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Indonesia. Lectotype of Sternaspis laevis (ZMA 1535), and one paralectotype (ZMA 5530), Sumbawa Island, Bay of Bima (08°27.5'S, 118°43.5'E), 55 m, Sta. 47. One paralectotype (ZMA 1491), Irian Jaya, Strait of Galewo, near Seget (01°24'S, 130°58'E), 31 m, R. V. Siboga, Sta. 163 (dried-out).
Thailand, Andaman Sea. 2 spec. (ZMUC), Stn. J47-0S, 7°15'N, 98°51'E, 61 m, 4-V-1996. 1 spec. (ZMUC), Stn. L57-0S, 6°44'N, 99°05'E, 56 m, 5-V-1996. 5 spec. (PMBC J1-OS), S off Phuket, 7°15'00"N, 99°04'00"E, 39 m, 23-II-1998. 2 spec. (PMBC 12-AT), S off Phuket, 7°30'00"N, 98°29'00"E, 62 m, 26-II-2000. 5 spec. (PMBC K1-0S), W off Kantang, 7°00'00"N, 99°16'00"E, 41 m, 24-II-1998. 2 spec. (PMBC GI-OS), W off Thalang, 7°59'00"N, 98°12 ‘00"E, 46 m, 20-II-1998. 2 spec. (PMBC K1-HS), SW off Kantang, 7°00'00"N, 99°16'00"E, 43 m, 27-II-2000. 2 spec. (PMBC C1-OS), W off Takua Pa, 9°00'00"N, 98°02'00"E, 41 m, 17-II-1998. 5 spec. (PMBC B2-0S), NW off Takua Pa, 9°14'00"N, 98°00'00"E, 45 m, 17-II-1998. 4 spec. (PMBC C2-0S), W off Takua Pa, 9°00'00"N, 97°56'00"E, 60 m, 17-II-1998. 2 spec. (ZMUC J47-0S), SW off Kantang, 7°15'00"N, 98°51'00"E, 62 m, 04-V-1 996. 1 spec. (ZMUC L57-0S), SW off Kantang, 6°44'00"N, 99°05'00"E, 56 m. Australia, Queensland. Calliope R., N off Gladstone, 23°51'00"S, 151°10'00"E.1 spec. (AM W 8516), 26-VI-1975. 20 spec. (AM W 199324), 1974. 6 spec. (AM W 28511), 1974. 1 spec. (AM W 10295). 2 spec. (AM W l0296), Gladstone, Auckland Ck., 23°51'00"S, 151°14'00"E. 25 spec. (AM W 202648), Shoal water, Triangular Islets. Coral Sea. 1 spec. (AM W 28507), NE off Cairns, 16°36'00"S, 146°40'00"E, 147 m.
Lectotype (ZMA 1535), with anterior end exposed, damaged; first five anterior segments light grey, opalescent with few cuticular papillae (Fig. 17A). Starting with segment seven, remainder of body darker grey or tan, and leathery in appearance. Cuticle covered with minute filamentous cuticular papillae over most of surface, especially on segments seven and eight, where papillae become longer. Two rows of loosely arranged dark spots with filamentous cuticular papillae on posterior segments starting with segment eight (better developed in paralectotype ZMA 1491). On segments dorsal to ventro-caudal shield, spots consist of slightly longer cuticular papillae with encrusting sediment at bases. Body up to 12.5 (6.5) mm long, 5.5 (2) mm wide, 29 segments.
Prostomium hemispherical, opalescent, light grey in colour. Peristomium rounded, raised at position of mouth, with a few papillae around base of prostomium. Mouth papillated, circular and small, positioned halfway between prostomium and anterior edge of segment two.
First three chaetigers with about six to ten larger, and five or more smaller, bronze, widely separated, slightly falcate introvert hooks per bundle, most with tips broken, with subdistal darker areas. Genital papillae protrude ventrally from intersegmental groove between segments 7 and 8 (Fig. 17A, C). Pre-shield region with 7 segments, without rows of fine capillary chaetae.
