 (yellow pan traps, Terminalia sericea woodland), 1♂ (NCA 2007/1297); Same locality, 27°35.768'S, 32°14.365'E, leg. Earthwatch Team 10, 22.I.2005 (blue pan traps, Terminalia sericea woodland), 1♂ (NCA 2007/1298); Mtunzini, “Twin Streams” Farm (I.F. Garland), 28°57'S, 31°46'E, leg. T. & C. Griswold, P. Croeser & P. Reavell, 19–20.I.1984 (coastal dune forest), 1♀ (NMSA); Natal, no date, leg. Martin?, 1♂ 1♀ (MNHN 6383); Ndumo Game Reserve, Crocodile farm, 26°53'S, 32°19'E, leg. C. Haddad, 8–23.I.2002 (pitfalls), 1♂ (NCA 2002/391); Same locality, Ezikhebeni, Pongola River, 26°53.380'S, 32°19.098'E, leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & V. Butler, 28.VI.2009 (leaf litter, riverine forest), 1♀ (TMSA 23612); Same locality, Pongola River floodplain, near pump, Riverine forest, 26°54.323'S, 32°19.435'E, leg. C. Haddad & F. Jordaan, 27.VI.2006 (sieving leaf litter), 1imm. 3♂ 4♀ (NCA 2006/1201); Same locality, Pongola River floodplain, 26°53.384'S, 32°19.097'E, 16.I.2006, leg. C. Haddad (riverine forest leaf litter), 5♂ 1♀ (NCA 2006/710); Same locality, Viewing tower, 26°54.762'S, 32°16.290'E, leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & V. Butler, 30.VI.2009 (leaf litter, broadleaf woodland), 2♂ 2♀ (TMSA 23564); Same locality, Western shore of Shokwe Pan, 26°50'S, 32°12'E, leg. C. Haddad, 3.VII.2002 (leaf litter, Ficus sycomorus forest), 1♂ (NCA 2002/392); Same locality, Western shore of Shokwe Pan, 26°52.418'S, 32°12.590'E, leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & V. Butler, 8.VII.2009 (leaf litter, Ficus forest), 1♀ (TMSA 23548); Near Port Shepstone [30°45'S, 30°26'E], leg. W.F. Purcell, IX.1905, 1♀ (SAMC 150751); Ngome State Forest, 27°49'S, 31°26'E, leg. M. van der Merwe, XI.1992 (pitfalls, open forest), 1♀ (NCA 94/396); Same locality, leg. M. van der Merwe, XII.1992 (pitfalls, grass), 1♂ (NCA 94/475); Same data, I.1993, 1♂ (NCA 94/441); Ophathe Game Reserve, Ophathe River bed, 28°22.693'S, 31°24.442'E, leg. C. Haddad & R. Fourie, 5.VII.2007 (leaf litter, river bank), 4imm. 2♂ (NCA 2007/2969); Same locality, Montane grassland, 28°25.344'S, 31°23.957'E, 897m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 4.X.2008 (sifting leaf litter), 1imm. 1♀ (NCA 2008/3910); Same locality, Ophathe River Bed, 28°23.727'S, 31°23.643'E, 455m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 30.IX–4.X.2008 (pitfall traps), 2♂ (NCA 2008/4245); Same locality, leg. C. Haddad, 2.X.2008 (active searching), 1♂ 1♀ (NCA 2008/4222); Same locality, Rocky mountainside, 28°23.202'S, 31°24.077'E, 505m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 1.X.2008 (active searching), 1♀ (NCA 2008/4068); Same locality, leg. C. Haddad, 1.X.2008 (sifting leaf litter), 3imm. 1♂ (NCA 2008/4039); Pietermaritzburg [29°37'S, 30°23'E], leg. P. Croeser, 7.XII.1983 (dense fern in