Bassaricyon alleni

From Species-ID
Jump to: navigation, search
Notice: This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see page history). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.

If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.

This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Helgen K, Pinto C, Kays R, Helgen L, Tsuchiya M, Quinn A, Wilson D, Maldonado J (2013) Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), with description of a new species, the Olinguito. ZooKeys 324 : 1–83, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-08-15, version 36343, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Helgen, Kristofer M. AND Pinto, C. Miguel AND Kays, Roland AND Helgen, Lauren E. AND Tsuchiya, Mirian T. N. AND Quinn, Aleta AND Wilson, Don E. AND Maldonado, Jesús E.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), with description of a new species, the Olinguito},
year = {2013},
volume = {324},
issue = {},
pages = {1--83},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.324.5827},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-08-15, version 36343, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), with description of a new species, the Olinguito
A1 - Helgen K
A1 - Pinto C
A1 - Kays R
A1 - Helgen L
A1 - Tsuchiya M
A1 - Quinn A
A1 - Wilson D
A1 - Maldonado J
Y1 - 2013
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 324
IS -
UR -
SP - 1
EP - 83
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-08-15, version 36343, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.324.5827

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Helgen2013ZooKeys324">{{Citation
| author = Helgen K, Pinto C, Kays R, Helgen L, Tsuchiya M, Quinn A, Wilson D, Maldonado J
| title = Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), with description of a new species, the Olinguito
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 324
| issue =
| pages = 1--83
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.324.5827
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2022-06-25

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-08-15, version 36343, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Genus: Bassaricyon


Bassaricyon alleni Thomas, 1880:397.Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Type specimens and localities

The holotype of alleni is BMNH, an adult female (skin and skull), from “Sarayacu, on the Bobonasa River, Upper Pastasa River …this must not be confused with the far larger and better known Sarayacu on the Ucayali in Peru”, in Amazonian Ecuador (Thomas 1880[1]). An image of the holotype as a living animal was figured by Thomas (1880[1]: plate XXXVIII), and the anatomy of this specimen was further discussed by Mivart (1885[2], 1886[3]).
The holotype of beddardi was an adult female, from “Bastrica Woods, Essequibo River”, Guyana (Flower 1895[4]; Pocock 1921a[5]), and was an animal that lived in the London Zoological Gardens from 1894 to 1900 (Beddard 1900; Allen 1908[6]). Aspects of the internal anatomy of this specimen were described in detail by Beddard (1900), and the skull of this specimen was figured and discussed by Pocock (1921a)[5], who also mentioned the specimen was prepared as a skeleton (Pocock 1921b[7]), but apparently this specimen was not retained as a museum specimen in the collections of the BMNH, and now cannot be found (D. Hills, BMNH, in litt., 2004).
The holotype of siccatus is BMNH, an adult female (skin and skull), from “Guaicaramo, on the Llanos of Villavicencio, east of Bogata, about 1800 feet”, Colombia (Thomas 1927[8]).


Bassaricyon alleni is a medium-sized olingo, smaller than Bassaricyon gabbii of Mesoamerica, and larger than Bassaricyon neblina of the Andes. It requires closest comparison with the closely-related and allopatrically-distributed taxon Bassaricyon medius, from which it differs especially in having (externally) more strikingly black-tipped dorsal pelage (giving the pelage a slightly darker appearance in Bassaricyon alleni), (cranially) in its proportionally wider and (on average) shorter rostrum, and in having more inflated auditory bullae (Table 3), and (dentally) in its generally larger p4 (Table 4). Bassaricyon alleni is considerably larger than Bassaricyon medius medius (of South America west of the Andes), such that there is a clear body size contrast between the two lowland olingo taxa of South America (Bassaricyon alleni east of Andes vs. B. medius medius west of Andes), but is very similar in size to Bassaricyon medius orinomus (of eastern Panama). Bassaricyon medius orinomus often has a reddish tail that contrasts somewhat with the less rufous head and body; Bassaricyon alleni tends to be more uniformly colored head to tail. In life, Bassaricyon alleni usually has a darkly pigmented nose, whereas in Bassaricyon medius the nose is often pink (Ivo Poglayen-Neuwall to C.O. Handley Jr., in litt., 9 February 1973; Figures 21–22). Sequence divergence in cytochrome b in these sister species (Bassaricyon alleni, Bassaricyon medius), separated by the Andes, is 6–7% (Table 2).


