Aphonopelma hentzi

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Hamilton C, Hendrixson B, Bond J (2016) Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States. ZooKeys (560) : 1–340, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2017-04-10, version 142091, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aphonopelma_hentzi&oldid=142091 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Hamilton2016ZooKeys,
author = {Hamilton, Chris A. AND Hendrixson, Brent E. AND Bond, Jason E.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States},
year = {2016},
volume = {},
issue = {560},
pages = {1--340},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.560.6264},
url = {http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6264},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2017-04-10, version 142091, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aphonopelma_hentzi&oldid=142091 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States
A1 - Hamilton C
A1 - Hendrixson B
A1 - Bond J
Y1 - 2016
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL -
IS - 560
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264
SP - 1
EP - 340
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2017-04-10, version 142091, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aphonopelma_hentzi&oldid=142091 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Hamilton2016ZooKeys">{{Citation
| author = Hamilton C, Hendrixson B, Bond J
| title = Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2016
| volume =
| issue = 560
| pages = 1--340
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.560.6264
| url = http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6264
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-22

}} Versioned wiki page: 2017-04-10, version 142091, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aphonopelma_hentzi&oldid=142091 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Theraphosidae
Genus: Aphonopelma

Name

Aphonopelma hentzi (Girard, 1852)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Diagnosis

Aphonopelma hentzi (Fig. 50) is a member of the Hentzi species group and can be identified by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear DNA identifies Aphonopelma hentzi as a phylogenetically distinct monophyletic lineage (Fig. 8), supported as the sister lineage to Aphonopelma anax, closely related to Aphonopelma armada, and exclusive of Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n. (a new species previously confused with Aphonopelma hentzi). Aphonopelma hentzi can be distinguished from Aphonopelma anax by the shapes of its spermathecae in females and palpal bulbs in males; from Aphonopelma armada by the pattern of setae on coxa I and the flared metatarsal scopulae of females and juvenile males; from Aphonopelma gabeli by its large chelicerae and general phenotypic appearance; from moderatum by their unique phenotypic color and banding; from parvum sp. n. due to the extreme small size; from peloncillo by its phenotypic appearance; and from vorhiesi due to its black appearance. Significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma hentzi from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are PTl, M1, and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus III. Male Aphonopelma hentzi can be distinguished by possessing a larger PTl/M1 (≥0.74; 0.74–0.88) than Aphonopelma gabeli (≤0.68; 0.61–0.68), Aphonopelma moderatum (≤0.69; 0.61–0.69), and Aphonopelma moellendorfi (≤0.69; 0.60–0.69); a larger L3 scopulation extent (69%–86%) than Aphonopelma armada (48%-63%), Aphonopelma peloncillo sp. n. (52%-68%), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi (44%–62%); and by possessing a smaller M1/F4 (≤0.77; 0.68–0.77) than Aphonopelma moderatum (≥0.80; 0.80–0.87) and Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n. (≥0.81; 0.81–0.88). The significant measurement that distinguishes female Aphonopelma hentzi from syntopic species is the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma hentzi can be distinguished by possessing a larger L4 scopulation extent (42%–72%) than Aphonopelma peloncillo (32%–38%) and Aphonopelma vorhiesi (26%–37%). There are no significant measurements that separate female Aphonopelma hentzi from Aphonopelma anax, Aphonopelma armada, Aphonopelma gabeli, or Aphonopelma moderatum. Females of Aphonopelma moellendorfi are unknown and cannot be compared.

Description

Male and female described by Girard (1852)[1]; presumed lost. Neotype designated and redescribed by Smith (1995)[2]; new female specimen designated and redescribed by Smith (1995)[2].

Redescription of male exemplar

(APH_0921; Fig. 51). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live crossing road, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Generally black or faded to brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 14.89 mm long, 13.47 mm wide; Hirsute; densely clothed with brown/golden iridescent pubescence appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises gradually from foveal groove, gently arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER slightly procurved, PER recurved; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus extends forward on a slight curve; LBl 1.79, LBw 1.93; sternum very hirsute, clothed with long black/brown, densely packed setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black/brown pubescence with numerous longer red/orange setae interspersed; possessing a dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles (Cooke et al. 1972[3]). Legs: Very hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in a mix of medium and long black/brown pubescence. Metatarsus I slightly curved. F1 14.11; F1w 3.69; P1 5,94; T1 12.54; M1 10.48; A1 7.60; F3 12.06; F3w 3.71; P3 5.63; T3 9.32; M3 10.85; A3 7.56; F4 14.71; F4w 4.02; P4 5.86; T4 12.17; M4 14.99; A4 8.36; femur III is normal - not noticeably swollen or wider than other legs. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 80.9%; leg IV (SC4) = 54.3%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; nine ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and thick tapered setae. Pedipalps: Very hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and four spinose setae on the prolateral tibia; PTl 8.525, PTw 2.77. When extended, embolus tapers but gently curves to the retrolateral side near apex; embolus very slender, no keels. Variation (14). Cl 13.58–18.04 (16.008±0.38), Cw 12.45–17.28 (14.924±0.41), LBl 1.78–2.46 (2.09±0.07), LBw 1.92–2.79 (2.371±0.09), F1 13.1–17.31 (15.509±0.36), F1w 3.19–4.50 (3.991±0.1), P1 5.36–7.63 (6.494±0.18), T1 10.71–14.18 (12.986±0.28), M1 9.15–13.03 (11.118±0.29), A1 6.03–9.13 (7.836±0.26), L1 length 44.35–60.93 (53.943±1.31), F3 10.56–16.83 (13.026±0.42), F3w 3.23–4.71 (3.999±0.11), P3 4.16–7.57 (5.675±0.23), T3 7.89–12.61 (10.126±0.33), M3 9.69–13.93 (11.859±0.33), A3 5.92–8.88 (7.786±0.21), L3 length 38.72–59.23 (48.471±1.42), F4 12.88–17.50 (15.175±0.37), F4w 3.11–4.69 (3.924±0.12), P4 4.36–7.13 (6.046±0.2), T4 10.75–15.16 (12.809±0.32), M4 12.91–17.57 (15.406±0.33), A4 6.64–9.95 (8.803±0.26), L4 length 47.54–66.69 (58.239±1.42), PTl 7.762–10.81 (9.067±0.23), PTw 2.722–3.61 (3.003±0.07), SC3 ratio 0.691–0.866 (0.769±0.01), SC4 ratio 0.324–0.968 (0.579±0.05), Coxa 1 setae = stout/thick tapered, F3 condition = normal/slightly swollen.