garden), 1♀ (NMSA 18487); Same locality, Town Bush Valley, Southern slopes of Hogsback Mountain, 29°33'S, 30°21'E, 3200–3400ft a.s.l., leg. C. Griswold & T. Meikle-Griswold, 11.XI.1984 (weedy vegetation), 1imm. 1♂ 1♀ (NMSA); Sani Pass, 29°39.022'S, 29°27.047'E, 1500m a.s.l., leg. D. Prentice, IX.2009 (pitfall traps, 6d), 1♂ (NCA 2010/271); Same locality, 29°37.217'S, 29°23.330'E, 1800m a.s.l., leg. D. Prentice, IX.2009 (pitfall traps, 5d), 1♂ (NCA 2010/272); Same locality, 29°36.205'S, 29°18.753'E, 2400m a.s.l., leg. D. Prentice, IX.2009 (pitfall traps, 3c), 1♂ (NCA 2010/221); Scottburgh [30°17'S, 30°45'E], leg. W.G. Rump, II.1943, 1♀ (NMSA 3882); Sodwana Bay, 27°24'S, 32°45'E, leg. R. Harris, XI.1982, 1♀ (NCA 83/247); Tembe Elephant Park, 27°01'S, 32°24'E, leg. C. Haddad, 5.I.2002 (leaf litter, deep sand forest), 1imm. 1♂ (NCA 2002/396); Same locality, 27°01'S, 32°24'E, leg. C. Haddad, 3–23.I.2002 (pitfalls, deep sand forest), 1imm. 7♂ 1♀ (NCA 2002/393); Same locality, 26°57'S, 32°26'E, 3–23.I.2002, leg. C. Haddad (pitfalls, closed woodland/clay), 1♂ (NCA 2002/394); Same locality, near offices, 27°03'S, 32°25'E, leg. C. Haddad, 3–23.I.2002 (pitfalls, open woodland/sand), 4♂ (NCA 2002/395); Same locality, 27°03'S, 32°25'E, leg. C. Haddad, 8.II.2005 (sifting leaf litter, open woodland/sand), 3♀ (NCA 2007/3606); Vernon Crookes Nature Reserve, camp, 30°16'S, 30°37'E, leg. L. Lotz, 27.IX.1995, 1♂ (NMBA 7719). Limpopo Province: Kruger National Park, Maduringwe, 22°35'S, 31°09'E, leg. R.F. Lawrence, 20.XII.1962, 1♂ (NMSA); Lajuma Mountain Retreat, 23°02'S, 29°27'E, leg. N. Schönhofer, 9.X.2002 (hand collecting), 1♂ (NCA 2007/1153); Same locality, Island 3, 23°01.890'S, 29°26.167'E, leg. M. Mafadza, 23.XI.2004 (sifting leaf litter), 1♀ (NCA 2005/1882); Same locality, Short Forest 3, 23°02.165'S, 29°26.985'E, leg. M. Mafadza, 28.XI.2004 (pitfall trap), 1♀ (NCA 2005/2021); Same locality, Tall forest 3a, 23°02.229'S, 29°26.717'E, leg. M. Mafadza, 28.XI.2004 (pitfall trap), 1♂ (NCA 2005/2022); Same locality, Woodland 3, 23°02.532'S, 29°26.897'E, leg. M. Mafadza, 6.XII.2004 (active search), 1♀ (NCA 2005/1881); Same locality, Woodland 5c, 23°02.528'S, 29°26.866'E, leg. M. Mafadza, 28.XI.2004 (pitfall trap), 1♂ 1♀ (NCA 2005/2023); Little Leigh, 22°56.910'S, 29°52.177'E, 1084m a.s.l., leg. F. Mbedzi, 22.XI.2005 (leaf litter, gallery forest), 1♀ (NCA 2008/2764), 1♂ (NCA 2008/2765); Marble Hall, Schoeman Boerdery, 24°57'S, 29°17'E, leg. P. Stephen, 16.XI.1999 (pitfalls in citrus), 1♂ (NCA 2000/204); Nylsvley Nature Reserve, 24°39'S, 28°40'E, leg. C. Schultz, 1.XII.1975, 1♂ (NCA 2007/1154); Springbokvlakte, Settlers (wildskamp), 24°54'S, 28°43'E, leg. M. van Jaarsveld, 9.I.2002 (pitfalls, grassland), 1♀ (NCA 2003/1328). Mpumulanga Province: 20km NE of Brondal, 25°21'S, 30°50'E, leg. M. van den Berg, 16.IX.1997 (on Hass avocados), 1imm. 1♂ (NCA 98/196); Same data, 2.XII.1997, 1♂ (NCA 98/197); Same locality, leg. M. van den Berg, 16.IX.1997 (on Fuerte avocados), 1♂ (NCA 98/198); Groblers Farm, 25°29'S, 30°05'E, leg. L. Makaka, 29.XI–2.XII.2008 (pitfall traps, grassland AF2), 1♂ (NCA 2010/265); Same locality, leg. L. Makaka, 26–29.XI.2008 (pitfall traps, grassland AF3), 1♂ (NCA 2010/229); Same data, 29.XI–2.XII.2008, 1♂ (NCA 2010/227), 1♂ (NCA 2010/266); Same locality, 26–29.XI.2008, leg. L. Makaka (pitfall traps, grassland AF4), 2♂ (NCA 2010/228), 1♂ (NCA 2010/267), 1♂ (NCA 2010/268); Guernsey Farm, 15km NW of Klaserie [24°03'S, 31°12'E], leg. S. & J. Peck, 19–31.XII.1985 (Malaise traps, woodland), 2♂ (AMNH); Hall and Sons, 10km NE of Nelspruit, 25°21'S, 31°46'E, leg. M. van den Berg, 21.VII.1997 (on Hass avocados), 6imm. 2♂ 3♀ (NCA 98/216); Same data, 10.III.1998, 3imm. 1♂ (NCA 98/1065); Same locality, leg. M. van den Berg, 23.X.1997 (on Fuerte avocados), 1imm. 3♀ (NCA 98/217); Same data, 12.XII.1997, 1♂ (NCA 98/776); Hectorspruit, Vergelegen, 25°25'S, 31°40'E, leg. P. Stephen, 12.X.1998 (pitfalls in citrus), 1imm. 1♀ (NCA 99/193); Nelspruit, 25°21'S, 31°46'E, leg. M. van den Berg, 9.XII.1997 (on macadamia nuts), 1♀ (NCA 98/829); Nelspruit, Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Waaierproef, 25°21'S, 31°46'E, leg. M. van den Berg, 18.XI.1997 (on macadamia tree), 1imm. 1♀ (NCA 98/174); Same data, 9.XII.1997, 1♀ (NCA 98/829); Same data, 12.II.1998, 1♂ (NCA 98/830); Nelspruit Agricultural College, 25°21'S, 31°46'E, leg. P. Stephen, 12.XI.1999 (pitfalls in citrus), 1♀ (NCA 2000/185); Nelspruit Nature Reserve [25°30'S, 30°58'E], leg. Endrody-Younga, 23.XI.1986, 1♂ (TMSA 19679); Roger Croall, 25°33'S, 30°05'E, leg. L. Makaka, 26–29.XI.2008 (pitfall traps, grassland R1), 1♂ (NCA 2010/269); Same locality, leg. L. Makaka, 26–29.XI.2008 (pitfall traps, grassland R4), 1♂ (NCA 2010/263), 1♂ (NCA 2010/264); Sakhelwe location, 25°24'S, 30°05'E, leg. L. Makaka, 26–29.XI.2008 (pitfall traps, grassland COM3), 1♂ (NCA 2010/224); Veloren Vallei Nature Reserve, Block 3, 25°18.832'S, 30°07.791'E, leg. L. Makaka, 4–7.III.2009 (pitfall traps, grassland V3.4), 1♀ (NCA 2010/225); Witbank Dam Nature Reserve, 25°51'S, 29°18'E, leg. A. Leroy, 9.XI.1991 (grassland), 1♀ (NCA 92/172). North West Province: Matshaneng district, Hermitage Farm, 27°04.136'S, 23°40.991'E, leg. C. Haddad, 1.XII.2003–22.I.2004 (pitfalls under trees), 1♀ (NCA 2005/2012); Potchefstroom district, Thabela Thabeng Mountain Retreat, 26°51.825'S, 28°17.819'E, leg. R. Fourie & A. Grobler, 1–29.X.2009 (pitfall traps, woodland grassland), 10♂ (NCA 2009/3553); Same locality, 26°51.828'S, 28°17.805'E, leg. R. Fourie & A. Grobler, 1–29.X.2009 (pitfalls, Vaal River bank), 4♂ 1♀ (NCA 2009/3561). Northern Cape Province: Prieska district, Green