This is the only species of Bassaricyon found east of the Andes. Bassaricyon alleni has a wide distribution in forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes and in lowland forests east of the Andes, with records from forested areas of Venezuela (Thomas 1920[9], Handley 1976[10], Bisbal 1989[11], 1993[12], Ochoa et al. 1993[13], Linares 1998[14], BMNH, USNM), Guyana (Pocock 1921a[5], Lim and Engstrom 2005[15], ROM), eastern Colombia (Thomas 1927[8], Donegan and Salaman 1999[16], AMNH, BMNH, USNM), eastern Ecuador (Thomas 1880[1], 1920[9], Schulenberg and Aubrey 1997[17], Pitman et al. 2002[18], Tirira 2007[19], Borman et al. 2007[20], Alverson et al. 2008[21], Pinto and Tirira 2011b[22], BMNH, EPN, FMNH, MCZ, QCAZ), eastern Peru (Thomas 1920[9], Grimwood 1969[23], Patton et al. 1982[24], Terborgh et al. 1984[25], Aquino and Encarnación 1986[26], Janson and Emmons 1990[27], Woodman et al. 1991[28], Pacheco et al. 1993[29], Pitman et al. 2003[30], 2004[31], Emmons et al. 1994a[32], 1994b[33], Emmons and Romo 1994[34], Boddicker 1997[35], Emmons 2001[36], Rodríguez and Amanzo 2001[37], Emmons et al. 2001[36], Vriesendorp et al. 2004[38], Alverson et al. 2008[21], Gilmore et al. 2010[39], BMNH, FMNH, MVZ, UMMZ, USNM, ZMB), northwestern Bolivia (Crespo 1959[40], Emmons 1991[41], Redford and Stearman 1993[42], Anderson 1997[43], Alverson et al. 2000[44], 2003[45], Alverson 2003[45], Ríos-Uzeda and Arispe 2010[46]), and western Brazil (Calouro 1999[47], Kays and Russell 2001[48], Vaz 2004, Oliveira 2009[49], Magalhães-Pinto et al. 2009[50], Sampaio et al. 2010[51]).
In Guyana, Bassaricyon alleni is recorded only from two specimens, the type of beddardi (Pocock 1921a[5], see above) and a specimen from Iwokrama Forest (Lim and Engstrom 2005[15], at ROM); there are no records to date from either Suriname or French Guiana, where it might be expected to occur (Tate 1939[52], Husson 1978[53], Voss et al. 2001[54], Lim et al. 2005[15]).
In Brazil, the only firm records are from southwestern Amazonia (the states of Amazonas and Acre) (Calouro 1999[47], Kays and Russell 2001[48], Vaz 2004, Oliveira 2009[49], Magalhães-Pinto et al. 2009[50], Sampaio et al. 2010[51]), though it is likely to occur also in Roraima and Pará (Figures 11–12). Brazilian Amazonian records of olingos from the state of Roraima, as “Bassaricyon beddardi” (Mendes Pontes and Chivers 2002[55], Mendes Pontes et al. 2002[55], Mendes Pontes 2004[56], 2009[57], Cheida et al. 2006[58]), are thus far apparently based on misidentifications of kinkajous, Potos (Sampaio et al. 2011[59]).
The elevational range of Bassaricyon alleni as documented by museum specimens extends from sea level to 2000 m. The great majority of records originate from lowland forests below 1000 m, but specimens from Ecuador and Peru (especially from Chanchamayo) have been collected from 1100 to 2000 m (specimens at BMNH, FMNH, USNM). It seems likely that the distribution of Bassaricyon alleni extends higher on the eastern slopes of the Andes than that of Bassaricyon medius does on the western slopes because of the apparent absence of Bassaricyon neblina on the eastern versant of the Andes.


The karyotype of a male Bassaricyon alleni (2n = 38, NF = 68; then identified as “Bassaricyon gabbii”) was reported and described by Wurster and Benirschke (1967[60], 1968[61]) based on an animal at the National Zoo (Washington, D.C.)—most likely USNM 395837, an adult male received from Leticia, Amazonas District, Colombia (the only male olingo at the zoo at the time).