Redescription of female exemplar

(APH_0812; Figs 52–54). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Faded brown/black, with a very hirsute appearance. Cephalothorax: Carapace 20.89 mm long, 19.82 mm wide; densely clothed with light brown pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER slightly procurved, PER recurved; clypeus extends forward on a slight curve; LBl 2.84, LBw 3.42; sternum very hirsute, clothed with black/brown, long setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short black setae with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles (Cooke et al. 1972[3]); ventral side with shorter dark brown/black setae. Spermathecae: Uniquely shaped; paired and separate, taper rapidly to a medium width with a secondary bulge and strongly capitate bulbs, with wide bases that are not fused. Legs: Very hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in long brown pubescence. F1 14.90; F1w 4.85; P1 6.91; T1 11.32; M1 7.95; A1 7.60; F3 12.65; F3w 4.33; P3 6.62; T3 8.82; M3 9.39; A3 7.48; F4 14.91; F4w 4.27; P4 6.34; T4 10.97; M4 13.48; A4 8.65. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 74.0%; leg IV (SC4) = 54.7%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; four ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and thick tapered setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur, one spinose seta on the prolateral patella, and three spinose setae on the prolateral tibia. Variation (15). Cl 12.65–22.36 (17.892±0.68), Cw 11.57–19.87 (16.328±0.61), LBl 1.91–2.86 (2.399±0.08), LBw 2.13–3.42 (2.773±0.1), F1 10.41–17.13 (13.72±0.48), F1w 3.16–5.56 (4.413±0.17), P1 4.55–8.09 (6.4±0.25), T1 7.79–13.28 (10.669±0.32), M1 6.06–10.74 (7.945±0.3), A1 5.17–8.86 (6.671±0.23), L1 length 34.72–57.70 (45.404±1.51), F3 8.32–14.09 (11.281±0.43), F3w 2.79–4.99 (3.804±0.16), P3 3.94–8.06 (5.64±0.31), T3 6.11–10.56 (8.164±0.32), M3 6.46–11.65 (8.915±0.38), A3 5.46–9.03 (6.866±0.26), L3 length 30.84–53.39 (40.818±1.7), F4 10.43–17.15 (13.795±0.44), F4w 3.04–5.16 (4.072±0.15), P4 4.58–7.81 (5.906±0.23), T4 8.66–13.41 (10.851±0.31), M4 8.95–15.84 (11.924±0.47), A4 6.04–9.79 (7.672±0.27), L4 length 39.16–64.0 (50.132±1.68), SC3 ratio 0.671–0.953 (0.805±0.02), SC4 ratio 0.424–0.717 (0.547±0.02), Coxa 1 setae = stout/thick tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figures 53–54.