Valley Nuts, 29°35'S, 22°56'E, leg. C. Haddad, 19.XII.2001 (fogging, pistachio tree canopy), 1♂ (NCA 2002/481); Same locality, 22°56.683'S, 29°35.184'E, leg. C. Haddad, 23.XI–18.XII.2001 (pitfalls, Eucalyptus trees), 2♂ 1♀ (NCA 2006/1289); Kuruman district, Sunnyside Farm, 27°43.514'S, 23°36.812'E, leg. C. Haddad, 1.XII.2003–22.I.2004 (pitfalls, gravel bed), 1♀ (NCA 2005/2013). Western Cape Province: Brenton-on-Sea, 34°04'S, 23°02'E, leg. H.G. Robertson, 1–7.XII.1996 (pitfall traps, broken fynbos), 1♂ (SAMC ENW-C005376); De Hoop Nature Reserve, Bitou number 2, 34°27.194'S, 20°24.250'E, leg. C. Haddad & R. Lyle, 25.IX.2007 (sifting leaf litter), 2♂ 1♀ (NCA 2007/3896); Same locality, Potberg, 34°22.549'S, 20°32.004'E, leg. C. Haddad, 4.IV.2004 (sieving leaf litter), 16♂ 1♀ (NCA 2008/576); Knysna, Uitzicht Annex, 34°00'S, 23°20'E, leg. L. Lotz, 13–19.X.1998 (pitfall trap), 3♂ (NMBA 7420). TANZANIA: Coast Region: Kisarawe District, Kazimzumbwe Forest Reserve, 06°57'S, 39°03'E, leg. Frontier Tanzania, I–II.1991, 1♂ (ZMUC), 1♂ (ZMUC), 1♂ (ZMUC), 7♂ 5♀ (ZMUC), 2♂ (ZMUC), 5♂ 2♀ (ZMUC); Same locality, leg. Frontier Tanzania, I–II.1992, 1♂ (ZMUC); Rufigi District, Namakutwa Forest Reserve, 08°19'S, 39°00'E, leg. Frontier Tanzania, VIII–IX.1992, 19♂ 5♀ (ZMUC). Iringa Region: Uzungwa Mountains, Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve, above Chita Village [08°20'S, 35°56'E, 1500m a.s.l., leg. N. Scharff, 2–13.XI.1984 (pitfall traps, montane rain forest), 2♂ (ZMUC); Same locality, leg. N. Scharff, 25–29.X.1984 (pitfall traps, lowland rain forest), 1♀ (ZMUC). Kilimanjaro Region: Mkomazi Game Reserve, Ibaya camp, 03°58'S, 37°48'E, leg. A. Russell-Smith, 19–20.XI.1994 (pitfalls, unburnt grassland), 4♂ 6♀ (MRAC 211327). Lindi Region: Lindi District, Litipo Forest Reserve, 10°02'S, 39°29'E, leg. Frontier Tanzania, VII–IX.1993, 17♂ 9♀ (ZMUC), 21♂ 10♀ (ZMUC), 20♂ 8♀ (ZMUC). Mbeya Region: 8km NE of Kyela, 09°35'S, 33°48'E, leg. R. Jocqué, 10–19.XI.1991 (pitfalls in miombo relict), 4♂ 4♀ (MRAC 173 920); Itungi, 09°36'S, 33°55'E, leg. R. Jocqué, 10.XI–1.XIII.1991 (pitfalls in swamp with floating vegetation, edge high reeds), 1♂ (MRAC 173940), 1♂ (MRAC 173960); Matema, 1km N of Livingstone mountains, 09°30'S, 34°03'E, leg. R. Jocqué, 14–24.XI.1991 (pitfalls, evergreen forest), 2♂ (MRAC 173204). Morogoro Region: 62 road km SW of Morogoro, 07°02.5'S, 37°15.3'E, leg. W.J. Pulawski, 2.I.2003, 1♀ (CAS); Morogoro District, Kimboza Forest Reserve, 07°01'S, 37°48'E, leg. Frontier Tanzania, I–III.1994, 9♂ 8♀ (ZMUC); Mwanihana Forest Reserve, 700m a.s.l., leg. N. Scharff, 8–16.IX.1984 (pitfall traps, lowland rain forest), 1♂ (ZMUC), 1♂ (ZMUC), 1♂ (ZMUC). Pwani Region: Bagamoyo District, Sadani Zaraninge Forest Reserve, 06°10'S, 38°39'E, leg. Frontier Tanzania, VII–VIII.1991 (pitfalls, dry coastal forest), 1♂ (ZMUC). Tanga Region: Mbomole Hill, 05°05.7'S, 38°37'E, 1000m a.s.l., leg. C.E. Griswold, N. Scharff & D. Ubick, 5–8.XI.1995, 1♂ (CAS, CASENT 9033142); Muheza District, Magrotto Hill, 05°07'S, 38°45'E, leg. Frontier Tanzania, VII–IX.1994, 3♂ 1♀ (ZMUC), 2♂ 2♀ (ZMUC); Muheza District, Manga Forest Reserve, 05°02'S, 34°47'E, leg. Frontier Tanzania, VIII.1997, 1♂ (ZMUC); Muheza District, Pangani Falls Forests, 05°20'S, 38°40'E, leg. Frontier Tanzania, I–III.1993 (riverine and dry forest), 8♂ (ZMUC). TOGO: Bassari, 09°15'N, 00°47'E, leg. P. Douben, V–VII.1994 (pitfalls), 1♂ 1♀ (MRAC 173991); Bassari, Entre Bassari et Sokode, 09°15'N, 00°47'E, leg. P. Douben, V–VII.1984 (savanna boisée), 4♂ 2♀ (MRAC 166237), 1♀ (MRAC 166176); Dzobégan, 07°14'N, 00°41'E, leg. S. Tchibozo, I.2003 (in house), 1♂ (MRAC 212776). UGANDA: Entebbe [00°04'N, 32°27'E], leg. P.L.G. Benoit, 1959, 1♂ (MRAC 131303); Kampala, Namulonge Research Station [00°32'N, 32°35'E], leg. A. Russell-Smith, 22.IV.1994 (in maize field), 1♂ (PCRS); Kanyawara, 00°34'S, 30°21'E, 1600m a.s.l., leg. V. & B. Roth, 30.X.1992, 1♂ (CAS, CASENT 9033135). ZAMBIA: Between Namwala and Lake Itezhi-Tezhi, Pontoon road, 15°41.887'S, 26°21.588'E, leg. C. Haddad, 5.XII.2006 (leaf litter), 1imm. 1♀ (NCA 2007/900); Kafue National Park, Near Namwala, Chibila Camp, 15°46.636'S, 26°00.405'E, leg. C. Haddad & J. Parau, 7.XII.2006 (leaf litter), 1♂ (NCA 2007/576); Kasanka National Park, Fibwe Camp, 12°33'`S, 30°13'E, leg. C. Stuart, 15.II.2001, 1♀ (NCA 2002/540); Same data, 11.XI.2001, 1♀ (NCA 2002/550); Livingstone, Quarry nr Livingstone Airport, 17°47.998'S, 25°46.588'E, leg. C. Haddad & J. Parau, 1.XII.2006 (leaf litter), 3♀ (NCA 2007/624); Near Mpulungu, 08°48'S, 31°05'E, leg. W.J. Pulawski, 20.III.1998, 1♀ (CAS, CASENT 9033105); Wildlives Game Farm, near Choma, Hunter's Camp, 16°58.957'S, 26°36.973'E, leg. C. Haddad, J. Parau & F. Jordaan, 3.XII.2006 (leaf litter), 1♂ 7♀ (NCA 2007/470); Same locality, Open savanna, 16°58.974'S, 26°38.974'E, leg. C. Haddad, 4.XII.2006 (leaf litter), 1♂ (NCA 2007/553); Same locality, Siatichema River, 16°59.615'S, 26°38.093'E, leg. C. Haddad, 3.XII.2006 (leaf litter), 4♀ (NCA 2007/1128). ZIMBABWE: Bulawayo, Hillside, 20°10'S, 28°35'E, leg. M. FitzPatrick, II.1999 (pitfalls), 1♀ (NMZA 13854); Harare, 6km NW of Westwood HQ, Girls College [17°49'S, 30°59'E], leg. Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe staff, 7.XII.1993 (under logs), 2♂ (NMZA 11157); Victoria Falls, 17°56'S, 25°50'E, leg. W.J. Pulawski, 1–8.II.1995, 1♂ (CAS, CASENT 9033083).

Diagnosis

Copa flavoplumosa is a distinctive species, easily recognisable from congeners by the large 6-shaped epigynal ridges and long copulatory ducts with an anterior loop in the females, and males by the embolus with a broad base and long, slightly curved distal section.