Geographic variation

Some geographic variation is apparent in Bassaricyon alleni, and several taxonomic names have been applied to different regional representatives of this species, including in the western Amazon (typical alleni Thomas 1880[1]), Guyana (beddardi Pocock 1921a[5]), and the Eastern Andes of Colombia (siccatus Thomas 1927[8]).
The most notable morphological distinction that we have observed within Bassaricyon alleni is between lowland specimens (from forests below 1000 m) and specimens collected in montane forests above 1000 m in the Eastern Andes (e.g., Chanchamayo and Pozuzo in Peru). Specimens from these higher elevations have somewhat shorter tails and are more brownish (less orange tones in pelage), with notably longer fur, and greater development of black tipping to the fur, though the pelage is not as long and luxurious as in Bassaricyon neblina. Press reports of a possibly new species of Bassaricyon discovered in the Tabaconas – Namballe National Sanctuary in the Eastern Andes of Peru (e.g., Hance 2012[62]), where Bassaricyon alleni is predicted to occur (Figure 11–12), may refer to such a highland population of Bassaricyon alleni.
Bassaricyon beddardi of Guyana has often been recognized as a species distinct from Bassaricyon alleni in checklists and inventories (e.g., Lim and Engstrom 2005[15], Reid and Helgen 2008c[63], Sampaio et al. 2011[59], Wozencraft 1993[64], 2005[65]), but supporting justification has been lacking. The holotype of beddardi, originally a zoo animal, appears to be lost (see above). However, both the holotype (as described by Beddard [1900] and Pocock [1921a][5]) and a second (and the only additional) specimen from Guyana (ROM 107380, from Iwokrama Forest) closely correspond in their morphological characteristics to Amazonian and Andean specimens of Bassaricyon alleni, and our molecular comparisons demonstrate little molecular divergence between the ROM specimen and a specimen of Bassaricyon alleni from the Peruvian Amazon (Table 1; 1.3% sequence divergence in cytochrome b), such that we suggest that Bassaricyon beddardi can be regarded as a synonym of Bassaricyon alleni. We allocate the name siccatus to the synonymy of Bassaricyon alleni based on geography and craniodental morphology of the type specimen, but further, more detailed study of geographic variation across the range of Bassaricyon alleni would be welcome, perhaps focused in particular on variation across different regions of the Eastern Andes (cf. Thomas 1920[9], 1927[8]). At present, we recognize no subspecies within Bassaricyon alleni.


Though this is the most widely distributed member of the genus (Figure 12), relatively little is known of this species in the wild. Brief notes about the ecology and behavior of wild Bassaricyon alleni are included in the publications of Aquino and Encarnación (1986)[26], Emmons (1990[66], 1991[41]), Janson and Emmons (1990)[27], and Patton et al. (1982)[24]. However, captive olingos described and discussed in detail by Poglayen-Neuwall and Poglayen-Neuwall (1965)[67] (also Poglayen-Neuwall 1966[68], 1989[69]) were all (or almost all) Bassaricyon alleni, originally from the vicinity of Iquitos (Amazonian Peru), such that for behavior under captive conditions, Bassaricyon alleni is the best studied member of the genus. Most olingos discussed by Poglayen-Neuwall (1976)[70] were probably also Bassaricyon alleni, though one animal, an adult female named “Ringerl” (Figure 15), was an Olinguito, Bassaricyon neblina osborni (see account of Bassaricyon neblina, above). Poglayen-Neuwall’s (1973)[71] delightful popular article, “The Odorous Olingo,” remains one of the most concentrated sources of firsthand information for this species (and olingos in general), discussing how Bassaricyon alleni is highly arboreal but will cross open spaces on the ground, is active from sunset to dawn, is predominantly frugivorous but also eats some animal matter (small rodents and lizards, nestling birds, insects, and eggs), has little social organization beyond mother-offspring pairs, displays a high intensity of scent marking in both sexes, flees and releases a foul-smelling odor when threatened, has one young following a 72–74 day gestation period, and that males are aggressive with one another and cannot be housed together. Relevant (and limited) field notes associated with Bassaricyon alleni include: “stomach contents fruits and a green vegetable pulp” (USNM 194315); “lactating” on 7 April 1967 (USNM 443717).

Specimens examined

Colombia: AMNH 70532, 142223, BMNH (type of siccatus), USNM 281482, 281483, 281484, 281485, 395837, 544415. Ecuador: AMNH 67706, BMNH, (holotype of alleni), EPN “4”, RM0151, FMNH 41501, 41502, MCZ 37920, 37921, 37922, 37923, QCAZ 3371, YPM 1458, 1459. Guyana: ROM 107380. Peru: AMNH 98653, 98654, 98662, 98709, BMNH,, 1912.1.15.3, 1922.1.1.17, FMNH 34717, 65787, 65789, 65805, 86908, 86909, 98709, MVZ 153646, 155219, 155220, UMMZ 107907, USNM 194315, 194316, 255121, 255122, ZMB 63197. Venezuela: BMNH, USNM 443279, 443717, 443718.