Material examined

United States: Arkansas: Carroll: near Eureka Springs, 36.404273 -93.735646 5, 1201ft., [APH_2600, unknown, 1♂, H.A. Clay, AMNH]; Cleburne: 6 miles S/SW of Drasco, 35.569318 -91.998288 5, 843ft., [APH_2602, 9/1979, 1♀, D. Pearson, AMNH]; Drew: Monticello, 33.628997 -91.790964 5, 292ft., [APH_2174, 1936, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; Lawrence: Imboden, 36.202568 -91.174573 5, 308ft., [APH_2196, 1931, 5♂, R.V. Chamberlin, AMNH]; [APH_2203, 1935, 1♀, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Marion: between Pyatt and Eros, near Jct Hwy 125 and MC 4054, 36.21402 -92.86224 4, 912ft., [APH_0024, 9/2002, 1♂, Lewonna Nelson, AUMNH]; Washington: Fayetteville, 36.044074 -94.169349 5, 1211ft., [APH_2172-2173, unknown, 2♂, 1♀, W.J. Baerg, AMNH]; [APH_2467, 1921, 2♀, 1♂, W.J. Baerg, AMNH]; Arizona: Greenlee: 0.4 miles N Hwy-75 on Goat Camp Rd, 32.755403 -109.110492 1, 3726ft., [APH_1352-1353, 5/8/2011, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; Colorado: Bent: John Martin Reservoir State Park, 38.07612 -102.957421 1, 3839ft., [APH_0570, 10/6/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Crowley: 1.5 miles N Hwy-96 on CR-20, S of Lake Henry (near Sugar City), 38.246723 -103.711337 1, 4371ft., [APH_0565, 9/6/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Fremont: Canon City, Hwy 64, 5 miles N of Junction with Hwy 50, 38.496596 -105.106624 5, 5800ft., [AUMS_3334, 17/8/1987, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Canon City, N toward Cripple Creek, 5 miles N off Hwy 50, 38.497302 -105.291414 5, 6248ft., [AUMS_3338, 17/8/1986, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Otero: 1.5 miles SW Hwy-109 on CR-802, in field and bluffs N of road, 37.794004 -103.521272 1, 4425ft., [APH_0560-0564, 9/6/2009, 5♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Commanche Grasslands, La Junta, 37.859983 -103.719267 6, 4440ft., [APH_0917, 10/2009, 1♂, Ken Suzuki, AUMNH]; Prowers: Prowers Co. Rd., S. of Lamar, on Deahl Ranch, 37.892338 -102.60625 6, 3914ft., [AUMS_2469, 4/7/1986, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; S of Lamar, Deahl Ranch, 38.013237 -102.613274 6, 3804ft., [AUMS_2455, 4/7/1986, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Pueblo: 1.5 miles E Boone on Hwy-96, 38.243146 -104.233761 2, 4448ft., [APH_0749, 16/9/2009, 1♂, Jerry Smith, Mario Juvera, AUMNH]; I-25, approx. 25 miles S Pueblo, 37.93879 -104.81027 5, 5908ft., [APH_0022, 7/9/2002, 1♂, Kristin Young, AUMNH]; Piñon Truck Stop, I-25 N of Pueblo, 38.433689 -104.610331 4, 5030ft., [AUMS_2329, 28/6/1986, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Pueblo, 0.9 miles N of Hwy-47 on Baculite Mesa Rd, 38.302884 -104.553482 1, 4814ft., [APH_0566-0569, 9/6/2009, 4 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Kansas: Elk: 1.5 miles W of Longton, 37.377606 -96.108334 4, 935ft., [AUMS_2321, 28/4/1994, 1♂, B. Cutler, AUMNH]; Gove: along Smokey Hill River just W of Hwy 23, 38.74457 -100.50428 4, 2453ft., [APH_0027, 10/2002, 1♂, Alvis Wade, AUMNH]; Wilson: Fredonia, 37.532925 -95.826937 5, 922ft., [APH_2603, 16/8/1964, 1♂, A.R. Moldenke, AMNH]; Fredonia, 2.5 miles SW Hwy 400 and Hwy 47, 37.50556 -95.83278 5, 858ft., [APH_0003, 6/7/2003, 1♀, Jordan B. Johnson, AUMNH]; Louisiana: Allen (Parish): near town of Harmony, off Hwy-1147, 30.59583 -92.91361 2, 57ft., [APH_1171, 24/4/2010, 1 juv, Roland H. Delaune, AUMNH]; Reeves, 2250 Martin Tram Rd, 30.48063 -92.9884 2, 25ft., [APH_0060, 29/10/2006, 1♂, Gary Bellon, AUMNH]; Bossier (Parish): Haughton, 400 ft. N I-20, 1/2 mile W Hwy 614, 32.53917 -93.54944 4, 230ft., [APH_0028, 20/10/2002, 1♂, Jimmy Landen, AUMNH]; Caddo (Parish): Shreveport, 32.525152 -93.750179 6, 159ft., [AUMS_2449, 16/5/1996, 1♂, R. Moore, AUMNH]; East Baton Rouge (Parish): Baton Rouge, 30.457702 -91.14032 6, 49ft., [APH_2610, 1958, 1♂, Leon Rody, AMNH]; La Salle (Parish): Tullos, 31.819261 -92.329862 5, 121ft., [APH_2612, 1/10/1950, 1♂, W.J. Gerstch, AMNH]; Natchitoches (Parish): Kisatchie National Forest, Kisatchie District, along Longleaf Vista Trail, 31.47644 -92.99622 5, 288ft., [APH_0403, 4/10/2008, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Vernon (Parish): Near Fort Polk, 31.029236 -93.176675 6, 289ft., [APH_2202, 1957, 1♀, F.E. Potter, AMNH]; Missouri: Greene: Springfield, 37.208957 -93.292299 5, 1280ft., [APH_2183, 1931, 1♂, Truman Smith, AMNH]; [APH_2190, 10/1931, 2♂, Truman Smith, AMNH]; Henry: Hartwell, 38.435258 -93.934662 5, 761ft., [APH_2611, 1937, 1♂, J.K. Connolly, AMNH]; Hickory: 4 miles northwest of Wheatland, 37.969377 -93.427109 5, 991ft., [APH_2609, 2/10/1967, 1♂, W. Ivie, AMNH]; Newton: Joplin , 37.031191 -94.52842 5, 909ft., [APH_2191, 11/10/1942, 4♂, A.B. Gurney, AMNH]; Ozark: Caney Mountain Conservation Area, along Long Bald trail, 36.696831 -92.45143 1, 1193ft., [APH_0591, 25/6/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Phelps: Rolla, 37.948543 -91.771535 5, 1093ft., [APH_2175, 1/10/1954, 4♂, L. Bade and Walker, AMNH]; [APH_2177, 10/1960, 1♂, Lee Malone, AMNH]; Ripley: between Calm and Gatewood on Hwy 142, 36.560976 -91.117925 1, 786ft., [APH_0874, 6/2008, 1 juv, Matt Ingrasci, AUMNH]; St. Francois: Bonne Terre, near city lake, 37.912189 -90.55567 4, 866ft., [APH_0199, 30/9/2007, 1♂, Andrew Rieger, AUMNH]; Taney: Bradleyville, edge of floodplains of Breaver Creek, 36.7754 -92.920951 5, 814ft., [APH_2608, 25/9/1955, 1♂, N. and J. Crenshaw, AMNH]; near Branson, Ruth and Paul Henning Conservation Area, 36.6627 -93.293056 1, 1165ft., [APH_0586-0590, 24/6/2009, 5 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; New Mexico: Bernalillo: Albuquerque, base of Sandia Mtns at Copper