Aptostichus atomarius

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Bond J (2012) Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 252 : 1–209, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2012-12-20, version 29112, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aptostichus_atomarius&oldid=29112 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Bond2012ZooKeys252,
author = {Bond, Jason E.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae)},
year = {2012},
volume = {252},
issue = {},
pages = {1--209},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.252.3588},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/3588/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-12-20, version 29112, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aptostichus_atomarius&oldid=29112 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae)
A1 - Bond J
Y1 - 2012
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 252
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.252.3588
SP - 1
EP - 209
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-12-20, version 29112, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aptostichus_atomarius&oldid=29112 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.252.3588

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Bond2012ZooKeys252">{{Citation
| author = Bond J
| title = Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2012
| volume = 252
| issue =
| pages = 1--209
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.252.3588
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/3588/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-22

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-12-20, version 29112, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aptostichus_atomarius&oldid=29112 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Euctenizidae
Genus: Aptostichus

Name

Aptostichus atomarius Simon, 1891Wikispecies linkSan Bernardino Hills Trapdoor Spider’ ZooBank linkPensoft Profile

  • Aptostichus atomarius Simon, 1891: 317; female lectotype (AR4263) from California, San Bernardino; specimen in MNHP, examined–P. Smith 1908[1]: 220–221.–Bond & Opell 2002: 518–519.
  • Actinoxia versicolor Simon, 1891: 318, synonymized by Bond & Opell 2002: 518.

Diagnosis

Like all Atomarius Sibling Species Complex males, Aptostichus atomarius can be diagnosed by virtue of having a sharp triangular metatarsal mating apophysis and four or more TSrd spines arranged linearly without overlapping (Figs 69–73). Male pedipalp morphology relatively homogenous, comprising a slender palpal tibia that lacks a retrolateral spine patch (Fig. 74) and a simple unserrated bulb (Fig. 75). Females can be distinguished by having a secondary spermathecal bulb that extends below the horizontal plane of the lateral spermathecal base (Figs 76–78). Specimens in life have a mottled abdominal coloration pattern and tend to have carapace and legs with an orange tint (Figs 79–81) whereas other sympatric species (e.g., Aptostichus icenoglei) have darker leg and carapace coloration. Aptostichus atomarius females also tend to have a narrower sternum than Aptostichus icenoglei, however, this difference is very subtle and not quantifiable. Generally, individuals of this species are difficult to distinguish from other Atomarius Sibling Species Complex members on the basis of morphological features alone but can be diagnosed on the basis of a set of unique mtDNA site substitutions (see Bond and Stockman 2008[2]). The distribution of Aptostichus atomarius is restricted to Southern California and does not overlap with other closely related sibling species (Map 2).

Descriptions

Female originally described by Simon (1891)[3]; Male described and female redescribed by Bond and Opell (2002)[4].

