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Holotype: MSNG 60134, PH-1, 13/01/2005, Timur (Bunaken Island), about 20 m depth. Paratype: MSNG 60135, PH-27, 13/01/2005, same locality as holotype, about 20 m depth.
BU-82, 22/03/2000, Lekuan II (Bunaken Island), 20 m depth. BU-580, 27/06/2004, Alung Banua (Bunaken Island), 16 m depth. INDO-079, 08/05/2005, Tanjung Kopi (Manado Tua), unknown depth, N01°39'07.4"; E124°41'58.8". INDO-278, 11/05/2005, Tansung Pisok (Manado), unknown depth, N01°34'31.2"; N01°34'31.2". INDO-336, 12/05/2005, Bualo (Manado), unknown depth, N01°37'00.7"; E124°41'21.9". INDO-339, 12/05/2005, Bualo (Manado), unknown depth, N01°37'00.7"; E124°41'21.9".
Cushion-shaped, sub-spherical sponge; yellow, brown or dark orange. Strongyloxeas, styles and subtylostyles not separable in size categories, forming ascending tracts protruding through the sponge surface.
The sponge is massive, sub-spherical or lobate (Fig. 2A, B). The holotype (Fig. 2A) is a fragment about 1.5 cm long and 1 cm thick, sampled from a large globular specimen; the paratype is a small portion, approximately 2.5 cm long and 1 cm thick, of a large cushion-shaped specimen approximately 60 cm across. The paratype (Fig. 2B) shows a sort of lobate organisation, with roundish parts connected by bottleneck narrowings. The colour in life is yellow, varying between orange and brown according to light exposure; it is not uniform, but presents dark red spots or stripes (Fig. 2A, B). The sponge is always yellow inside. Alcohol-preserved specimens are dark green-brown. The sponge surface is smooth, but microscopically hispid. Ostia, grouped in distinct areas on the sponge surface, have such a large diameter that they are visible to the naked eye. Oscula are flush, more or less circular, with a very low rim. Converging exhalant canals are visible in their lumen (Fig. 2A). Consistency is hard when preserved. Skeleton. The choanosomal skeleton is radiate, regular in the outer part of the sponge and more irregular in the deeper part. Due to high spicule density, spicule tracts are not easily detectable (Fig. 2C, D). In the ectosome, the smallest styles are arranged in palisade and do not form brushes, whereas the spicules of intermediate size are concentrated in the sub-ectosomal layer and protrude through the surface with their tips (Fig. 2C, D). Abundant spheroulous cells, approximately 12 µm in diameter, are detectable in the choanosome.
Spicules. Three size categories of megascleres, partially overlapping at the extremities of their size-frequency distributions. The larger spicules are straight strongyloxeas with acerate or slightly stepped tips (Fig. 2E) and often evident axial canal. Intermediate and small megascleres, straight or slightly curved, vary in shape from strongyloxeas to subtylostyles to thin styles (Fig. 2F). The measurements are given in Table 2.
|Species||Shape and surface||Colour||Consistence||Skeleton||Spicules (µm)|
|A. ciliata (Wilson, 1925)||Massive, lobate; surface conulose and hispid||Whitish brown||-||Collagenous ectosome 0,5 mm thick, with cavities Choanosome dense with ill-defined spicule tracts||Styles 1400–2000 × 20–36 Ectosomal styles 1100–1300 × 4|
|A. conferta Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1994||Thickly encrusting, lobate; surface smooth or micro-hispid||Jet black outside, mustard yellow inside||Just compressible||Stout megasclere tracts with interstitial spicules||Strongyloxeas 662–1813 × 13–29 2 categories of styles Oxeas 156–537 × 3–8|
|A. globosa Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1994||Spherical; surface smooth||Deep red brown outside, mustard yellow inside||Incompressible||Tracts of primary megascleres radiating at the surface; superficial palisade not piercing the sponge surface||Strongyloxeas I 980–2401 × 18–33 Strongyloxeas II 332–1029 × 8–16 Tylostyles 104–198 × 4–5 Subtylostyles 208–458 × 5–8|
|A. horrida (Carter, 1886)||Massive elongate; surface even and villous||Grey||Very compact||Very compact||2 size categories of fusiform, acerate spicules|
|A. laxosuberites (Sollas, 1902)||Encrusting; surface slightly hispid||Whitish, in spirit||-||Ascending and diverging tracts of megascleres Ectosomal skeleton of small styles||Strongyloxeas I 750–1120 × 26–40 II 250 × 4 Tylostyles 700 × 20|
|A. niger Hoshino, 1981||Massive, embedding extraneous material; surface minutely hispid||Black||Incompressible||Ectosome with small styles; radiate architecture and confused spicules in the choanosome||Strongyloxeas I 540–1310 × 18–46 II 170–270 × 5–10|
|A. nuda (Kirkpatrick, 1903)||Massive; surface finely papillate||Pale brown outside, interior lighter (in spirit)||Rather hard||Ill-defined bundles of oxeas radiating towards the surface||Oxeas 1700 × 45|
|A. rosacea Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1994||Spherical to semi spherical; surface smooth and faintly hispid||Oxide red outside and golden yellow inside||Incompressible||Choanosomal tracts of megascleres branching at the surface and forming tufts Superficial palisade of tylostyles and subtylostyles||Strongyloxeas 735–2009 × 10–23 Styles 367–1102 × 5–12 Tylostyles 94–218 × 3–8 Subtylostyles 198–447 × 4–13|
|A. suberitoides (Broensted, 1934)||Massive; surface faintly hispid||Black outside, dark red inside||Very firm||Radiate, with loose spicule tracts||Styles 900–1100 × 15–23|
|A. tentum Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1994||Globular or sub-spherical; surface microscopically hispid||Different shades of brown outside, brown yellow inside||Firm||Large, loose tracts of megascleres in the choanosome, replaced in the outer region by intermediate spicules; superficial palisade of small tylo- and subtylostyles||Strongyloxeas I 980–2572 × 21–42; II 416–1298 × 10–21; Tylostyles 104–198 × 5–8; Styles or subtylostyles 187–441 × 8–13|
|Aaptos lobata sp. n.||Globular, sub-spherical||Yellow, dark orange, brown||Hard (preserved)||Radiate tracts of larger megascleres protrude towards the surface; intermediate and small spicules, abundant in the outer part, concur to the hispidation||Strongyloxeas: 810–993.91(±119.38)-1320 × 10–19.84(±3.84)-30; Intermediate megascleres: 405–540.91(±107.64)-750 × 7.5–11.53(±4.05)-25; Small megascleres 145–264.87(±65.20)-395 × 2.5–4.91(±1.43)-7.5|
The name refers to the multi-lobate organisation of the sponge.