Trail, 35.079247 -106.484022 1, 5948ft., [APH_1437, 12/11/2011, 1♂, Jessica Ashley, AUMNH]; Dona Ana: Aguirre Springs Campground, 32.370504 -106.561475 1, 5662ft., [APH_0539-0540, 5/6/2009, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; CR-72, just off I-25, 32.67635 -107.012973 1, 4348ft., [APH_0654, 13/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Eddy: 0.3 miles W US-62/180 on CR 408 (Dark Canyon Rd), 32.28694 -104.28646 1, 3320ft., [APH_0363, 21/6/2008, 1 juv, Shasta Michaels, AUMNH]; 1.7 miles W US-62/180 on CR-408, 32.293874 -104.309514 1, 3392ft., [APH_0544, 6/6/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Lincoln National Forest, just off Queens Hwy, 32.20002 -104.67976 1, 5583ft., [APH_0522, 31/8/2008, 1♂, Rick C. West, AUMNH]; Hidalgo: 10 miles S I-10 on Hwy-338, 32.13267 -108.87908 2, 4210ft., [APH_0795, 22/10/2009, 1♂, Clyde Mahan, AUMNH]; 2.64 miles W Hwy-338 on Hwy-9, 31.94331765 -108.8509352 2, 4403ft., [APH_0728, 18/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 4 miles west of Animas, 31.942746 -108.853622 5, 4400ft., [APH_2628, 26/8/1960, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; along Hwy-338, 32.226309 -108.879093 1, 4078ft., [APH_1510-1511, 8/9/2012, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_1513-1515, 8/9/2012, 3♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; along Hwy-9, W of Animas, 31.94337666 -108.8874883 2, 4407ft., [APH_0726, 18/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; [APH_0729, 18/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; along US-70, SE of Hwy-92, 32.612037 -108.984613 1, 4151ft., [APH_0645, 12/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; E side of Animas Mtns, 31.560017 -108.499913 6, 4430ft., [APH_0862, 2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; NM-9 at Little Hatchet Mtns Rd, W of Hachita, 31.926633 -108.363083 4, 4480ft., [APH_0408-0410, 11/10/2008, 3♂, Kari McWest, Keisha Hendricks, AUMNH]; Luna: 15.5 miles NE Hwy-180 on Hwy-26, 32.430777 -107.566477 1, 4584ft., [APH_1572, 29/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Rio Arriba: along CR 55, 36.084375 -106.12193 2, 5715ft., [APH_1248, 1/11/2010, 1♂, Chis Tough, AUMNH]; Sandoval: Rt 44 (Rt 448), 3.7 miles west of Placitas, 35.269619 -106.605786 4, 5046ft., [APH_2198, 16/11/1963, 2♂, William A. Shear, AMNH]; Taos: 70 miles N of Santa Fe, 36.650692 -105.636765 7, 7832ft., [AUMS_2476, unknown, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Oklahoma: Bryan: Calera Golf Center, 2.5 miles S Calera on Hwy-75, 33.9094 -96.462 4, 755ft., [APH_0156, 22/7/2007, 1♂, Julianne Smith, AUMNH]; Cimarron: 6.6 miles S Colorado State line on US-287, 36.900429 -102.520409 1, 3924ft., [APH_0555-0559, 8/6/2009, 2♀, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Oklahoma panhandle, Cimarron River, just N off Hwy 287-385, N of Boise City, 36.945676 -102.521756 6, 3933ft., [AUMS_2472, 1/6/1986, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Cleveland: Lake Thunderbird State Park, 35.21208 -97.24742 5, 1085ft., [APH_0052, 25/6/2004, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_0150, 25/6/2004, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Comanche: In the Wichita Mtns, 3 miles north of Medicine Park, 34.798239 -98.511099 5, 1411ft., [APH_2204, 19/5/1977, 1♀, J.C. Colkendolpher, AMNH]; N side of Wichita Mtns, 34.841533 -98.727542 1, 1771ft., [APH_0571-0574, 11/6/2009, 1♀, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Wichita National Forest , 37.683896 -97.363593 5, 1302ft., [APH_2176, unknown, 2♂, unknown, AMNH]; Wichita Mtns near Mount Scott, 34.767625 -98.724761 6, 1955ft., [APH_2601, 16/9/1971, 1♀, R. Forbes, AMNH]; Wichita Mtns Wildlife Refuge, 34.709358 -98.623307 6, 1476ft., [APH_2455, 6/9/1975, 1♂, F. Fryce, AMNH]; Wichita Mtns NWR - Comanche Rd., 34.780183 -98.598183 1, 1520ft., [APH_0873, 5/2008, 1 juv, Christian Cox, AUMNH]; Wichita Mtns NWR - Taylor Ranch Rd., 34.841783 -98.728283 1, 1712ft., [APH_0939, 5/2008, 1♀, Christian Cox, AUMNH]; Cotton: in cemetery NW of Walters, approx. 0.4 miles N Hwy-5 on CR-N2610, 34.367655 -98.329618 1, 1029ft., [APH_0575, 11/6/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Creek: SW of Tulsa, 35.99622 -96.33341 1, 787ft., [APH_0918, 25/4/2008, 1♂, Christian Cox, John Morse, AUMNH]; SW of Tulsa, NE OK off route 33, 35.99622 -96.33341 1, 787ft., [APH_0834, 25/4/2008, 1♀, Christian Cox, John Morse, AUMNH]; Jackson: 498 Honeysuckle ave, Altus, Altus Air Force Base, 34.664112 -99.296041 1, 1372ft., [APH_3124, 15/6/2013, 1♂, David Welch, AUMNH]; Latimer: Along US-270, E of Red Oak, 34.950086 -95.054512 1, 571ft., [APH_0585, 24/6/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; unknown, 34.835035 -95.31025 7, 830ft., [APH_2182, 1931, 4♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2193, 6/1931, 1♀, 2♂, 1 juv, unknown, AMNH]; Le Flore: Ouachita Mtns, S of Smithville on US 259, 34.418983 -94.676 1, 736ft., [APH_0921, 10/2008, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Ouachita Mtns, S on Hwy 259 from Winding Stair Mountain, 34.600767 -94.6987 1, 1701ft., [APH_0920, 10/2008, 1♂, Mike Logan, AUMNH]; Ouachita Mtns, Winding Stair Mountain, 34.7489 -94.8037 1, 2185ft., [APH_0919, 10/2008, 1♂, Brian Fontenot, AUMNH]; Logan: Stillwater , 36.115607 -97.058368 5, 876ft., [APH_2181, 15/9/1969, 1♀, N.V. Horner, AMNH]; McCurtain: 1 mile east of Signal Mountain, Fort Hill, 34.333306 -95.024261 4, 1168ft., [APH_2201, 3/10/1952, 1♀, 2♂, T. Cohn , AMNH]; Oklahoma: Oklahoma City/Edmond at intersection of 150th St and Macarrthur, 35.623642 -97.620781 2, 1100ft., [APH_0402, 21/9/2008, 1♂, Natalie Ellis, AUMNH]; Osage: between Pahuska and