Material examined

United States: California: Inyo Co.: Summit Creek, 8km S 4.8km W Olancha, 36.2109, -118.06765, 1951m, D Giuliani 16.iv.1989 [AP169, 1♂, CAS]; Los Angeles Co.: ~3.2km SE of Tujunga, ~91m NW of intersection Lowell & Honolulu Ave, now site HWY 210, 34.230626, -118.2702624, 515m, W Icenogle 12.x.1972 [AP195, 1♀ 78juv, CAS; AP203, 1♀ 38 juv., AMNH]; Alamos CG (Hard Luck) Rd, lower Hungry Valley, 34.702, -118.80161, 860m, M Hedin, J Satler, J Starrett, C Richart 16.ii.2009 [MY3767, 3769 1♀ 1juv, AUMNH]; Altadena, 34.1792, -118.10933, 340m, M Thompson 1.xi.1969 [AP614, 1♂, AMNH]; Altadena, 34.1897, -118.13117, 430m, 2.xii.1985 [AP1245, 1♂, CAS]; Angeles National Forest, San Gabriel Mtns, ~4.8km (road) W Mt Baldy Village, 70m S Glendora Ridge Rd S side Cow Canyon, 34.2237, -117.72393, 1237m, W Icenogle 21.v.1974 [AP200, 1♀, CAS]; Baldwin Hills, 34.0114, -118.36864, 125m, G Morris 1.xii.1944 [AP181, 1♀ 1♂, AMNH], 28.viii.1947 [AP490, 1♀, AMNH]; Baldwin Park, 34.0854, -117.96475, 111m, R Crandall 18.x.1962 [AP001, 1♂, AMNH]; Chatsworth, intersection Lassen St & Valley Circle Blvd, ravine just E Oakwood Cemetery, 34.2512, -118.62274, 315m, W Icenogle 28.viii.1966 [AP191, 1♀ 91juv, CAS], 13.x.1966 [AP477, 1♀, CAS], 23.x.1966 [AP183, 1♂, AMNH]; Claremont, Palmer Canyon Rd, 34.1593, -117.69966, 817m, 9.ix.1923 [AP462, 1♀ 1juv, AMNH]; E Fork San Gabriel Canyon in Burro Canyon, 34.2366, -117.83923, 432m, K Kinulan 6.x.1968, [AP664, 1♀, AMNH]; Eaton Canyon Park, 34.1783, -118.09514, 298m, D Marqua 18.xi.1965 [AP157, 1♂, AMNH]; Henninger Flats, 34.1925, -118.08941, 775m, J Bond, C Spruill, D Beamer 15.iv.2004, [MY2634, 1juv, AUMNH]; Henninger Flats, 34.19266, -118.08753, 792m, D Marqua 18.xi.1967 [AP613, 1♂, AMNH]; Lady Bug Canyon, San Gabriel Mountains, 34.2685, -118.1175, 1225m, 1.iii.1971 [AP152, 1♂, AMNH]; Little Dalton Canyon, Glendora Mountain Rd, 34.1637, -117.83891, 380m, J Bond, C Spruill, D Beamer 16.iii.2004 [MY2610, 2612, MY2616, 2juv, 1♀]; Los Angeles, 1220 Williams Rd, 34.0570, -118.14073, 159m, D Lowrie 21.xi.1959 [AP168, 1♂, CAS]; Malibu Canyon, Malibu Canyon Rd 160m from intersection Piuma Rd, 34.0799, -118.70361, 149m, J Bond, C Spruill, D Beamer 14.iv.2004 [MY2636, 1juv, AUMNH]; Mt Baldy Rd, ~0.2 km N jct N Mountain Ave, 34.1773, -117.67671, 800m, M Hedin, J Satler, J Starrett, C Richart 15.ii.2009 [MY3764, 1juv, AUMNH]; Near Los Angeles, 34.0522, -118.24287, 85m, G Jenko 11.viii.1939 [AP471, 1♀, AMNH]; Pacific Palisades, near Santa Monica, 34.0553, -118.52886, 113m, G Morris 1.ii.1945 [AP308, 1♀, AMNH]; Pasadena, Eaton Canyon Park, 34.1807, -118.0954, 325m, B Crandall 31.xii.1963 [AP151, 1♂, AMNH], M Thompson 1.xi.1964 [AP153, 4♂, AMNH], 7.ii.1965 [AP161, 1♀ 2♂, CAS], 3.xi.1967 [AP165, 1♂, AMNH], 1.xii.1967 [AP174, 1♂, AMNH], 17.x.1969 [AP615, 1♂, AMNH], 10.xi.1969 [AP612, 1♂, AMNH]; Puente Hills, intersection Azusa & Tomich Rd, 33.9816, -117.93351, 210m, J Bond, C Spruill, D Beamer 14.iii.2004 [MY2591, 1♀, AUMNH]; Puente Hills, near Diamond Bar, Pitfall array PUE-6, 33.9785, -117.84361, 269m, R Fisher 1.xi.1998 [AP829, 2♂, CAS], 1.x.1999 [AP830, 1♂, CAS], 1.xi.2002 [AP831, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, near Diamond Bar, Pitfall array PUE-7, 33.9802, -117.84431, 271m, R. Fisher 1.xi.1998 [AP832, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, north of Powder Canyon, 33.96812, -117.923471, 273m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.1998 [AP933, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, S Roland Heights, Pitfall array PUE-10, 33.969, -117.92681, 294m, R Fisher 1.iv.1998 [AP833, 1♂, CAS], 1.x.1999 [AP834, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, S Sycamore Canyon, 33.9985, -118.03391, 268m, R Fisher 1.x.1999 [AP836, 3♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, S Sycamore Canyon, 33.998, -118.0311, 273m, R Fisher 1.x.1999 [AP837, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, S Sycamore Canyon 2, 34.0001, -118.04241, 196m, R Fisher 1.x.1999 [AP838, 2♂, CAS], 1.xi.2002 [AP839, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, S Sycamore Canyon 4, 34.0001, -118.02911, 673m, R Fisher 1.x.1999 [AP842, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, Sycamore Canyon, 34.0023, -118.03721, 161m, R Fisher 1.xi.1998 [AP840, 1♂, CAS], 1.x.1999 [AP841, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, Sycamore Canyon, E Whittier, 34.0027, -118.03051, 200m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.1999 [AP934, 1♂, CAS]; Puente Hills, S Roland Heights 1, 33.9688, -117.92881, 266m, R Fisher 1.x.1999 [AP835, 1♂, CAS]; Rincon Fire Station, San Gabriel Canyon, 34.2379, -117.86331, 477m, J Bond, C Spruill, D Beamer 15.iii.2004 [MY2618, 1♀, AUMNH]; Rollings Hills, 33.7604, -118.34335, 275m, J Buttram [AP1266, 1♀, AMNH]; San Clemente Island, E face Mount Thirst, 32.884, -118.4515, 584m, J Boyen 22.iii.1972 [AP176, 1♂, CAS]; San Gabriel Mountains, shortcut AC Hwy, 34.2737, -118.03856, 1402m, M Thompson 26.iv.1964 [AP660, 1♀, AMNH]; San