Remarks

The type locality of Copa flavoplumosa is given by Simon (1885)[1] as Congo: Landana. This locality is within the modern Angolan enclave of Cabinda that is surrounded by the D.R. Congo. Although the syntype series includes a male, this sex was not originally described by Simon (1885)[1], and this specimen is therefore not designated as a paralectotype. A lectotype female and paralectotype female are designated here, of which the larger of the two in the type series is the lectotype.
The specimens of Copa benina nigra Lessert, 1933 available in the MNHG are not specifically labelled as types and their status is thus uncertain, although the labels indicate localities consistent with that in Lessert's (1933) description, i.e. Chimporo and Rio Mbale. Neither of these localities could be traced on modern maps or electronic resources. Some maps from the early 20th century indicate that the Rio Mbale runs northwards between 16°20'E and 16°40'E with its source at approximately 12°00'S in central Angola. Chimporo has been cited by Mansell (1996)[6] as being located at 17°20'S, 17°17'E in southern Angola. From Lessert's (1933) figure of the male embolus it is clear that Copa benina nigra is a junior synonym of Copa flavoplumosa.

Female

(Parc National Albert, MRAC 234182). Measurements: CL 3.60, CW 2.69, AL 4.85, AW 3.10, TL 8.20 (6.35–9.30), FL 0.40, SL 1.70, SW 1.58, AME–AME 0.10, AME–ALE 0.02, ALE–ALE 0.44, PME–PME 0.12, PME–PLE 0.13, PLE–PLE 0.56, PERW 0.78, MOQAW 0.40, MOQPW 0.43, MOQL 0.57.
Length of leg segments: I 2.60 + 1.23 + 2.04 + 2.05 + 1.20 = 9.12; II 2.58 + 1.20 + 1.93 + 2.03 + 1.18 = 8.85;III 2.55 + 1.16 + 1.89 + 2.25 + 1.25 = 9.10;IV 3.08 + 1.30 + 1.98 + 3.56 + 1.38 = 11.30.
General appearance as in Fig. 7. Carapace bright yellow-orange, eye region black; broad median black line comprising black feathery setae from PER to posterior slope of carapace, broken up by narrow asetose line from between PME to midpoint and Y-shaped asetose area from fovea towards anterior coxae and posterior of carapace; striae absent; lateral margins with narrow fringe of black feathery setae; areas between markings covered in orange feathery setae. All eyes with black rings; AER procurved, medians much larger than laterals; AME separated by distance equal to ½ their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance approximately 1∕10 AME diameter; clypeus height slightly less than 1½ AME diameter; PER strongly procurved, eyes subequal in size; PME separated by distance equal to ¾ their diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 4∕5 PME diameter; CW:PERW = 3.45:1. Chelicerae yellow-orange, with pectinate curved setae on promargin; promargin with two teeth separated by basal width of proximal tooth, distal tooth much larger; retromargin with two teeth separated by ½ their basal width, distal tooth slightly larger than proximal tooth, close to fang base. Endites yellow, cream prolaterally and distally, with small black prolateral proximal markings; labium yellow-orange, cream distally, without markings; sternum pale orange, without markings (Fig. 9). Legs yellow-brown, posteriors slightly darker, femora slightly darker dorsally than ventrally; femora with broad dorsal line between proximal and distal spines and incomplete dorsal rings at ⅔ their length and distally, each composed of black feathery setae; patellae with dense black feathery setae laterally; tibiae I & II without markings, with scattered black feathery setae, III & IV with rings proximally and medially corresponding to ventral spines, distal ends with black ring, all covered in black feathery setae with white feathery setae between them; metatarsi I & II without markings, with scattered black and white feathery setae, III & IV with proximal, medial and distal rings corresponding to paired leg spines, covered in black feathery setae with white feathery setae between them; tarsi uniform yellow; palp yellow, spines without spots. Leg spination: femora: I pl 2 do 3 rl 2, II pl 2 do 3 rl 2, III pl 2 do 3 rl 1-2, IV pl 2 do 3 rl 1; all femora with scattered erect ventral setae; patellae: I & II with fine proximal and distal do setae, III & IV with proximal and distal do spines, proximal spine finer and shorter than distal; tibiae: I do 1 pl 2 long fine setae, plv 2 rlv 2 spines, II do 1 long fine seta, pl 2 plv 2 rlv 1 spines, III pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 1 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 2 rlv 2, II plv 2 rlv 2, III pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 3, IV pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 3. Palpal spination: femora: pl 1 do 2 rl 1, with scattered erect ventral setae, mainly retrolaterally; patellae: pl 1 do 2; tibiae: pl 1 do 2 plv 1-2; tarsi: pl 1 rl 1 plv 2 rlv 1. Abdomen with very small orange-brown anterior dorsal scutum; dorsum cream, densely covered in black straight and feathery setae, interspersed with white feathery setae forming small spots in anterior two-thirds and fine transverse chevrons posteriorly; sides of abdomen cream, densely covered in white feathery setae; venter cream, covered in short straight black setae, with broad densely setose subrectangular marking medially from epigastric furrow to spinnerets, comprising black and white feathery setae and short straight black setae. Epigyne longer than broad, with large 6-shaped ridges laterally at midpoint of epigyne, separated by approximately 1½ times their width, with copulatory openings distinct (Figs 55, 67); copulatory ducts directed anteriorly, slightly obliquely, with anterior bend and characteristic loop before entering anterior ST II; broad ducts connecting ST II to elongate posterior ST I; ST I clearly narrower than ST II (Fig. 68).