Taxon Treatment

  • Helgen, K; Pinto, C; Kays, R; Helgen, L; Tsuchiya, M; Quinn, A; Wilson, D; Maldonado, J; 2013: Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), with description of a new species, the Olinguito ZooKeys, 324: 1-83. doi


Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Thomas O (1880) On mammals from Ecuador. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 393-400.
  2. Mivart S (1885) On the anatomy, classification, and distribution of the Arctoidea. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1885: 340-404.
  3. Mivart S (1886) Notes on the cerebral convolutions of the Carnivora. Journal of the Linnean Society 19: 1-25.
  4. Flower W (1895) Untitled note [note on a Bassaricyon specimen from British Guiana]. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895: 520-521.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Pocock R (1921a) A new species of Bassaricyon. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (series 9) 7: 229–234.
  6. Allen J (1908) Mammals from Nicaragua. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 24: 647-668.
  7. Pocock R (1921b) The external characters and classification of the Procyonidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1921: 389-422.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Thomas O (1927) A new subspecies of Bassaricyon from Colombia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (series 9) 20: 80.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Thomas O (1920) Report on the Mammalia collected by Mr. Edmund Heller during the Peruvian Expedition of 1915 under the auspices of Yale University and the National Geographic Society. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 58: 217-249. doi: 10.5479/si.00963801.58-2333.217
  10. Handley C (1976) Mammals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 20: 1-91.
  11. Bisbal F (1989) Distribution and habitat association of the carnivores in Venezuela. In: Redford K Eisenberg J (Eds). Advances in neotropical mammalogy. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida: 339-362.
  12. Bisbal F (1993) Impacto humano sobre los carnívoros de Venezuela. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 28: 145-156. doi: 10.1080/01650529309360899
  13. Ochoa G, Molina C, Giner S (1993) Inventario y estudio comunitario de los mamíferos del Parque Nacional Canaima, con un lista de las especies registradas para la Guayana Venezolana. Acta Científica Venezolana 44: 244-261.
  14. Linares O (1998) Mamíferos de Venezuela. Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Lim B, Engstrom M (2005) Mammals of Iwokrama Forest. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 154: 71-108. doi: [0071:MOIF2.0.CO;2 10.1635/0097-3157(2004)154[0071:MOIF]2.0.CO;2]
  16. Donegan T, Salaman P (Eds) (1999) Colombian EBA Project: rapid biodiversity assessments and conservation evaluations in the Colombian Andes: northeast Antioquia and highlands of Serranía de los Churumbelos. Colombian EBA Project Report Series No. 2. Fundación Proaves, Colombia.
  17. Schulenberg T, Awbrey K (1997) The Cordillera del Cóndor region of Ecuador and Peru: a biological assessment. Conservation International, Rapid Assessment Program Working Papers 7, Washington, D.C.
  18. Pitman N, Moskovits D, Alverson W, Borman A (2002) Ecuador: Serranías Cofán-Bermejo, Sinangoe. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 3, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  19. Tirira D (2007) Guía de campo de los mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco, Quito, Ecuador.
  20. Borman R, Vriesendorp C, Alverson W, Moskovits D, Stotz D, del C (Eds) (2007) Ecuador: Territorio Cofan Dureno. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 19, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Alverson W, Vriesendorp C, del C, Moskovits D, Stotz D, Donayre M, Borbor L (Eds) (2008) Ecuador, Perú: Cuyabeno-Güeppi. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 20, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  22. Pinto C, Tirira D (2011b) Olingo de oriente Bassaricyon alleni Carnivora, Procyonidae. In: Tirira DG (Ed) Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador, Second edition. Fundación Mamíferos y Conservación, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador and Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador, Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador 8, Quito, 223.