Gabriel Mtns, Angeles National Forest, Big Tujunga Canyon Rd, ~1.2 km W Vogel Flat Rd, 34.2949, -118.23651, 600m, M Hedin, J Satler, J Starrett, C Richart 15.ii.2009 [MY3765, 1juv, AUMNH]; Santa Catalina Island, Avalon, 33.3444, -118.33345, 66m, V Roth, [AP272, 1♂, AMNH]; Santa Monica Mnts., Beverly Glen Canyon, 34.1091, -118.44595, 255m, F Hovore 11.xi.1965 [AP150, 1♂, AMNH]; Santa Monica Mnts, Sepulveda Pass, 34.1228, -118.48245, 394m, F Hovore 27.xi.1969 [AP310, 1♀, AMNH]; Toyon Bay, Santa Catalina Island, 33.3707, -118.34964, 1♂, M Ramirez 12.viii.1988 [AP470, 1♀, CAS]; UCLA, 34.0723, -118.4483, 117m, 1.xi.1952 [AP003, 1♂, AMNH]; Orange Co.: Bauer Peak, 33.8012, -117.79531, 228m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.1999 [AP1052, 1053, 2♂, CAS]; Bauer Peak, 33.802, -117.79381, 227m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.xi.1998 [AP1051, 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, E Gilman Peak, 33.9282, -117.7661, 486m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.i.2001 [AP1018, 1♂, CAS], 1.i.2002 [AP1019, 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, E Lookout Tower, 33.9393, -117.81691, 396m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.2001 [AP1047, 1♂, CAS], 1.iv.2002 [AP1048, 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, ridge south of Telegraph Canyon, 33.9116, -117.78881, 355m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Station 1.x.2000 [AP1038, 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, ridge S Telegraph Canyon, 33.9109, -117.78911, 354m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.x.2000 [AP1036, 1♂, CAS], 1.x.1998 [AP1034, 2♂, CAS], 1.x.1999 [AP1035, 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, ridge S Telegraph Canyon, 33.9116, -117.78881, 355m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.x.2001 [AP1037, 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, ridge S Telegraph Canyon, 33.9119, -117.78911, 358m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.x.2000 [AP1042, 1040 2♂, CAS], 1.x.1998 [AP1041, 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, Telegraph Canyon, 33.9133, -117.81091, 179m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.2001 [AP1045, 1046 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, ridge S Telegraph Canyon, 33.9112, -117.80181, 255m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.2000 [AP1044, 1♂, CAS], 1.x.1999 [AP1043, 1♂, CAS]; Crow Canyon, 33.6029, -117.54421, 338m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP1131, 1♂, CAS]; Dana Point, Salt Creek above golf course and bridge, 33.4971, -117.71451, 58m, J. Bond 2.ii.2004 [MY2482, 1juv, CAS]; E El Modena, N Chapman Ave, 33.7936, -117.79421, 176m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.1998 [AP957, 2♂, CAS]; El Modena, ridge S Bauer Peak, 33.7936, -117.79421, 176m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.2001 [AP1049, 1♂, CAS]; El Modena, ridge S Bauer Peak, 33.7981, -117.79421, 196m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xii.2000 [AP1050, 1♂, CAS]; Fullerton, E Coyote Hills, 33.8957, -117.90031, 139m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.2001 [AP1107, 1♂, CAS], 1.xi.1999 [AP1109, 1♂, CAS], 1.x.2001 [AP1108, 1♂, CAS]; Intersection H74 and Trampas Canyon overpass, 33.5136, -117.58231, 89m, J Bond, C Spruill, D Beamer 18.iii.2004 [MY2673, 2675 2♀, CAS]; Loma Ridge, W Limestone Canyon, 33.7363, -117.69011, 417m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.1998 [AP1058, 1♂, CAS], 1.xii.1999 [AP1059, 1♂, CAS]; N Aliso Wood Canyon, 33.5575, -117.74641, 64m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Station 1.x.2002 [AP950, 1♂, CAS]; N Aliso Wood Canyon, 33.5675, -117.74821, 80m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Station 1.xi.2002 [AP951, 1♂, CAS]; NE Brea, S Oil Field, 33.9272, -117.87421, 174m, R Fisher 1.xi.1998, [AP826, 1♂, CAS], 1.ii.1999 [AP827, 1♂, CAS], 1.x.1999 [AP828, 1♂, CAS]; NE Lemon Heights Lomas de Santiago E Peters Canyon, 33.7643, -117.76671, 284m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xii.2000 [AP958, 1♂, CAS]; NE Lemon Heights, Peters Canyon, 33.7631, -117.771, 272m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xii.2000 [AP956, 1♂, CAS]; NE Rattlesnake Reservoir, 33.7313, -117.7311, 143m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.2000 [AP888, 1♂, CAS], 1.vi.2000 [AP889, 1♂, CAS]; NW upper Oso Reservoir, N El Toro Rd, 33.6725, -117.64151, 260m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.2001 [AP1116, 1♂, CAS]; NW Upper Oso Reservoir, N El Toro Rd, 33.6702, -117.63961, 283m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Station 1.i.2000 [AP1228, 1♀, CAS]; Ridge E Bell Canyon, 33.6041, -117.55251, 518m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP1138, 1♂, CAS]; San Joaquin Hill, ridge N of E Morro Canyon, 33.59, -117.79311, 249m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.2002 [AP1112, 1♂, CAS]; San Joaquin hills, E branch Laguna