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Adults of Chinavia armigera have a general body color green to dark green, with a median longitudinal line and margins of the body yellowish (Rolston 1983). The distribution includes Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Argentina and Uruguay (Schwertner and Grazia 2007). Chinavia armigera is associated with plants such as yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil) (Aquifoliaceae), soybean (Glycine max L.) (Fabaceae), sugarcane (Saccharum L.) (Poaceae), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (Malvaceae) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) (Poaceae). The morphometric parameters of nymphal instars are shown in Table 2.
|Measures||1st instar||2nd instar||3rd instar||4th instar||5th instar|
(Fig. 2). Body round and convex, surface without punctuation. General color dark brown to black. Head conical and strongly declivent; black, with median orange macula, which extends from the posterior portion of the head to the posterior margin of metanotum; clypeus with apex obtuse, surpassing mandibular plates, these subtriangular shaped. Ocelli absent. Antennae black, intersegmental areas with light brown color; antennal segments with short hairs well distributed. Antennal segment I shortest and antennal segment IV longest; antennal segments II and III subequal. Rostrum black, reaching the metacoxae. Thorax mostly dark, except for the median orange macula. Legs black, with hairs uniformly distributed on all segments, tibiae ventrally cylindrical and dorsally flattened, tarsi with two segments, a pair of tarsal claws and pulvili. Abdomen dark brown to black with the three pairs (3+3) of white maculae located between lateral dorsal plates and the first three median dorsal plates, and a white rounded median macula located anteriad of the first median dorsal plate. Dorso-abdominal scent glands ostioles of anterior, median and posterior glands present on dorsal plates placed at intersegmental line between the abdominal terga 3-4, 4-5 and 5-6 respectively. Dorsal median and lateral plates black, without punctuation, the lateral semi-circular, adjacent to the lateral margin of each segment. Spiracles near anterior margin of lateral plates, on abdominal segments II to VIII. From urosternites III to VII, 1+1 trichobothria placed medially of an imaginary line across spiracles and near posterior margin of each segment.
(Fig. 3). Body oval, less convex than in the first instar. Head predominantly black colored, densely punctured on the dorsum. Clypeus with apex obtuse, subequal to mandibular plates, larger than in the previous instar. Eye diameter equal to width of clypeus at base. Rostrum black, not reaching metacoxae. Thorax with 1+1 orange maculae along the margins of the pronotum; margins of pronotum and mesonotum serrate and slightly deflected. Hairs more abundant on the tibiae. Abdomen mostly dark brown; dorsal abdominal maculae distributed as follows: 1+1 white, rounded, located between the lateral and the first dorsal median plates; a white macula, small, rounded, located anteriad of first median dorsal plate; 4+4 white maculae between the lateral and median dorsal plates. Dorsal median and lateral plates black and punctured. From urosternites III to VII, 2+2 trichobothria, one trichobothrium placed medially of the spiracular line and the other along that line. Other characteristics as described for the first instar.
(Fig. 4). Mandibular plates subtriangular, length subequal to clypeus, whose apex is obtuse. Thorax densely punctured, predominantly black, except for the orange maculae on anterolateral margins, which are finely crenulated. Abdomen with a pair (1+1) of white, large and rounded maculae, one on each side of the first dorsal median plate; small white macula anteriad of first dorsal median plate; four pairs (4+4) of white maculae between the lateral and median dorsal plates. Black median and lateral dorsal plates, strongly punctured. Lateral plates semicircular in shape, with orange macula in the center, emarginated in black. Other characteristics as described in previous instars.
(Fig. 5). Body oval, predominantly dark brown. Mandibular plates with broad bands and clypeus with a thin median strip straw-yellow. Rostrum black, not reaching metacoxae. Thorax predominantly black, except a straw-yellow macula without defined shape and an orange macula along the anterolateral margins. Posterior margin of mesonotum sinuous, denoting the scutellum and formation of wing pads, which reach the posterior margin of metanotum. Abdomen dark brown, sparse punctuation, not as dense as on the thorax, abdominal maculae distributed as follows: 1+1 white, round, large, located between the lateral plates and the first median dorsal plate; a white and oval macula located anteriad of the first median dorsal plate; 4+4 white maculae located between the dorsal median plates and the dorsal lateral plates; 1+1 white, small, rounded macula located along the posterolateral margins of the second median dorsal plate. Lateral plates semicircular, orange emarginated in black, slightly punctured; median plates predominantly black, coarsely punctured, with sparse brownish maculae. Other characteristics as described in previous instars.
(Fig. 6). Body oval to pyriform. Head flat, punctured. Mandibular plates predominantly straw-yellow, with black border and orange band extending from the anterior margin of the eyes to the apex of the clypeus, which is black, with a straw-yellow median strip, wider in the posterior portion, on the edge of the pronotum. Antennae generally straw-yellow, with black maculae. Thorax predominantly straw-yellow, with dark brown and sparse maculae, shapeless, producing a variegated appearance. Margins of pronotum and mesonotum serrate, with a pair (1+1) of anterolateral orange maculae. Pronotum wider; mesonotum more developed; scutellum well delimited. Wing pads well developed, surpassing the middle of abdominal segment III. Legs straw-yellow, with dark margins; hairs more abundant on the tibiae. Abdomen predominantly brown, with the same distribution and number of maculae observed in the 4th instar. Margin of the median dorsal plates darker than the center. Median dorsal plates predominantly orange. Urosternite VIII split longitudinally in females and entire in males. Other characteristics as described in previous instars.
- Fürstenau, B; Schwertner, C; Grazia, J; 2013: Comparative morphology of immature stages of four species of Chinavia (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae), with a key to the species of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil ZooKeys, 319: 59-82. doi
- Rolston L (1983) A revision of the genus Acrosternum Fieber, subgenus Chinavia Orian, in the Western Hemisphere (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 91: 97-176.
- Schwertner C, Grazia J (2007) O gênero Chinavia Orian (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatominae) no Brasil, com chave pictórica para os adultos. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 51: 416-435. doi: 10.1590/S0085-56262007000400005