  23. Grimwood I (1969) Notes on the distribution and status of some Peruvian mammals, 1968. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection and New York Zoological Society, Special Publication 21: 1-86.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Patton J, Berlin B, Berlin E (1982) Aboriginal perspectives of a mammal community in Amazonian Perú: knowledge and utilization patterns among the Aguaruna Jívaro. In: Mares MA, Genoways HH (Eds) Mammalian biology in South America, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 111–128.
  25. Terborgh J, Fitzpatrick J, Emmons L (1984) Annotated checklist of the bird and mammal species of Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu National Park, Peru. Fieldiana Zoology (new series) 21: 1-29.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Aquino R, Encarnación F (1986) Characteristics and use of sleeping sites in Aotus (Cebidae: Primates) in the Amazon lowlands of Peru. American Journal of Primatology 11: 319-331. doi: 10.1002/ajp.1350110403
  27. 27.0 27.1 Janson C, Emmons L (1990) Ecological structure of the nonflying mammal community at Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu National Park, Peru. In: Gentry A (Ed). Four Neotropical rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut: 314-338.
  28. Woodman N, Timm R, Arana C, Pacheco V, Schmidt C, Hooper E, Pacheco A (1991) Annotated checklist of the mammals of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 145: 1-12.
  29. Pacheco V, Patterson B, Patton J, Emmons L, Solari S, Ascorra C (1993) List of mammal species known to occur in Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Serie A Zoologia 44: 1-12.
  30. Pitman N, Vriesendorp C, Moskovits D (Eds) (2003) Perú: Yavarí. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 11, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  31. Pitman N, Smith R, Vriesendorp C, Moskovits D, Piana R, Knell G, Wachter T (Eds) (2004) Perú: Ampiyacu, Apayacu, Yaguas, Medio Putumayo. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 12, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  32. Emmons L, Ascorra C, Romo M (1994a) Mammals of the Río Heath and Peruvian Pampas. Conservation International, Rapid Assessment Program Working Papers 6: 69–71, 146–149.
  33. Emmons L, Barkley L, Romo M (1994b) Mammals of the Explorer’s Inn Reserve. Conservation International, Rapid Assessment Program Working Papers 6: 144-145.
  34. Emmons L, Romo M (1994) Mammals of the Upper Tambopata/Távara. Conservation International, Rapid Assessment Program Working Papers 6: 46–47, 140–143.
  35. Boddicker M (1997) Medium and large mammals: biodiversity assessment in the Lower Urubamba region. In: Dallmeier F Alonso A (Eds). Biodiversity assessment and monitoring of the Lower Urubamba Region, Peru. Smithsonian MAB Biodiversity Program Series 1: 311–340.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Emmons L (2001) Mammal species collected in 1915 by E. Heller in the upper Urubamba Valley. Conservation International, Rapid Assessment Program Working Papers (SI/MAB series 6) 12: 259–261.
  37. Rodríguez J, Amanzo J (2001) Medium and large mammals of the southern Vilcabamba region, Peru. Conservation International, Rapid Assessment Program Working Papers (SI/MAB series 6) 12: 117–126.
  38. Vriesendorp C, Chávez L, Moskovits D, Shopland J (Eds) (2004) Perú: Megantoni. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 15, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  39. Gilmore M, Vriesendorp C, Alverson W, del C, von May R, Wong C, Ochoa S (Eds) (2010) Perú: Maijuna. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 22, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  40. Crespo J (1959) Tres géneros de mamíferos nuevos para la fauna de Bolivia (Mammalia, Carnivora, Rodentia). Neotropica 5: 9-12
  41. 41.0 41.1 Emmons L (1991) Mammals of Alto Madidi. Conservation International, Rapid Assessment Program Working Papers 1: 23–25, 72–73.
  42. Redford K, Stearman A (1993) Notas sobre la biología de tres procyonidos simpátricos bolivianos (Mammalia, Procyonidae). Ecología en Bolivia 21: 35-44.
  43. Anderson S (1997) Mammals of Bolivia: taxonomy and distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 231: 1-652.
  44. Alverson W, Moskovits D, Shoplan J (Eds) (2000) Bolivia: Pando, Río Tahuamanu. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 1, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  45. 45.0 45.1 Alverson W (Ed) (2003) Bolivia: Pando, Madre de Dios. Rapid Biological Inventories, Number 5, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
  46. Ríos-Uzeda B, Arispe R (2010) Procyonidae. In: Wallace R Gómez H Porcel Z Rumiz D (Eds). Distribución, ecología y conservación de los mamíferos medianos y grandes de Bolivia. Centro de Ecología Difusión Simón I. Patino, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia: 497-517.