Canyon, 33.5946, -117.77521, 175m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.2000 [AP1175, 1♂, CAS]; S University of Irvine Campus, N Bonita Canyon, E Spring Canyon, 33.6334, -117.84741, 66m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.1998 [AP1180, 1♂, CAS]; Weir Canyon, 33.8148, -117.74621, 252m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.xii.2000 [AP1122, 1♂, CAS]; Weir Canyon, 33.8155, -117.74711, 232m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.x.1999 [AP1123, 1♂, CAS]; Weir Canyon, 33.8184, -117.74461, 280m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.xii.2000 [AP1125, 1♂, CAS], 1.x.2001 [AP1126, 1♂, CAS]; Weir Canyon, 33.8252, -117.74191, 249m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP1127, 1♂, CAS]; E Cowan Heights, Peters Canyon, 33.7741, -117.76161, 260m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.2001 [AP995, 1♂, CAS], 1.x.1998 [AP961, 962 4♂, CAS]; E El Toro Marine Corp Air Sta. N Borrego Canyon, 33.6896, -117.67411, 266m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2003 [AP969, 1♂, CAS]; Niguel Hill, E of S Aliso Wood Canyon, 33.5123, -117.73972, 195m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP948, 1♂, CAS], 1.ii.2002 [AP949, 1♂, CAS]; N Aliso Wood Canyon, 33.574, -117.74931, 104m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2001 [AP952, 1♂, CAS]; NE Lemon Heights, Lomas de Santiago, E Peters Canyon, 33.7672, -117.76371, 295m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.viii.1999 [AP959, 1♂, CAS]; San Joaquin Hills, SW Laguna Beach Rd & El Toro Rd jct, 33.5738, -117.7711, 243m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.2000 [AP999, 1♂, CAS], 1.xi.2002 [AP998, 1♂, CAS]; S Aliso Wood Canyon, 33.5185, -117.73861, 7m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP974, 3♂, CAS]; S Aliso Wood Canyon, 33.5327, -117.74141, 20m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.2001 [AP978, 1♂, CAS]; S Aliso Wood Canyon, 33.5333, -117.00661, 26m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.2002 [AP947, 1♂, CAS]; S Alliso Wood Canyon, 33.5264, -117.7358, 30m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2001 [AP976, 1♂, CAS], 1.ii.2002 [AP977, 1♂, CAS]; Temple Hill, W of N Aliso Wood Canyon, 33.005, -117.00661, 295m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP953, 1♂, CAS]; 0.4km S hwy 74, 4km E San Juan Fire Station, Hot Spring Canyon turnoff, 33.5902, -117.47551, 373m, W Icenogle 3.xi.2000 [MY3785, 1♂, AUMNH], 6.ii.2001 [MY3786, 1♂, AUMNH], 8.xi.2001 [MY3787, 1♂, AUMNH], 30.xii.2005 [MY3788, 1♂, AUMNH]; Riverside Co.: ~300m W of jct hwys 243 & 74 on hwy 74 W Mt. Center, 33.7047, -116.72561, 1341m, M Hedin, C Johnson, R Keith 2.ii.2003 [MY0722, 1juv, AUMNH]; 3.0km (road) W Lake Mathews, canyon just S Cajalco Rd, 33.8256, -117.49573, 265m, W Icenogle 14.xii.1998 [AP371, 1♂, CAS], 2.i.1999 [AP370, 1♂, CAS], 7.ii.1999 [AP661, 2♂, CAS], 4.iv.1999 [AP382, 1♂, CAS], 13.iv.1999 [MY3784, 1♂, CAS], 4.v.1999 [AP369, 1♂, CAS], 31.v.1999 [AP354, 1♀, AUMNH], 8.xii.2001 [MY3782, 4♂, CAS], 2.xii.2000 [MY3783, 1♂, CAS], 4.8km W Mountain Center on HWY 74, 33.7011, -116.7693, 1124m, W Icenogle 26.viii.1968 [AP184, 1♂, CAS; AP190, 451, 456, 2♀ 41juv, AMNH]; 13km NW Winchester on N facing hillside and base of vegetation, 33.5747, -117.03021, 495m, J Bond 13.xii.1997 [AP677, 1♀, AUMNH]; Bautista Canyon, along Bautista Canyon Road, 33.7099, -116.87751, 611m, J Bond 1.ii.2004 [MY2477, 1♀, AUMNH]; canyon adjacent to Cajalco Canyon along Cajalco Exp, 33.828, -117.48711, 335m, J Bond, W Icenogle 29.i.2004 [MY2490, MY2517, 2 juv., AUMNH], 29.i.2004, [MY2491, 1♀, AUMNH]; E Rawson Canyon, S Crown Valley, 33.6299, -117.00521, 661m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1118, 1♂, CAS]; E Skinner Reservoir, 33.5869, -117.02121, 501m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1009, 1012, 2♂, CAS]; E Skinner Reservoir, 33.5819, -117.01891, 488m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.iv.1999 [AP1211, 2♂, CAS], 1.ii.2000, [AP1212, 1♂, CAS]; E Skinner Reservoir, 33.5827, -117.02111, 479m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1007, 1♂, CAS]; E Skinner Reservoir, 33.5977, -117.0241, 464m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1027, 1♂, CAS]; E Skinner Reservoir, 33.5989, -117.02351, 467m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1026, 1♂, CAS]; hills N Diamond Valley, 33.7024, -117.01641, 553m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.1998 [AP1110, 2♂, CAS], 1.iii.1999, [AP1111, 1♀, CAS]; Joshua Tree National Park, Upper Covington Flat, 34.0145, -116.31591, 949m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.iii.2000 [AP900, 1♂, CAS]; Joshua Tree National Park, Covington Flat, 34.0311, -116.31771, 1554m, J Bond 8.xii.1997 [AP678, AP1262, 2♀, CAS]; Joshua Tree National park, S Cap Rock, 33.9476, -116.17161, 1412m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.iv.2000 [AP931, 1♂, CAS]; just S Winchester on Leona Rd, ~1.6km S intersection with Patton