Bartlesville (10 miles west of Bartlesville), 36.740071 -96.299699 5, 827ft., [APH_2606, 6/9/1940, 1♀, 1♂, A. Clay, AMNH]; Pontotoc: Ada, 34.773126 -96.678772 5, 1007ft., [APH_2607, 10/1981, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Washington: 2 miles W Bartlesville, Circle Mountain, forested area, 36.71598 -95.99562 4, 677ft., [APH_0026, 29/9/2002, 1♂, Jerry Tolbert, AUMNH]; Woodward: Alabaster Cavern- 9 miles south of Freedom, 36.698679 -99.147057 5, 1742ft., [APH_2605, 12/10/1952, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Texas: Bastrop: Wolf Lane and Pearce Rd, 30.140783 -97.5673 5, 555ft., [APH_0960-0964, 22/5/2006, 5♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Baylor: 7 miles north of Maybelle, 33.654334 -99.263208 5, 1325ft., [APH_2657, 8/11/1964, 2♂, Karl W. Haller, AMNH]; Brewster: 3.5 miles S US-90 on US-395, 30.15626 -103.23608 1, 4070ft., [APH_1288, 14/5/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Kate Hall, Austin Deskewies, Alexis Guice, AUMNH]; Big Bend, 29.330733 -103.536367 6, 2592ft., [APH_0933, 5/2008, 1♂, Corey Roelke, AUMNH]; Black Gap WMA, 29.467633 -102.837333 6, 1833ft., [APH_0868, 2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; [APH_0973, 2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; [APH_0975, 2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Big Bend National Park, 0.55 miles S park boundary on US-385, 29.67449 -103.17149 1, 2910ft., [APH_1289, 15/5/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Kate Hall, Austin Deskewies, Alexis Guice, AUMNH]; Black Gap WMA, 29.5058 -102.884817 1, 2205ft., [APH_0932, 5/2008, 1♂, Corey Roelke, AUMNH]; [APH_0972, 6/2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; [APH_0974, 2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Black Gap WMA, on FM2627, 29.4867 -102.862733 1, 2009ft., [APH_0931, 5/2008, 1♂, Corey Roelke, AUMNH]; Carson: Pantex Plant, 35.302672 -101.561938 5, 3534ft., [AUMS_2328, 7/10/1997, 1♀, Felix Chavez, AUMNH]; Coleman: O.H. Ivie reservoir, 31.60165 -99.5915 1, 1684ft., [APH_0832, 9/2008, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Collin: Anna, 2 miles E of junction of FM455 and Hwy 75, 41 miles N of Dallas, 33.344388 -96.552215 5, 659ft., [AUMS_2327, 7/1988, 1♂, SCJ, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2330, 7/1988, 1♂, SCJ, AUMNH]; Cooke: Moss Lake, Sherman, 33.781417 -97.221633 6, 777ft., [APH_3035, unknown, 1♂, Russ Gurley, BMNH]; Coryell: Hwy 84, 14 miles W of Gatesville, 31.470143 -97.977296 5, 1041ft., [AUMS_2616, 27/6/1999, 1♂, M. Buffington, AUMNH]; Dallam: Dalhart, 36.059477 -102.51325 5, 3986ft., [AUMS_3291, unknown, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; just NE jct Thompson Grove Ln and Tex-Top Rd, 36.41505 -102.82264 1, 4369ft., [APH_0744, 25/6/2009, 1 juv, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Dallas: 1455 N. Joe Wilson Road, Cedar Hill, 32.62016 -96.925792 1, 731ft., [APH_3125, 18/6/2013, 1♂, Nikki Miller, AUMNH]; Dallas, 32.802955 -96.769923 6, 515ft., [APH_2200, 5/1938, 1♀, Ottys Sanders, AMNH]; Dallas, Dallas Zoo, 32.73665 -96.815917 1, 484ft., [APH_0839, 5/2008, 1♂, Julie Post, AUMNH]; Dallas, Restland cemetery, 32.924625 -96.744856 1, 593ft., [APH_0576, 12/6/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; [APH_0837-0838, 7/2008, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0915-0916, 7/2008, 2♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0951, 7/2008, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Grand Prairie, 32.728783 -96.990383 1, 477ft., [APH_0836, 3/2008, 1♀, Stephanie Rudy, AUMNH]; Gaines: Seminole, 0.4 miles NW 11th St on Hwy-214, 32.729362 -102.661669 1, 3329ft., [APH_0546, 7/6/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Gray: Pampa, approx. 12 miles S Pampa on US-70, 35.35843 -100.97436 5, 3210ft., [APH_0023, 24/9/2002, 1♂, Kyle Harrison, AUMNH]; Grayson: 6 miles southwest of Pottsboro, 33.71582 -96.73669 5, 666ft., [APH_2664, 1/11/1965, 1♂, Karl W. Haller, AMNH]; Hartley: Smith Ranch, N side of FM-767, 35.67812 -102.72925 1, 3813ft., [APH_0745, 27/6/2009, 1 juv, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Hays: Buda, Buda High School, 30.03265 -97.89275 4, 848ft., [APH_0910, 7/2008, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Kyle, 29.995 -97.893867 5, 801ft., [APH_0835, 7/2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; [APH_0872, 2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; unknown rd N of FM-3296, 35.82407 -102.95766 1, 4122ft., [APH_0743, 26/6/2009, 1 juv, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Hill: 5 miles north of Itasca, 32.22622 -97.156988 5, 659ft., [APH_2185, 16/7/1958, 1♂, P. Carne Jr., AMNH]; Jeff Davis: Davis Mtns, 30.8044 -103.8923 1, 4087ft., [APH_0936, 31/9/2008, 1♂, Christian Cox, AUMNH]; Davis Mtns State Park, 30.592854 -103.940197 1, 5045ft., [APH_0536, 4/6/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Davis Mtns, Hwy 118 between McDonald observatory and Davis Mtns State Park, 30.6638 -104.0317 1, 6154ft., [APH_0934, 31/9/2008, 1♀, Christian Cox, AUMNH]; Davis Mtns, Hwy 118 between McDonald observatory and Hwy 166, 30.7049 -104.1118 1, 5905ft., [APH_0935, 31/9/2008, 1♂, Christian Cox, AUMNH]; Davis Mtns, Hwy 166 at the foothills of the Davis Mtns, 30.63155 -104.278117 1, 5393ft., [APH_0937, 31/9/2008, 1♂, Corey Roelke, AUMNH]; Fort Davis, 30.588211 -103.894625 5, 4895ft., [APH_2466, 5/1938, 2♂, unknown, AMNH]; Kimble: CR182, Junction, 30.470278 -99.756389 1, 1743ft., [APH_1066, 15/6/2010, 1♀, Skyler Stevens, AUMNH]; McCulloch: Brady, Brady Lake, 31.1235 -99.384517 1, 1759ft., [APH_0827-0831, 7/2008, 4♀, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; McLennan: Waco, near Lake Waco, 31.553483 -97.203633 5, 559ft., [APH_0914, 2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Oldham: Boys Ranch area, Hwy 385, S of Canadian River, 35.500017 -102.25236 5, 3222ft., [AUMS_2474, 25/10/1986, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Parmer: 2 miles north of Friona, 34.670063 -102.72741 4, 4029ft., [APH_2184, 5/10/1961, 1♂, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; Presidio: Terlingua, 29.323867 -103.617117 6, 3020ft., [APH_0863, 2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; unknown, 29.948067 -104.100133 7, 4310ft., [APH_0870, 2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Randall: Canyon, field due west of Canyon Crest Apts., 34.9703 -101.92336 2, 3602ft., [APH_0041, 24/5/2002, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; FM Rd 1151 W jct. Whitaker Rd near playa lake, 35.09147 -101.75591 4, 3573ft., [APH_0035, 26/9/2006, 1♂, Kari McWest, AUMNH]; San Saba: Colorado Bend State Park, 31.095817 -98.501567 1, 1185ft., [APH_0822-0826, 6/2008, 5♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0909, 6/2008, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0976, 6/2008, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Sherman: 10 miles south of Texhoma, 36.399192 -101.803752 5, 3510ft., [APH_2645, 9/1967, 1♂, W. Ivie, AMNH]; 6 miles south of Stratford, 36.284667 -102.049499 5, 3655ft., [APH_2662, 9/1967, 1♂, W. Ivie, AMNH]; Tarrant: 537 Jakmar Rd, Benbrook, 32.6549 -97.47915 2, 800ft., [APH_0361, 6/2008, 1♂, Laura Gleason, AUMNH]; Travis: 1907 Casa Grande, Austin, 30.34272 -97.86449 2, 673ft., [APH_0015, 14/9/2002, 1♂, Mike Comai, AUMNH]; 5203 Rico Cove, Austin, 30.374853 -97.77368 2, 885ft., [APH_0401, 5/10/2008, 1♂, Rhone McCall, AUMNH]; Austin, 30.303983 -97.839883 6, 991ft., [APH_0875, 7/2008, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Austin - City Park Rd and Pence Ln, 30.354083 -97.832567 1, 843ft., [APH_0812, 6/2008, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0904, 6/2008, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Austin - Cuernavaca area in West Lake Hills, 30.34478 -97.85278 1, 623ft., [APH_0159, Summer/2007, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0816-0819, 6/2008, 4♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Austin - Red Bud trail in West Lake Hills, 30.2984 -97.80258 1, 784ft., [APH_0158, Summer/2007, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0813-0815, 6/2008, 3♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0906-0907, 6/2008, 2♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Austin area, along Wild Basin Ledge, 30.307721 -97.818971 2, 774ft., [APH_0748, 5/9/2009, 1♂, Claudia Cobianchi, AUMNH]; Austin Baseball Field, 30.267153 -97.743061 6, 459ft., [APH_2186, 29/5/1958, 1♀, W.H. McAlister, AMNH]; [APH_2187, 21/7/1958, 1♂, W.H. McAlister, AMNH]; Austin, Duvall and Jolleyville Rd, 30.417283 -97.750033 6, 882ft., [APH_0911, 2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Austin, near 290 and 71 split, 30.2425 -97.874367 6, 941ft., [APH_0876, 7/2008, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Jonestown - Reed Park, 30.4779 -97.94605 1, 860ft., [APH_0160, Summer/2007, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0820-0821, 6/2008, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0908, 6/2008, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0949, 6/2008, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Val Verde: Comstock, 29.685683 -101.17145 1, 1580ft., [APH_0833, 7/2008, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Del Rio - Lake Amistad, 29.496167 -101.04455 5, 1147ft., [APH_0927, 2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Del Rio, 29.370886 -100.895867 6, 995ft., [APH_0971, 2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Del Rio, on spur 454, 29.460165 -100.948547 5, 1139ft., [APH_0957, 6/2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Langtry, 29.809722 -101.5525 1, 1272ft., [APH_1063, 18/6/2010, 1♀, Travis Fisher, AUMNH]; [APH_0958, 6/2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Langtry, Hwy 90, 29.814633 -101.563317 1, 1372ft., [APH_0867, 5/2008, 1♀, Corey Roelke, AUMNH]; N of Langtry on Pandale Dirt Rd, 29.828883 -101.59095 6, 1425ft., [APH_0926, 2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Pandale, 30.130017 -101.575733 1, 1607ft., [APH_1070, 2/6/2010, 1♂, Lynn McCutchen, AUMNH]; [APH_1071, 26/6/2010, 1♂, Roxana Leija, AUMNH]; Wichita: 4 miles southeast of Burkburnett, 34.067561 -98.541374 5, 994ft., [APH_2665, 4/7/1975, 1♂, J. Cokendolpher, AMNH]; unknown, 33.930965 -98.748117 7, 1007ft., [APH_2199, 23/4/1975, 1♀, M. Nipper, AMNH]; Wilbarger: 12 miles west of Electra, 34.025734 -99.145057 5, 1171ft., [APH_2179, 3/9/1998, 1♀, M.E. Janowski-Bell, AMNH]; [APH_2192, 3/9/1998, 1♂, M.E. Janowski-Bell, AMNH]; Williamson: Cedar Park, 30.5015 -97.847917 5, 1018ft., [APH_0905, 2006, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Core Hole Cave- 1 mile south Georgetown, 30.607738 -97.687453 5, 787ft., [APH_2555, 3/11/1963, 1♀, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, John Porter, AMNH]; Leander, 30.57295 -97.850467 5, 972ft., [APH_0896-0897, 2006, 2♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Round Rock, Fern Bluff Elementary, 30.517917 -97.719917 4, 806ft., [APH_0912, 6/2008, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Taylor, 30.560167 -97.413333 5, 518ft., [APH_0913, 6/2008, 1♂, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Yoakum: unknown rd N of Hwy-380, 33.35231 -103.01736 1, 3857ft., [APH_0746, 17/6/2009, 1 juv, Zach Valois, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history