  47. 47.0 47.1 Calouro A (1999) Riqueza de mamíferos de grande e médio porte do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (Acre, Brasil). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 16: 195-213. doi: 10.1590/S0101-81751999000600020
  48. 48.0 48.1 Kays R, Russell J (2001) Other procyonids. In: Macdonald D (Ed). The new encyclopedia of mammals. Oxford University Press: 94-95.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Oliveira T (2009) Notes on the distribution, status, and research priorities of little-known small carnivores in Brazil. Small Carnivore Conservation 41: 22-24.
  50. 50.0 50.1 Magalhães-Pinto R, Knoff M, Queiroga-Gonçalves A, Sanches M, Noronha D (2009) First report of Taenia mustelae (Eucestoda, Taeniidae) parasitizing the bushy-tailed olingo, Bassaricyon gabbii (Carnivora, Procyonidae) in South America with an updated checklist of cestodes from other American procyonid hosts. Neotropical Helminthology 3: 7-14.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Sampaio R, Munaril D, Röhe F, Ravetta A, Rubim P, Farias I, da S, Cohn-Haft M (2010) New distribution limits of Bassaricyon alleni Thomas 1880 and insights on an overlooked species in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Mammalia 74: 323-327. doi: 10.1515/mamm.2010.008
  52. Tate G (1939) The mammals of the Guiana region. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 76: 151-229.
  53. Husson A (1978) The mammals of Suriname. E. J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands.
  54. Voss R, Lunde D, Simmons N (2001) Mammals of Paracou, French Guiana: a Neotropical lowland rainforest fauna. Part 2: nonvolant species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 263: 1-236. doi: <0003:TMOPFG>2.0.CO;2 10.1206/0003-0090(2001)263<0003:TMOPFG>2.0.CO;2
  55. 55.0 55.1 Mendes Pontes A, Chivers D (2002) Abundance, habitat use, and conservation of the olingo Bassaricyon sp. in Maracá Ecological Station, Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia. Studies in Neotropical Fauna and Environment 37: 105-109. doi: 10.1076/snfe.
  56. Mendes Pontes A (2004) Ecology of a community of mammals in a seasonally dry forest in Roraima, Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 69: 319-336.
  57. Mendes Pontes A (2009) Amazonia and other forests of Brazil. Janus Publishing Company, London.
  58. Cheida C, Nakano-Oliveira E, Fusco-Costa R, Rocha-Mendes F, Quadros J (2006) Ordem Carnivora. In: Reis N Peracchi A Pedro W Lima I (Eds) Mamíferos do Brasil. Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, 231–275.
  59. 59.0 59.1 Sampaio R, da S, Cohn-Haft M (2011) Reassessment of the occurrence of the kinkajou (Potos flavus Schreber, 1774) and olingo (Bassaricyon beddardi Pocock, 1921) in the northern Brazilian Amazon. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 46: 85-90. doi: 10.1080/01650521.2011.572678
  60. Wurster D, Benirschke K (1967) Chromosome numbers in thirty species of carnivores. Mammalian Chromosome Newsletter 8: 195-196.
  61. Wurster D, Benirschke K (1968) Comparative cytogenetic studies in the order Carnivora. Chromosoma 24: 336-382. doi: 10.1007/BF00336201
  62. Hance J (2012) Photos: new mammal menagerie uncovered in remote Peruvian cloud forest.
  63. Reid F, Helgen K (2008c) Bassaricyon beddardi. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [accessed on 5 May 2013]
  64. Wozencraft W (1993) Order Carnivora. In: Wilson D Reeder D (Eds). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.: 279-348.
  65. Wozencraft W (2005) Order Carnivora. In: Wilson D Reeder D (Eds). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland: 532-628.
  66. Emmons L (1990) Neotropical rainforest mammals, a field guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
  67. Poglayen-Neuwall I, Poglayen-Neuwall I (1965) Gefangenschaftsbeobachtungen an Makibären (Bassaricyon Allen, 1876). Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 30: 321-366.
  68. Poglayen-Neuwall I (1966) Notes on care, display and breeding of olingos. International Zoo Yearbook 6: 169-171.
  69. Poglayen-Neuwall I (1989) Notes on reproduction, aging and longevity of Bassaricyon sp. (Procyonidae). Zoologische Garten 59: 122-128.
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 Poglayen-Neuwall I (1976) Fortpflanzung, Geburt und Aufzucht, nebst anderen Beobachtungen von Makibären (Bassaricyon Allen, 1876). Zoologische Beiträge 22: 179-233.
  71. Poglayen-Neuwall I (1973) The odorous olingo. Animal Kingdom 76 (5): 10-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.1966.tb01739.x