Avenue, 33.6771, -117.11571, 444m, J Bond 1.ii.2004, [MY2511, 2518, 2514, 2524, 4♀, AUMNH]; Lake Matthews, 33.8266, -117.4381, 446m, J Bond 22.xi.1998 [AP685, 686, 688, 2♀ 1♂, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner Rec Area, 0.8km N Lake, 33.599, -117.05393, 488m, T Prentice 16.xii.1996 [AP242, 1♂, CAS]; Lake Skinner, 13km NW Winchester, 33.595, -117.0583, 485m, [AP504, 1♂, CAS]; Mountain Center, San Jacinto Mountains, 33.7042, -116.7253, 1375m, W Icenogle 26.viii.1968 [AP015, 1♀, AMNH], 9.ii.1969 [AP020, 1♀, AMNH]; Mountain Center, small ravine on H243, ~1.6km from junction H74, 33.712, -116.71641, 1440m, J Bond 31.i.2004 [MY2478, 1juv, AUMNH]; N Perris, E Mayer Farms, 33.8045, -117.25181, 571, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP1100, 1♂, CAS]; N Perris, E Mayer Farms, 33.8109, -117.25781, 593m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.1999 [AP1103, 1♂, CAS]; N Perris, E Mayer Farms, 33.8145, -117.26011, 575m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.1999 [AP1106, 1♂, CAS]; N Tenja Canyon, S Wildomar Rd., 33.5104, -117.36871, 604m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP874, 1♂, CAS]; Ortega HWY H74, ~2.7km N Orange Co./Riverside Co. line, 33.6127, -117.43461, 523m, J Bond 2.ii.2004 [MY2487, 2493 2juv, AUMNH]; San Bernardino National Forest, 33.7363, -116.83161, 603m, J Bond 28.iii.1996 [AP724, 1♀, AUMNH]; San Bernardino National Forest, 1.1km W Mt Center, 33.7083, -116.76041, 964m, J Bond 31.i.2004 [MY2472, 1juv, AUMNH]; San Bernardino National Forest, Juan Diego Flats Rd, ~1km from intersection w/Reed Valley Rd, 33.5836, -116.81411, 1110m, J Bond 7.iv.1996 [AP745, 1♀, AUMNH]; Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, S Santa Margarita River, NW Royal Oak Ranch, 33.4388, -117.17981, 256m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP897, 1♂, CAS]; S Santa Margarita River, N Royal Oak Ranch, 33.4399, -117.16051, 421m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP893, 2♂, CAS]; University of California, Riverside Campus, 33.9742, -117.32513, 327m, W Icenogle 17.xii.1969 [AP350, 1♂, AMNH]; W De Luz Creek, S Tenaja Rd, 33.5139, -117.00161, 688m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.i.2001 [AP982, 1♂, CAS]; Winchester, 1.6km NW of town center, Grand Ave, vicinity of Double Butte, 33.7149, -117.09221, 478m, W Icenogle 17.xi.1968 [AP248, 1♂, AMNH]; Winchester, intersection Leon Rd & Ano Crest Dr, 33.6777, -117.11591, 445m, J Bond 18.i.1997, [AP1221, 1♀, AUMNH]; Winchester, just E Icenogle residence, 33.7156, -117.09361, 465m, J Bond 29.i.2004 [MY2471, 1♀, AMNH]; Winchester, Leona Rd ~1.6km S intersection w/Patton Ave, 33.6771, -117.11571, 444m, J. Bond, W. Icenogle, et al. 13.iii.2004 [MY2595, 2601-03, 2695-08, 8♀ 1juv, AUMNH]; between Squaw Mountain & Redonda Mesa, N Tenaja Rd, 33.5025, -117.33861, 1020m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1196, 1♂, CAS]; SE Skinner Reservoir, 33.5766, -117.03161, 482m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1223, 2♂, CAS]; W De Luz Creek, S Tenaja Rd, 33.5097, -117.31391, 650m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP992-94, 3♂, CAS]; W De Luz Creek, S Tenaja Rd, 33.511, -117.31471, 674m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP984, 986, 3♂, CAS], 1.xii.1999, [AP983, 1♂, CAS]; W De Luz Creek, S Tenaja Rd., 33.515, -117.31261, 664m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP987, 1♂, CAS]; San Bernardino Co.: Alta Loma, 34.122, -117.5973, 412m, D Bixler 18.iii.1969 [AP005, 3♂, AMNH], 20.iii.1969 [AP004, 1♂, AMNH], 20.iv.1969 [AP495, 1♂, AMNH]; Fawnskin, 34.2681, -116.94173, 2077m, L Underwood 1.ix.1996 [AP497, 1♂, CAS]; Granite Mtns Preserve, 34.7844, -115.65791, 1317m, R Vetter, J Bond 15.xii.1997 [AP673, 1♂, AUMNH]; Hwy 18, base San Bernardino Mnts, National Forest Boundary, 34.1776, -117.27521, 516m, J Bond, W Icenogle 28.i.2004 [MY2466, 2497, 2498, 1♀ 2 juv., AUMNH]; Joshua Tree National Park, Lower Covington Flat, 34.0401, -116.31023, 1433m, E Schlinger [AP529, 1♂, AMNH], E Sleeper, S Jenkins 10.iii.1965 [AP537, 1♂, CAS]; Lytle Creek Rd, ~4.5km N of jct w/ I-15, 34.2138, -117.46131, 750m, M Hedin, J Satler, J Starrett, C Richart 15.ii.2009 [MY3762, 1♀, AUMNH]; Lytle Creek Rd, near Scotland, 34.244, -117.49521, 950m, M Hedin, J Satler, J Starrett, C Richart 15.ii.2009 [MY3766, 1j, AUMNH]; San Bernardino, 1km S jct HWY 18 & Waterman Canyon Rd, 34.1774, -117.27361, 488m, W Icenogle 16.i.2000-16.ii.2000 [AP351, 356, 3♂, AMNH; AP355, 357, 361, 362, 365, 5♂, CAS]; Silverwood Lake, 34.2871, -117.34081, 1018m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.x.2001 [AP1169, 1♂, CAS]; Chino Hills, E Gilman Peak, 33.93, -117.75431, 486m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2002 [AP1017, 1♂, CAS]; San Diego Co.: Camp Pendleton, 33.2341, -117.40135, 2m T Prentice 1.xii.1995 [AP579, 580 2♂, UCR]; Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base, SW Horno Hill, between Foley & Horno Canyons, 33.3448, -117.50871, 87m, R