Ventro-caudal shield covered by fine papillae, with sediment particles firmly adhered on it; anterior margins rounded; anterior depression shallow or very shallow; suture not visible (Fig. 17B, D). Lateral margins rounded, medially expanded, narrowing posteriorly. Fan truncate, slightly expanded medially, margin smooth, with a shallow median notch (paralectotype ZMA 1491 with rust red in central area, with a wide bluish band of rings next, followed by another ring of rust red at outer margins, concentric lines not seen, basal layer porous).
Marginal chaetal fascicles include ten lateral ones, chaetae in a narrow oval arrangement, and five posterior fascicles, with chaetae in an offset linear arrangement, but roughly parallel to each other. Peg chaetae long, with a narrow base in cross section, emerge from cuticle, almost equalized to margin of shield. Additional delicate chaetae between peg chaetae and first bundle of posterior chaetae, almost included with peg chaetae.
Branchiae numerous, coiled, protrude from two widely separated plates, on dorsal surface adjacent to the ventro-caudal shield.
The original syntype series of Sternaspis laevis Caullery, 1944 contains two different species based on their ventro-caudal shields: three syntypes have an hirsute integument with abundant sediment particles firmly attached, and the shield basal layer is soft, porous, and another one has a shield with a stiff basal layer. In order to redefine the species delineation because these two shield patterns differ a lectotype has been selected (ICZN 1999, Art. 74.1), the term has been introduced in the materials section and in the description (ICZN 1999, Art. 74.7.1), described and illustrated (ICZN 1999, Art. 74.7.2) and the two other specimens are regarded as paralectotypes (ICZN 1999, Recomm. 74F). This proposal has been made to restrict the use of this species name to those specimens having hirsute shields with abundant, firmly attached sediment particles (ICZN 1999, Art. 74.7.3). The selected specimen (lectotype) corresponds to the originally illustrated specimen (ICZN 1999, Recomm. 74B).
Another syntype of Sternaspis laevis (ZMA 1491) is damaged, most body papillae were eroded, most shield fascicles chaetae were broken, its introvert is invaginated, and its papillae are arranged in transverse groups; the shield has a stiff layer, with concentric lines and ribs, showing a banded pigmentation. It resembles Sternaspis spinosa and does not belong to Petersenaspis laevis. On the other hand, of the ten syntypes of Sternaspis laevis var. minor, five (ZMA 1528), are very small specimens perhaps of Caulleryaspis laevis, but their small size complicates their positive identification; the other five syntypes (ZMA 1504), are dried-out, and their identification is even more problematic. Consequently, Sternaspis laevis var. minor must be regarded as indeterminable.
Caulleryaspis laevis (Caullery, 1944) comb. n. differs in two main characters from Caulleryaspis gudmundssoni sp. n.: the relative development of the anterior shield depression and the relative development of peg chaetae. In Petersenaspis laevis the anterior depression is shallow and peg chaetae are not well developed, making them difficult to be detected, whereas in Petersenaspis gudmundssoni the anterior depression is deep and peg chaetae are very robust, being easily noticed from the surrounding shield surface.
Andaman Sea to Southeastern Australia, 39–147 m depth. Kastoro et al. (1989) think this is a very common estuarine species in East Java, in 0.3–20.0 m, and salinities of 29.3–34.0 ‰.
- Sendall, K; Salazar-Vallejo, S; 2013: Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae) ZooKeys, 286: 1-74. doi
- Bleeker J, van der S (1992) Catalogue of the Polychaeta collected by the Siboga Expedition and type specimens of Polychaeta in the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam. Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam 13: 121-166.
- ICZN ( (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th ed. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature (The Natural History Museum), London, 306 pp. [http://www.iczn.org/iczn/index.jsp]
- Kastoro W, Aswandy I, Al H, de Wilde P, Everaarts J (1989) Soft-bottom benthic community in the estuarine waters of East Java. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 23: 463-472. doi: 10.1016/0077-7579(89)90029-X