The genus Aaptos Gray, 1867, according to van Soest et al. (2016), encompasses in total 24 valid species, 10 of which distributed in the tropical Indo-Pacific and adjacent areas (Table 2). The descriptions are usually based on the very few diagnostic features detectable in the genus, making it difficult to differentiate species (Kelly-Borges and Bergquist 1994). The radial skeleton, the arrangement of the megascleres and the spicule morphology, being quite uniform within the genus, are seldom accurately described (Kelly-Borges and Bergquist 1994). Therefore, the importance of other morphological characters useful to differentiate species, such as colour, collagen distribution in the cortex, shape and arrangement of megasclere tracts, presence of interstitial spicules, is greatly emphasised (Kelly-Borges and Bergquist 1994). Recently, Carvalho et al. (2013) stressed the importance of other morphological aspects as main characters for the species distinction in the genus, such as external morphology, colour, shape and size of the megascleres, ectosomal spicules arrangement (palisade or bouquets).
The skeletal organisation of Aaptos lobata sp. n. is comparable with that of the type species of the genus, the Atlantic-Mediterranean Aaptos aaptos (Schmidt, 1864) (see van Soest 2002). Aaptos lobata sp. n. has been compared with all the congeneric species and especially with those recorded from the Indo-Pacific and adjacent areas, whose characteristics are reported in Table 2. Aaptos ciliata (Wilson, 1925) has spicules different in size and shape; in particular, the ectosomal styles are longer (1,100–1,300 × 4 µm). The species A. conferta Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1994, is an encrusting sponge, black outside and yellow inside, that has oxeas as additional spicules, whereas A. globosa Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1994 differs in colour (dark red outside and yellow inside) and in the skeletal organisation, since choanosomal tracts are thick and ramified under the surface and the intermediate megascleres form tracts. Aaptos horrida (Carter, 1886) and A. nuda (Kirkpatrck, 1903) have oxeas as megascleres instead of strongyloxeas; A. laxosuberites (Sollas, 1902) is encrusting, white in alcohol and has strongyloxeas and long tylostyles as megascleres. Aaptos niger Hoshino, 1981 is a black, massive sponge, usually embedding exogenous material; while A. rosacea Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1994, is red outside and yellow inside and differs from the new species in skeletal arrangement and size of spicules. The species A. suberitoides (Brøndsted, 1934), black outside and dark red inside, has a very simple skeleton of styles only, while A. tenta Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1994, brown in colour, has a peculiar skeletal arrangement and different spicules. Since no species in this vast geographic area matches with the characters of our specimens, we decided to erect a new species.
- Calcinai, B; Bastari, A; Bavestrello, G; Bertolino, M; Horcajadas, S; Pansini, M; Makapedua, D; Cerrano, C; 2017: Demosponge diversity from North Sulawesi, with the description of six new species ZooKeys, (680): 105-150. doi
- van Soest R, Boury-Esnault N, Hooper J, Rützler K, de Voogd N, Alvarez d, Hajdu E, Pisera A, Manconi R, Schoenberg C, Janussen D, Tabachnick K, Klautau M, Picton B, Kelly M, Vacelet J, Dohrmann M, Díaz M, Cárdenas P (2016) World Porifera database. http://www.marinespecies.org/porifera [accessed on 14 Nov 2016]
- Kelly-Borges M, Bergquist P (1994) A redescription of Aaptos aaptos with descriptions of new species of Aaptos (Hadromerida: Suberitidae) from northern New Zealand. Journal of Zoology 234(2): 301–323. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb06077.x
- Carvalho M, da S, Pinheiro U (2013) Two new species of Aaptos (Demospongiae, Hadromerida) from Brazil (western Atlantic). Zootaxa 3750: 357–366. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3750.4.4
- van Soest R (2002) Family Suberitidae. In: Hooper JNA, van Soest RWM (Eds) Systema Porifera, a guide to the classification of the sponges (in 2 volumes). Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, 1–1708.