Fisher 26.i.2004 [AP823, 1♂, CAS]; Camp Pendleton, mouth San Onofre Creek, 33.3898, -117.56261, 35m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xii.1999 [AP1159, 1♂, CAS]; Carmel Mountain, 32.9283, -117.22271, 118m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.x.2002 [AP940, 1♂, CAS]; Carmel Mountain, 32.9383, -117.21362, 111m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.xi.2002 [AP942, 1♂, CAS]; Chula Vista, Terra Nova, N Rice Canyon, 32.6432, -117.03772, 105m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1227, 1♂, CAS]; DeLuz Road, 8km N Fallbrook at DeLuz Rd./S13 jct, 33.411, -117.28981, 229m, M Hedin 31.viii.2003 [MY2273, 2275 2♀ 4juv, AUMNH]; E Lakeside between El Monte Park & entrance to El Capitan Res, El Monte Rd, 32.8836, -116.82231, 180m, M Hedin 23.ii.2008 [MY3632-34, 3637 3♀ 1juv, AUMNH]; Escondido Wild Animal Park, 33.0932, -116.98491, 191, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.xi.1998 [AP1151, 1♂, CAS]; Escondido Wild Animal Park, 33.0961, -116.981, 242m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP1153, 1♂, CAS]; Escondido, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 33.0898, -116.98661, 201, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2001 [AP1016, 1♂, CAS]; Escondido, Wild Animal Park, 33.0932, -116.98491, 191m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.2001 [AP1150, 1♂, CAS]; Jamul Hollenbeck Canyon, E HWY 94, 32.6799, -116.82111, 245m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 7.xi.2003 [MY1192, 1♂, CAS]; Jamul, S Sweetwater River & Steele Canyon jct, 32.7252, -116.94161, 129m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2001 [AP905, 1♂, CAS]; Jamul, S Sweetwater River & Steele Canyon jct, 32.7255, -116.94081, 118m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2000, [AP902, 903, 2♂, CAS]; Little Cedar Canyon, SE Otay Mountain, 32.6164, -116.86041, 443m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.1999 [AP884, 1♂, CAS]; Mission Valley, end of Hewlett Dr, 32.7625, -117.15655, 64m, S Johnson 25.iii.1971 [AP002, 2♂, AMNH]; NW upper Oso Reservoir, N El Toro Rd, 33.6653, -117.63841, 272m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.i.2000 [AP1114, 1♂, CAS]; Otay Mesa, S HWY 905, 32.553, -117.00251, 134m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1177, 1♂, CAS]; Palomar Mountain area Cleveland National Forest, State Rd S6, ~4.8km (road) SW intersection S6 & S7, 33.3048, -116.87864, 1275m, W Icenogle 15.vii.1970 [AP453, 1♀, AMNH]; Point Loma, Cabrillo National Monument, 32.667, -117.243, 89m, E Jones 8.iii.2002 [AP1243, 1♂, CAS]; S University of Irvine Campus, N Bonita Canyon, E Spring Canyon, 33.6357, -117.84591, 84m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.ii.2000 [AP1179, 2♂, CAS],1.xi.1998 [AP1178, 1♂, CAS]; Tenaja Rd, 2mi N Deluz, 33.4642, -117.33955, 198m, W Icenogle 19.ix.1968 [AP260, 1♀, 35juv, CAS]; Torrey Pines State Reserve, E beach, W North Torrey Pines Rd 2, 32.921, -117.25741, 54m, R Fisher 1.ii.2000 [AP863, 1♂, CAS]; Torrey Pines State Reserve, E beach, W North Torrey Pines Road 5, 32.9238, -117.2561, 70m, R Fisher 1.xi.1998 [AP866, 2♂, CAS]; Torrey Pines State Reserve, S Del Mar Heights School 10, 32.941, -117.25291, 73m, R Fisher 1.ii.2001 [AP857, 1♂, AUMNH], 1.xi.1998 [AP855, 1♂, CAS], 1.xii.1999 [AP856, 1♂, CAS]; Torrey Pines State Reserve, W of N Torrey Pines Rd, 32.9258, -117.25051, 11m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ii.2000, [AP1194, 1♂, CAS]; Torrey Pines State Reserve, W of N Torrey Pines Rd, 32.9252, -117.25251, 23m, USGS-BRD San Diego Field Sta. 1.xii.1999 [AP928, 1♂, CAS]; University of California Elliot Reserve, S Carroll Canyon, 32.8917, -117.09711, 194m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.iv.2004 [AP879, 1♂, CAS]; vic. Chula Vista, 32.6405, -117.10413, 5m, R Fisher 21.ii.2000 [AP1249, 1♂, CAS]; Wildcat Canyon, 32.8831, -116.89675, 219m, 6.i.1962 [AP496, 1♂, AMNH]; Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base, E DeLuz Creek Rd, SW Sandia Canyon, Pitfall array CAM-23, 33.4112, -117.2951, 337m, R Fisher [AP824, 1♂, CAS]; Carmel Mountain, 32.9366, -117.215081, 111m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.xi.2002-1.xii.2002 [AP944-46, 3♂, CAS]; Flinn Springs, Rios Canyon, 32.8409, -116.86991, 295m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.i.2001 [AP971, 1♂ 1juv, CAS]; Jamul, Hollenbeck Canyon, E HWY 94, 32.6799, -116.82111, 245m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 27.v.2004 [AP1000, 1♀, CAS]; Jamul, Jamul Ecological Reserve, W HWY 94, near Dluzura Creek, 32.6665, -116.841, 288m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.iii.2002 [AP972, 1♂, CAS]; Torrey Pines State Reserve, E of N Torrey Pines Rd, mouth Soledad Valley, 32.927, -117.25621, 16m, R Fisher 1.xi.1998 [AP867, 2♂, CAS]; Torrey Pines State Reserve, S Del Mar Heights School 3, 32.9398, -117.25181, 62m, R Fisher 1.ii.2001 [AP850, 1♂, CAS]; Torrey Pines State Reserve, W of N Torrey Pines Rd, 32.9148, -117.251, 