Male

(Mikembo, MRAC 234447). Measurements: CL 3.30, CW 2.55, AL 3.55, AW 2.00, TL 6.60 (5.20–8.90), FL 0.37, SL 1.43, SW 1.41, AME–AME 0.06, AME–ALE 0.02, ALE–ALE 0.38, PME–PME 0.10, PME–PLE 0.11, PLE–PLE 0.49, PERW 0.68, MOQAW 0.37, MOQPW 0.37, MOQL 0.50.
Length of leg segments: I 2.28 + 1.08 + 1.90 + 1.95 + 1.23 = 8.44; II 2.23 + 1.06 + 1.78 + 1.93 + 1.18 = 8.18; III 2.20 + 1.05 + 1.80 + 2.20 + 1.20 = 8.45; IV 2.95 + 1.20 + 2.25 + 3.32 + 1.33 = 11.05.
General appearance as in Fig. 8, male more slender than female. Carapace bright orange, markings and setae as for female. All eyes with black rings; AER procurved, medians much larger than laterals; AME separated by distance equal to 2∕5 their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance approximately 1∕10 AME diameter; clypeus height slightly larger than double AME diameter; PER strongly procurved, medians very slightly larger than laterals; PME separated by distance slightly less than ⅔ their diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance slightly larger than 4∕5 PME diameter; CW:PERW = 3.75:1. Chelicerae orange, with curved setae on promargin not pectinate; dentition as for female. Endites, labium and sternum as for female. Legs yellow-brown, posteriors slightly brighter yellow and darker, markings as for female. Leg spination: femora: I pl 2-3 do 3 rl 1-2, II pl 2 do 3 rl 2, III pl 2 do 3 rl 2, IV pl 2 do 3 rl 2; all femora with scattered erect ventral setae; patellae: I & II with fine proximal and distal do setae, III & IV with proximal and distal do spines, proximal spine finer and shorter than distal; tibiae: I pl 1 do 1 rl 1 long fine setae, plv 2 rlv 2 spines, II do 1 rl 1 long fine setae, pl 2 plv 2 rlv 2, III pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 2 rlv 2, II plv 2 rlv 2, III pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 3, IV pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 3. Palpal spination: femora: pl 1 do 2 rl 1, with scattered erect ventral setae; patellae: pl 1 do 2; tibiae: pl 1 do 1 plv 1; tarsi: pl 1 plv 2. Abdomen with orange-brown dorsal scutum extending just past midpoint; dorsum cream, densely covered in black straight and feathery setae with scattered white feathery setae, with patches of white feathery setae forming small spots in anterior two-thirds and fine transverse chevrons posteriorly; sides of abdomen cream, densely covered in white feathery setae with scattered yellow-orange feathery setae; venter cream, covered in short straight black setae, with broad densely setose marking medially from epigastric furrow, converging at spinnerets, comprising black and white feathery setae and short straight black setae. Male palpal cymbium orange-brown, with several thicker bent setae distally (Fig. 70); tegulum pear-shaped, dark red-brown, with nearly black ducts; embolus with broad oblique base directed prolaterally and distally, proximal coil broad and nearly transverse, distal section slightly curved and variable in length (Figs 56, 61–65, 69).
