Aleiodes

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van Achterberg C, Shaw M (2016) Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae). Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species. ZooKeys (639) : 1–164, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2016-12-12, version 110851, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aleiodes&oldid=110851 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{van2016ZooKeys,
author = {van Achterberg, Cornelis AND Shaw, Mark R.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae). Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species},
year = {2016},
volume = {},
issue = {639},
pages = {1--164},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.639.10893},
url = {http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10893},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2016-12-12, version 110851, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aleiodes&oldid=110851 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae). Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species
A1 - van Achterberg C
A1 - Shaw M
Y1 - 2016
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL -
IS - 639
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.639.10893
SP - 1
EP - 164
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2016-12-12, version 110851, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aleiodes&oldid=110851 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.639.10893

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="van2016ZooKeys">{{Citation
| author = van Achterberg C, Shaw M
| title = Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae). Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2016
| volume =
| issue = 639
| pages = 1--164
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.639.10893
| url = http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10893
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-09-23

}} Versioned wiki page: 2016-12-12, version 110851, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Aleiodes&oldid=110851 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Hymenoptera
Familia: Braconidae

Name

Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Diagnosis

Propodeum with a long median carina dorsally (Figs 11, 52); ovipositor sheath slightly expanded towards apex or parallel-sided and comparatively wide as far as visible (Figs 12, 31, 152, 301); second metasomal tergite with a median carina anteriorly (Figs 193, 291, 320, 331), but absent in part of the genus; hind trochantellus of ♀ normal, at most 2.6 × as long as wide (Figs 55, 104, 183, 194); vein r of fore wing 0.2–0.8 × vein 3-SR (Figs 1, 9, 22, 65, 205), if 0.6–0.8 × (Fig. 343) then precoxal area of mesopleuron granulate or coriaceous, without rugae and second metasomal tergite without triangular area medio-basally.

Biology

Very large genus of koinobiont, synovigenic endoparasitoids; in the western Palaearctic of Drepanidae (including Thyratirinae), Erebidae (including Hypeninae, Lymantriinae, Arctiinae, Hypenodinae), Geometridae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Lycaenidae, Noctuidae, Nolidae, Notodontidae, Nymphalidae (Satyrinae), Pterophoridae, Sphingidae, Ypsolophidae and Zygaenidae. This list includes only taxa of which we have been able to verify hosts, either by our own rearings or by examination of host remains; there are other host groups recorded in the literature, but we regard many of them as almost certainly erroneous and seek confirmation of others. The caterpillars are killed by the endoparasitoid and “mummified” — i.e. turned into a partly shrunken and hardened structure that is more or less tanned (Figs 8, 244, 259, 287, 342, 354), in most cases before their final instar, and the parasitoid pupates and eventually emerges as an adult from this mummy. Almost all Aleiodes species are strictly solitary (in Europe only two species are gregarious, but neither is treated in this part).

Oviposition

The oviposition behaviour of Aleiodes species is based on the following sequence, from which one or more steps may habitually be eliminated by particular species: (a) antennation of the host, often also investigation using fore and sometimes mid tarsi, during which the host often curls and may be drawn in towards the ventral/mesosomal region of the parasitoid; (b) a rapid sting (usually less than 0.5 second), executed more or less between the parasitoid’s front legs and usually accompanied by a brief fluttering of the wings; (c) waiting motionless by, but often not in physical contact with, the host while temporary paralysis caused by the injected venom takes effect (about 20 to exceptionally 90 seconds); oviposition (a single insertion of the ovipositor, usually about 30–80 seconds duration but regularly much shorter or much longer in certain species); (d) a period (usually about 20–100 seconds) of post-oviposition association, when the parasitoid stands over the host and the host is intermittently antennated, during which time the host recovers from paralysis; (e) abrupt and energetic departure, often by flight. Sluggish hosts are generally unattractive, but superparasitism is frequent if (e) is prevented or if the two come into contact again. In most species host feeding was seen only infrequently or not at all in well-fed parasitoids, but it became commoner in aged females; it was always non-destructive and concurrent (i.e using the same host individual as for oviposition) but took place from separate ad hoc wounds made using the ovipositor, usually before but occasionally after oviposition itself. In most species, first instar hosts are oviposited into only with difficulty and even then they frequently die from the trauma, second and early third instars are the most suitable, and from late in the third instar onwards hosts are consistently ignored (a rough guide is that if the host exceeds the length of the parasitoid it will usually be of no interest). In the majority of investigated species the egg floats freely in the haemocoel.

Distribution

Cosmopolitan.

Notes

Two papers with descriptions of the same Aleiodes species appeared in 1838. Most likely Herrich-Schäffer’s paper was published earlier (the introduction is dated April, 1838) than Wesmael’s paper. Baron de Stassart stated in his presidential report (Bulletins de l’Académie royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de Belgique 5: 328) dated May 6th, 1838, that the 11th volume of the Nouveau Memoires was in press.

Taxon Treatment

  • van Achterberg, C; Shaw, M; 2016: Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae). Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species ZooKeys, (639): 1-164. doi

Images

Other References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Shenefelt R (1975) Braconidae 8. Exothecinae, Rogadinae. Hymenopterorum Catalogus (nova editio) 12: 1115–1262.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Marsh P (1979) Braconidae. Aphidiidae. Hybrizontidae. In: Krombein K Hurd J Smith D Burks B (Eds) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Washington, 144–313.
  3. Papp J (1985a) Contributions to the braconid fauna of Hungary, VII. Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Folia Entomologica Hungarica 46: 143–164.
  4. Shaw M, Huddleston T (1991) Classification and biology of Braconid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 7(11): 1–126.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Achterberg C (1991) Revision of the genera of the Afrotropical and W. Palaearctic Rogadinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) 273: 1–102.
  6. Viereck H (1914) Type species of the genera of Ichneumon flies. United States National Museum Bulletin 83: 1–186. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.03629236.83.1
  7. 7.0 7.1 Tobias V (1971) [Review of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera) of the U.S.S.R.]. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Entomologicheskogo Obshchestva 54: 156–268. [In Russian; translation (1975). 164 pp., New Delhi, India.]
  8. 8.0 8.1 Tobias V (1976) [Braconids of the Caucasus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).] Opredeliteli po Faune SSSR 110: 1–286. [In Russian]
  9. Fortier J (2009) A revision of the Tetrasphaeropyx Ashmead lineage of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae). Zootaxa 2256: 1–126.
  10. Viereck H (1922) First supplement to “Type species of the genera of Ichneumon-flies.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 59: 129–150. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.2364.129
  11. Tobias V (1986) Rogadinae: 72–85. In: Medvedev G (Ed.) Opredelitel Nasekomych Evrospeiskoi Tsasti SSSR 3, Peredpontdatokrylye 4. Opredeliteli po Faune SSSR 145: 1–501. [In Russian; translation (1995): 512–588. Lebanon, U.S.A.]