98m, R Fisher 1.ii.2000 [AP844, 1♂, CAS]; San Luis Obispo Co.: 8km N Santa Margarita, 35.4694, -120.60176, 400m, D Marqua 26.xi.1970 [AP172, 1♂, AMNH]; Corrizo Plain, Soda Lake, 21km SE Simmler, 35.2509, -119.86325, 625m, D Giuliani 11.iii.1987 [AP570, 1♂, CAS]; Hwy 1 S jct Villa Creek Rd, 35.4682, -120.97585, 12m, W Icenogle 6.x.1970 [AP202, 3juv, AMNH]; Hwy 58, 4.1mi E Santa Margarita, 35.4169, -120.55721, 366m, M Hedin, P Paquin, J Starrett 5.iv.2003 [MY741, 745, 746, AP1200 2♀ 2juv, AUMNH], 11.x.2003, [MY2462, 1♀, CAS]; Morro Creek, off hwy 41, 14.5km W HWY 101, 35.4133, -120.80092, 85m, D Palmer, J Starrett 26.vi.2003 [MY2270, 2274, 1♀ 1juv, AUMNH]; See Canyon Rd, 2.9km N San Luis Bay Dr, 35.216, -120.72641, 65m, A Stockman 9.vii.2009 [MY3707, 3708, 2♀, AUMNH]; ~320m S jct Old Moonstone Beach Dr & HWY 1 on inland rd cut, 35.5836, -121.12061, 16m, J Bond 6.xii.2005 [MY3444-46, 2juv, 1♂, AUMNH]; San Simeon Creek Rd off Hwy 1, N Cambria, 35.6091, -121.08371, 40m, M Hedin, J Starrett, D Leavitt, D Carlson, B Keith 26.iii.2011 [MY3789, 1♀, AUMNH]; Toro Creek Rd off of Hwy 41, W of Atascadero, 35.4605, -120.76601, 350m, M Hedin, J Starrett, D Leavitt, D Carlson, B Keith 26.iii.2011 [MY3794, 4005, 4014, 3♀, AUMNH]; Upper Lopez Canyon Rd, E of Lopez Lake, 35.1896, -120.44511, 270m, M Hedin, J Starrett, D Leavitt, D Carlson, B Keith 25.iii.2011 [MY4015, 1♀, AUMNH]; La Panza CG, E La Panza, E Pozo Rd, 35.3531, -120.26331, 420m, M Hedin, L Hedin, J Satler, D Carlson 25.vii.2010 [MY3810, 1juv, AUMNH]; Santa Barbara Co.: Cave Canyon, Santa Barbara Island, 33.4777, -119.03054, 63m, M Ramirez 8.vii.1987 [AP439, 467, 480, 3♀, CAS]; Hot Springs, 34.503, -120.21865, 206m, F.J.M. 29.v.1969 [AP262, 1♀, AMNH]; Montecito, E Mountain Dr 1.4km from San Ysidro Rd jct, 34.4463, -119.63031, 118m, D Palmer, J Starrett 23.vi.2003 [MY2268, 1♀, AUMNH]; Point Sal, 34.9031, -120.66946, 52m, W Icenogle 12.viii.1978 [AP249, 3juv, AMNH]; Refugio Rd, 2.7km N HWY 101, 34.4927, -120.06581, 86m, A Stockman, A Bailey 9.vii.2009 [MY3711, 1♀, AUMNH]; Santa Barbara Island, Middle Canyon, 33.4756, -119.03537, 106m, M Ramirez 8.vii.1987 [AP192, 1♀, CAS]; Santa Barbara Island, near jct of all points, Arch, Signal Peak, & Elephant Seal Cove trails, 33.4758, -119.03725, 137m, M Ramirez 28.iii.1982 [AP298, 1♀, AMNH]; Santa Cruz Island, 33.9617, -119.78126, 3m, 12.ix.1982 [AP265, 1♀, CAS]; Santa Cruz Island, Central Valley, 34.0061, -119.75676, 230m, 10.ix.1982 [AP294, 1juv, AMNH]; Santa Cruz Island, Forney’s Cove, 34.0583, -119.9153, 15m, E Sleeper 15.iii.1969 [AP446, 1juv, AMNH]; Santa Rosa Island, 33.95, -120.16, 445m, M Thompson 13.ix.1974 [AP312, 2♀ 1juv, AMNH]; Santa Rosa Island Upper Torrey Pine area, 33.9839, -120.05995, 190m, M Ramirez, H David 10.viii.1994 [AP507, 1♀, CAS]; Sierra Madre Mountains, along HWY 166, 35.0663, -120.17381, 340m, J Bond, M van der Merwe 18.xii.1999 [MY0714, 1♀, AUMNH]; Signal Peak, W slope Santa Barbara Island, 33.4717, -119.03984, 174m, C Drost 24.vii.1981 [AP282, 1juv. CAS]; Vandenberg Air Force Base, Plot #6, 34.7422, -120.59744, 83m, 19.xi.2004 [MY2978, 2980, 2♂, CAS]; Jalama Rd, 7.5km E coast line, 34.5145, -120.45511, 83m, J Bond, A Stockman, D Beamer 17.iii.2005 [MY3417, 1♀, AUMNH; MY3419, 1♀, AMNH]; Tulare Co.: Kaweah Power Station #3, 36.488, -118.8376, 460m, D Burdick 4.vi.1983 [AP006, 1♂, CAS]; N base Case Mountain, 36.4218, -118.79371, 1646m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.v.2002 [AP1166, 1♂, CAS]; SE side Case Mountain, 36.407, -118.80161, 1998m, USGS-BRD San Diego Sta. 1.ix.2003 [AP1176, 2♂, CAS]; Ventura Co.: Anacapa Island, 34.0044, -119.39865, 72m, M Thompson 2.iv.1968 [AP500, 1♀ 10juv, AMNH]; Hwy 150, W Ojai, N Dennison Park, 34.4407, -119.19761, 341m, A Stockman, A Bailey 11.vii.2009 [MY3726, 1♀, AUMNH]; Los Padres National Forest, 8.8km S Squaw Flats, 34.4557, -118.9226, 477m, Marqua 25.x.1970 [AP269, 1♀, AMNH]; Los Padres NF, Hwy 33, mile marker 17.92, N Ojai, 34.5071, -119.2891, 75m, A Stockman, A Bailey 9.vii.2009 [MY3714, 1♀, AUMNH]; W Anacapa Island, 34.012, -119.43734, 114m, M Ramirez 7.vii.1987, [AP440, 1♀, CAS]; Lockwood Valley Rd, 8km E int w/Hwy 33, N Wheeler Springs, 34.6895, -119.28001, 1217m, J Satler, J Grummer, J Nash 2.iv.2010 [MY3818, 1juv, AUMNH].
Variation, males (5). Cl 5.31-5.94, 5.70±0.11; Cw 4.25-5.13, 4.78±0.15; STRl 3.09-3.48, 3.24±0.07; STRw 1.60-2.94, 2.50±0.25; LBw 0.68-0.98, 0.81±0.05; LBl 0.30-0.53, 0.40±0.04; leg I: 5.19-6.00, 5.49±0.15; 3.44-4.25, 3.8±0.14; 3.38-4.25, 3.72±0.16; 2.10-2.73, 2.45±0.13; 1.89-2.97, 2.28±0.21; leg IV: 5.00-5.88, 5.41±0.16; 2.50-3.05, 2.79±0.11; PTl 2.34-2.76, 2.55±0.07; PTw 0.71-1.04, 0.89±0.06; Bl 1.13-1.26, 1.20±0.02; TSp 3-5, 4.4±0.4; TSr 3-5, 3.8±0.49; TSrd 4-5, 4.6±0.24.
Variation, females (5). Cl 9.13-10.0, 9.38±0.17; Cw 7.44-8.50, 8.02±0.21; STRl 5.13-5.81, 5.50±0.14; STRw 4.38-5.00, 4.64±0.13; LBw 1.44-1.71, 1.56±0.05; LBl 0.80-0.98, 0.87±0.03; Leg I: 19.82-22.63, 21.29±0.56; ANTd 7-8, 7.6±0.24; PTLs 10-15, 13.00±0.89; TBs 3-7, 5.00±0.84.

