Chthonius (Gardini, Giulio 2013)
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- Chthonius zoiai Gardini, Giulio, 2013, Zootaxa 3655: 140-142.
Diagnosis (Ƥ). An anophthalmic hypogean Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) from eastern Liguria that differs from other species of the C. fuscimanus group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger with isolated subapical tooth (di) at level with the spinneret and a median prominent group of 5 subequal teeth; chelal hand (in lateral view) without a rounded hump distad of trichobothria ib-isb, weakly depressed proximally ib-isb, without hollow just before the base of the movable chelal finger; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 4 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.031–0.035 mm); length of chela 0.75– 1.06 (3), 0.92–1.07 (Ƥ) mm, length of movable chelal finger 0.45–0.63 (3), 0.54–0.62 (Ƥ) mm; chela 6.4–6.5 (3), 5.8–6.6 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.4–1.7 (3 Ƥ).
Type material examined.ITALY —Liguria: La Spezia Prov.—1 3 1 T (paratypes), La Spezia, Vallone di Biassa, Grotta della Taglia 79 Li/SP, 160 m a.s.l., 9.IX. 1979, A. & L. Briganti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 (holotype) 1 Ƥ (paratype), id., 21.II. 1982, G. M. Schiaffino & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ (paratype), “ Chthonius Gestroi E. S.typus!” “Bocca Lupara 12.II.  96. [R.] Gestro”, [La Spezia, Grotta di Bocca Lupara 74 Li/SP] (MSNG). Other material examined. ITALY— Liguria: Genoa Prov.—1 3 1 Ƥ, Castiglione Chiavarese, San Pietro Frascarese, Grotta da Prima Ciappa superiore 976 Li/GE, 420 m a.s.l., 21.XII. 1975, L. Briganti, L. A. Cassulo & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 24.X. 1976, L. A. Cassulo & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 6.XI. 1977, L. Briganti, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg. Liguria: La Spezia Prov. – 1 Ƥ, Lerici, Grotta dei Branzi 468 Li/SP, 350 m a.s.l., 14.II. 1982, S. Durante & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Maissana, Tann-a de Strie (= Tann-a de Liciorno) 147 Li/SP, 880 m a.s.l., 29.IV. 1982, S. Zoia leg.
Description of adults (Ƥ). Troglomorphic facies, integument depigmented; hispid granulation on lateral surfaces of carapace and on cheliceral palm. Carapace 1.05–1.1 times longer than broad, slightly constricted posteriorly; anterior margin (fig. 270) between median macrosetae with sharp denticles, rarely weakly prominent with larger denticles, but always without epistome; no eyes or eye-spots (fig. 271); chaetotaxy 4: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), macrosetae thin; 0 or 2 preocular microsetae on each side; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.11–0.13 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites I–X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4, tergite I rarely with 2 or 3 setae. Chaetotaxy of sternites II–X 9– 10:(3) 9–10 (3):(2) 7–8 (2): 8–9: 6–9: 6–7: 6: 6: 7; genital opening of males flanked by 6–7 setae on each side (4 + 5 setae in male from Maissana: Tann-a de Strie). Chelicerae (figs 272–273) 2.2–2.4 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 7–8 subequal teeth and 4–5 proximal microtubercles; distal half of movable finger with a group of 5 prominent teeth and with an isolated subapical tooth (di) at level of spinneret; gl ratio 0.52–0.60; spinneret weakly raised in males, prominent and rounded apically in females; rallum with 11 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3–4 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 10–12 coxal spines, coxa III with 4–6 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 7.05–7.2 (3), 6.4–7.7 (Ƥ) times as long as broad; chela (fig. 274–275) 6.4–6.5 (3), 5.8–6.6 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.6–2.7 (3), 2.4–2.8 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, with a weak depression proximad of trichobothria ib-isb; fixed chelal finger with 13–15 triangular, pointed teeth (except proximal one rounded apically) with dental canals; base of finger with 5–10 microtubercles; tip of finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 4 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.031– 0.035 mm); distal half of movable chelal finger with 8–10 triangular, pointed teeth (the proximal one sometimes reduced, widely rounded) with dental canals; proximal half of finger, staring distad of sb, with straight, thick marginal lamina, rarely irregularly undulated; coupled sensilla pc variably placed between sb and halfway between b and sb; trichobothria as in fig. 275; basal apodeme of movable finger strongly sclerotized, long, rectangular; trichobothria eb-esb-ist mostly placed in a straight line, rarely ist a little proximad of line eb-esb; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3–1.5 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2–1.25 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.4–1.7 (3 Ƥ).
Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.30–1.55 (3), 1.46–1.60 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.42–0.47 × 0.38–0.43 (3), 0.42–0.49 × 0.39–0.46 (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.37–0.40 × 0.16–0.165 (3), 0.35–0.42 × 0.15–0.18 (Ƥ), movable finger length 0.16–0.20 (3), 0.18–0.21 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.64–0.74 × 0.10–0.105 (3), 0.65–0.74 × 0.09–0.11 (Ƥ); chela 0.75–1.06 × 0.12–0.165 (3), 0.92–1.07 × 0.14–0.17 (Ƥ); hand length 0.30–0.43 (3), 0.365–0.445 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.45–0.63 (3), 0.54–0.62 (Ƥ). Description of tritonymph. Chaetotaxy of carapace as in adults, no preocular microsetae; no eyes or eyespots. Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy of sternites II–VIII: 5:(2) 6 (2):(1) 6 (1): 7: 6: 6: 6. Cheliceral palm with 5 setae and one microseta laterally; spinneret as in females. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 2 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 4–5, IV 5. Pedipalp: femur 5.3 times as long as broad; chela 5.8 times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.35 times as long as deep, more depressed dorsally than in adults; fixed chelal finger with 11 triangular teeth and 8 proximal microtubercles; tip of fixed chelal finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; movable chelal finger with 8 teeth, the proximal one reduced and rounded apically; coupled sensilla pc a little distad of b; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.45; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2. Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.2. Pedipalp: femur 0.40 × 0.075; chela 0.58 × 0.10; hand length 0.235; movable finger length 0.34.
Remarks. Gardini (1990) emphasized the presence in eastern Liguria of populations (referred to as C. cf. zoiai) from isolated karstic systems that differed from the type specimens of C. zoiai, chiefly in the number of macrosetae on tergite I (4 instead of 2), on coxae I (3 instead of 4) and in the absence of preocular microsetae. Until larger samples become available for studying variation, it seems best to consider the specimens examined here as conspecific. A similar case, concerning hypogean populations of Roncus gestroi Beier, 1930 in eastern Liguria, is discussed in Gardini (1993 a). Within the Chthonius fuscimanus group, C. zoiai is related to the epigean C. nanus, a widespread species in the same geographical area, from which it differs in many troglomorphic characters. C. zoiai is also related to the hypogean C. genuensis from eastern Liguria (for a comparison between them, see Remarks under C. genuensis).
- Gardini, Giulio; 2013: A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655: 140-142. doi