Colour variation. Throughout the geographical range of Copa flavoplumosa there is considerable variation in the colouration of specimens, particularly with regard to the intensity of yellow/orange and white/cream markings on the body. Three main generalised colour forms can be found. The most widespread variation has a yellow-brown to bright orange carapace and abdomen, with black markings (Fig. 1), and is found throughout the region except in the rainforests of central Africa. This colour form is mainly associated with populations in savanna and grassland habitats.
The second colour form (corresponding to the redescriptions above) has a yellow to orange carapace with black markings and a black abdomen with white markings, similar in pattern and arrangement to the previous form (Figs 2, 3, 7, 8). This form is found in moist savannas and forests across tropical Africa. While most South African populations of this species have colouration corresponding to the first form described here, the populations in the fynbos and grasslands along the southern coast of the country also have a black abdomen with white markings, but the carapace is even darker, nearly dark red-brown in colour.
The third form, corresponding to the description of Copa benina nigra, is a nigrito form restricted to central and western Africa but only occurring in isolated populations. This form has an entirely black body with white markings corresponding to those described for the other two types above (Fig. 4).
The distribution of the three forms can partly be explained by the habitats they occupy, although some populations (e.g. Faro Game Reserve in Cameroon and Mankono in Ivory Coast) have representatives of all three colour forms but in varying proportions. The colouration of the first form is clearly an adaptation for camouflage in the litter layer of savanna and other habitats that are exposed to sunlight for a considerable portion of the day. The second form apparently occurs in closed canopy forests and dense woodlands that are shaded for most of the day or the entire day. The black abdominal colouration with strongly contrasting markings enables these spiders to blend into dark patches with low light levels in these habitats. The nigrito form can exploit such microhabitats in a similar way, but this does not explain the occurrence of this colour form at some Miombo woodland localities (e.g. Wildlives Game Farm in Zambia). A possible explanation for this case could be the occurrence of natural fires in these habitats. The burned trees, logs and grasses in such disturbed environments may provide sites where these spiders may optimally exploit their colouration for camouflage. Whether individuals have the capability for colour change in response to changing environmental conditions (e.g. following fire) through the use of chromatophores or ommochromes, or whether individual phenotypes are stable, has yet to be determined and should be the subject of future research.
Distribution. Widespread throughout the continental Afrotropical Region (Fig. 71).

Biology

Specimens were mainly collected from the leaf litter layer of all of the main biome types in Africa except for true deserts and karoo habitats, although records from semi-arid temperate grasslands and dry savannas are scarce. The greatest density of records is in moist savannas and closed canopy forests, although the species seems largely absent from rainforests; considering the extensive sampling in the D.R. Congo, especially by the MRAC, only three records from rainforests in this country are reported here. Specimens were most regularly collected by pitfall traps, litter sifting and by hand from the ground surface.

Taxon Treatment

  • Haddad, C; 2013: A revision of the continental species of Copa Simon, 1885 (Araneae, Corinnidae) in the Afrotropical Region ZooKeys, 276: 1-37. doi

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Simon E (1885) Etudes arachnologiques. 18e Mémoire. XXVI. Matériaux pour servir à la faune des Arachnides du Sénégal. (Suivi d’une appendice intitulé: Descriptions de plusieurs espèces africaines nouvelles). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 5: 345–396.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Simon E (1897) Histoire naturelle des Araignées. Tome second, Premier fascicule. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 1–192.
  3. Strand E (1916) Zentralafrikanische Clubioniden. In: Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral Afrika Expedition 1907–1908, unter Fuhrung Adolf Friedrichs, Herzogs zu Mecklenberg. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81(A11): 79–98.
  4. Lessert R (1921) Araignées du Kilimandjaro et du Merou (suite). 4. Clubionidae. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 28: 381-442.
  5. Lessert R (1933) Araignées d’Angola. (Resultats de la Mission scientifique suisse en Angola 1928–1929). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 40: 85-159.
  6. Mansell M (1996) The antlions of southern Africa (Neuroptera: Myrmeliontidae): genus Palparellus Navás, including extralimital species. African Entomology 4: 239-267.

Images