Aphonopelma hentzi is the most widely distributed species in the United States. Its distribution is bound to the east by the Mississippi River but these tarantulas are found in all or parts of Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona (Fig. 55). Aphonopelma hentzi thrives in a variety of habitats and can be found inhabiting the following Level III Ecoregions: Interior River Valleys and Hills, Ozark Highlands, Central Irregular Plains, Alluvial Plain, South Central Plains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas Valley, Boston Mountains, Western Gulf Coastal Plains, Flint Hills, Central Oklahoma/Texas Plains, Western High Plains, Southwestern Tablelands, Central Great Plains, Cross Timbers, East Central Texas Plains, Arizona/New Mexico Mountains, Chihuahuan Deserts, Edwards Plateau, Southern Texas Plains, Blackland Prairies, Arizona/New Mexico Plateau, and Madrean Archipelago. Aphonopelma hentzi can be found in syntopy with a number of species across its distribution including Aphonopelma armada, Aphonopelma gabeli, Aphonopelma moderatum, Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n., Aphonopelma parvum sp. n., Aphonopelma peloncillo sp. n., and vorhiesi. Aphonopelma hentzi exhibits significant variation in burrowing behavior across its distribution. This species is known to inhabit freestanding burrows or scrapes (burrows under rocks, wood, etc.; see Fig. 2A–C) depending on the habitat. Aphonopelma hentzi inhabit a wide range of habitats and elevations and exhibit phenotypic differences between those (e.g., large and robust in lower elevations or plains habitats and a smaller body with longer, thinner legs in rocky or higher elevation habitats). Depending on the locality, Aphonopelma hentzi can exhibit two different breeding periods: a spring/summer season (April-August) and a fall season (September-October), sometimes at the same location. Additional information about the natural history of Aphonopelma hentzi is provided by Smith (1995)[2].