GenBank accessions

16S-tRNAval-12S: EU569971-EU569918, EU569964-EU569990, EU570023-EU570027, JX103256-JX103292; 18S (partial)-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2: EU569876-EU569879.

Distribution and natural history

Aptostichus atomarius is widely distributed throughout southern California and has been collected in San Diego, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Inyo, Los Angeles, Ventura, and San Luis Obispo counties (Map 2). Populations to the south are found throughout the Peninsular Ranges including the San Ysidro and Jamul Mountains, bounded to the east by the Laguna Mountain range. Moving northward in the Peninsular Ranges populations are abundant in the San Jacinto and Santa Ana Mountains. Like species described for the closely related genus Apomastus Bond and Opell 2002[4], Aptostichus atomarius was probably once more extensively distributed across the Los Angeles Basin but is now restricted to the steep ravines of the surrounding San Gabriel and Santa Monica Mountains and the Palos Verdes Hills along the coast. Populations to the north are distributed throughout the northeast extent of the Transverse Ranges bounded by the San Bernardino Mountains but extending northward along the coast in the Santa Ynez Mountains into the southernmost extent of the Coastal Ranges. A couple of morphologically similar specimens, collected from Tulare County in the southern extent of the Sierra Nevada Mountain range, are considered herein to be Aptostichus atomarius but will likely be removed to a separate species at a later date. From a geographical perspective it would seem reasonable to include these specimens in the Aptostichus dantrippi hypothesis, however, Aptostichus dantrippi individuals are distinctive morphologically and are considered a separate cohesion species at this time. Future molecular studies will likely resolve the placement of these outlier populations but until such data are available they are retained here as Aptostichus atomarius on the basis of their morphological affinity with all other specimens. Finally, a number of additional allopatric populations are found out on the Channel Islands and have likely been separated for a considerable amount of time but are likewise retained herein as Aptostichus atomarius until additional character systems can be employed to resolve their placement (or allocation to a new species).
The DM produced for this species (Map 3) shows the areas with the highest probability of predicted occurrence to be in the Peninsular and southernmost extent of the Transverse Ranges (around the Los Angeles Basin). Many of the populations in the desert to the east and the Coastal and Sierra Nevada Ranges to the north fall in areas predicted to have a very low probability of occurrence in the model, likely reflecting the fact that this species delineation comprises > 1 species.
In the Peninsular, Transverse, and Coastal Ranges, Aptostichus atomarius is restricted primarily to the California Coastal Range Open Woodland-Shrub-Coniferous and California Coastal Chaparral Forest and Shrub ecoregions. Vegetation types comprise mainly mixed chaparral, chamise-redshank chaparral, and coastal scrub. Male dispersal times are widely varied across specimens examined as part of this study. However, the majority of males were collected during the late fall to winter months of October through to March. Occasionally specimens have been collected during the summer months of June and August but these represent very rare occurrences. Females construct burrows that are typical for members of the genus.

Conservation status

Aptostichus atomarius is widespread, abundant, and appears to thrive in moderately developed suburban areas throughout Southern California and thus is likely secure.

Species concept applied

Morphological. Aptostichus atomarius presents a number of problems with respect to species delineation and diagnosis and thus is delineated herein as a single morphologically distinguishable species with the expectation that it will be further divided at some point in the future on the basis of other criteria.

Remarks

The type locality of Aptostichus atomarius as “San Bernardino” coupled with the relatively similar morphology of Aptostichus atomarius and Aptostichus icenoglei females contributes some uncertainty to the identity of the species attributed to this name. That is, without a more specific locality or the ability to recover DNA for molecular studies from the type specimen, the Aptostichus atomarius type could potentially be either. However, as discussed in the diagnosis the sternum of Aptostichus icenoglei is subtlety narrower than that of Aptostichus atomarius. Based on my morphological and molecular surveys of many specimens of both species I feel confident that Aptostichus atomarius, as described by Simon, is correctly attributed to the specimens I have identified as such. Second, as mentioned above, the molecular data indicate that the Aptostichus atomarius specimens listed in the material examined section above likely comprise a number of additional species. However, the data and sampling currently on hand are, in my opinion, insufficient to further split this complex into species lineages. Future studies of the entire Atomarius species complex will address these issues.

Taxon Treatment

  • Bond, J; 2012: Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae) ZooKeys, 252: 1-209. doi

Other References

  1. Smith C (1908) A preliminary study of the Araneae Theraphosidae of California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 1: 207-236.
  2. Bond J, Stockman A (2008) An Integrative Method for Delimiting Cohesion Species: Finding the Population-Species Interface in a Group of Californian Trapdoor Spiders with Extreme Genetic Divergence and Geographic Structuring. Systematic Biology 57: 628-646. doi: 10.1080/10635150802302443
  3. Simon E (1891) Liste des espéces de la famille des Aviculariidae qui habitent le Mexique et l’Amérique du Nord. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux 44: 307-326.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Bond J, Opell B (2002) Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genera of south-western North American Euctenizinae trapdoor spiders and their relatives (Araneae : Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 136: 487-534. doi: 10.1046/j.1096-3642.2002.00035.x

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