Conservation status

Aphonopelma hentzi would be considered rare in Arizona due to its very limited distribution in the state but this species is probably the most abundant tarantula in the United States. These spiders thrive in many different habitats and are not uncommon in major metropolitan areas. More than 40 individuals were collected by one of the authors (BEH) from a single residential lawn in suburban Fort Worth, Texas (specimens not reported). Specimens have also been collected from well-maintained grounds at a cemetery just outside Downtown Dallas, Texas near a busy freeway. This species is secure.

Remarks

Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma hentzi possess a larger L3 scopulation extent (69%-86%) than Aphonopelma armada (48%-63%); by possessing a larger F4/M4 (≥0.92; 0.92–1.03) than Aphonopelma armada (≤0.92; 0.86–0.92); by possessing a larger PTl/T4 (>0.65; 0.65–0.77) than Aphonopelma gabeli (≤0.64; 0.58–0.64). Other important ratios distinguish females: Aphonopelma hentzi possess a larger L4 scopulation extent (42%-72%) than Aphonopelma armada (28%–43%, with slight overlap); by possessing a smaller L1/L3 (≤1.14; 1.07–1.14) than Aphonopelma moderatum (>1.14; 1.14–1.24, with slight overlap). For both males and females, certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no others are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional PCA morphospace, males of Aphonopelma hentzi separate in PCA morphological space from Aphonopelma gabeli, Aphonopelma moderatum, and Aphonopelma moellendorfi along PC1~2, but do not separate from Aphonopelma anax, Aphonopelma armada, Aphonopelma peloncillo, or Aphonopelma vorhiesi. Female Aphonopelma hentzi do not separate from Aphonopelma anax, Aphonopelma armada, Aphonopelma gabeli, Aphonopelma moderatum, Aphonopelma peloncillo, or Aphonopelma vorhiesi. Females of Aphonopelma moellendorfi are unknown and cannot be compared. Interestingly, Aphonopelma hentzi males separate from Aphonopelma gabeli, Aphonopelma marxi, Aphonopelma moderatum, Aphonopelma moellendorfi, Aphonopelma parvum, and Aphonopelma peloncillo in three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), but do not separate from Aphonopelma anax, Aphonopelma armada, Aphonopelma chalcodes, or Aphonopelma vorhiesi. Aphonopelma hentzi females separate from Aphonopelma marxi and Aphonopelma parvum, but do not separate from Aphonopelma anax, Aphonopelma armada, Aphonopelma chalcodes, Aphonopelma gabeli, Aphonopelma moderatum, Aphonopelma peloncillo, or Aphonopelma vorhiesi. PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥87% of the variation in male analyses and ≥96% of the variation in female analyses.
Of particular note, Warriner (2008)[4] determined that the type locality for Aphonopelma hentzi was near the Wichita Mountains.in Comanche County, Oklahoma where the Marcy Expedition likely camped in May 1852. Even though we have examined material from this area, we have chosen not to designate a new neotype at this time because Smith’s (1995)[2] neotype is conspecific with this material and we were unable to secure adults. We examined most of the holotypes and/or freshly collected topotypic material of Aphonopelma clarki, Aphonopelma coloradanum, Aphonopelma echinum, Aphonopelma gurleyi, Aphonopelma harlingenum, Aphonopelma odelli, Aphonopelma waconum, and Aphonopelma wichitanum. Our morphological and molecular analyses fail to recognize these eight species as separate, independently evolving lineages. As a consequence, we consider Aphonopelma clarki, Aphonopelma coloradanum, Aphonopelma echinum, Aphonopelma gurleyi, Aphonopelma harlingenum, Aphonopelma odelli, Aphonopelma waconum, and Aphonopelma wichitanum junior synonyms of Aphonopelma hentzi. It is also important to note that the paratype of Aphonopelma harlingenum that is found in the same jar as the Aphonopelma harlingenum holotype is a female of Aphonopelma anax (see spermathecae in Fig. 12C).
Mitochondrial DNA (CO1) identifies Aphonopelma hentzi as a polyphyletic group with respect to Aphonopelma moderatum, Aphonopelma anax, and Aphonopelma armada (Fig. 7). A second lineage of Aphonopelma hentzi is embedded within a secondary lineage of Aphonopelma anax; both lineages were previously identified as putative cryptic species (Hamilton et al. 2014[5]). Based on the AE results, it appears that CO1 is not effective at delimiting species boundaries within this group.

Taxon Treatment

  • Hamilton, C; Hendrixson, B; Bond, J; 2016: Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States ZooKeys, (560): 1-340. doi

Images

Other References

  1. Girard C (1852) Arachnidians. In: Marcy R (Ed.) Natural History of the Red River of Louisiana. Washington, 32nd Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Appendix F (Zoology), 262–271. [reprinted twice in 1854: 33rd Congress, 1st Session, House of Representatives, p. 233–242; and 33rd Congress, 1st Session, Senate, 251–261]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Smith A (1995) Tarantula Spiders - Tarantulas of the USA and Mexico. Fitzgerald Publishing, London, 196 pp.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cooke J, Roth V, Miller F (1972) The urticating hairs of theraphosid spiders. American Museum Novitates, 1–43.
  4. Warriner M (2008) Distribution and taxonomic status of tarantulas in Arkansas (Theraphosidae: Aphonopelma). Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 62: 107–114.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Hamilton C, Hendrixson B, Brewer M, Bond J (2014) An evaluation of sampling effects on multiple DNA barcoding methods leads to an integrative approach for delimiting species: A case study of the North American tarantula genus Aphonopelma (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71: 79–93. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.11.007