Mycological teaching diagrams by Meike Piepenbring

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(These diagrams are also available in Spanish)


Introduction

These diagrams have been created for teaching of mycology and phytopathology. They are shared here in order to extend our knowledge on fungi, especially those living in the tropics.

Phylogeny of fungi (names in bold), simplified (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Phylogeny of fungi (names in bold), simplified


Cellular structures of fungi and algae (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Cellular structures of fungi and algae


Vegetative development starting from a hypha (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Vegetative development starting from a hypha


Life cycle, generations and nuclear stages (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle, generations and nuclear stages

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Types of fertilization (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of fertilization

Different types of fertilization. Long, red arrows indicate direction of movement. Short red arrows indicate growth by which compatible cells get in contact with each other and fuse. Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Groups of Fungi (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Groups of Fungi

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Divisions of true fungi, Fungi, simplified (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Divisions of true fungi, Fungi, simplified


Life cycle with dikaryotic stage, Ascomycota Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle with dikaryotic stage, Ascomycota Basidiomycota


Chitin, Fungi (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Chitin, Fungi

Basidiomycota

Phylogeny Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Phylogeny of Basidiomycota


Development of clamp connection (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Development of a clamp connection

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Types of basidia (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of basidia


Discharge of ballistospore (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Discharge of a ballistospore

Based on Money (1998), simplified.

Money, N.P. 1998. More g’s than the space shuttle: ballistospore discharge. Mycologia 90: 547-558.


Development starting from a basidiospore (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Development starting from a basidiospore


Pores in septa of hyphae of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Pores in septa of hyphae of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota


Life cycle Basidiomycota basidium (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Basidiomycota, basidium

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Types of fruiting bodies, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of fruiting bodies, Basidiomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Concepts of Agaricales and Polyporales, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Concepts of Agaricales and Polyporales, Basidiomycota


Connections of a lamella to the stipe, Agaricales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Connections of a lamella to the stipe, Agaricales Basidiomycota


Hemiangiocarpic fruiting body, Agaricales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Hemiangiocarpic fruiting body of Amanita sp., Agaricales Basidiomycota

Modified after diagrams by Yang Zhu-Liang; with permission.


Life cycle of Agaricus sp., Agaricales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Agaricus sp., Agaricales Basidiomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


C 2b leaf-cutting ants, bromatium, Agaricales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Bromatium of leaf-cutting ants, asexual stage of Agaricales Basidiomycota


C 2c leaf-cutting ants, parasite Escovopsis weberi, conidiophore with conidia, Agaricales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Escovopsis weberi, parasite of the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutting ants, conidiophore with conidia, asexual form of Hypocreales, Ascomycota


C 2e termite nest, Termitomyces sp., Termitosphaera sp., Agaricales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Termite nest, Termitomyces sp., Termitosphaera sp., Agaricales Basidiomycota

Diagram on the left hand side based on Heim (1977) and Buyck (1994).

Buyck, B. 1994. Ubwoba: les champignons comestibles de l'Ouest du Burundi. Publ. Agric. 34.

Heim, R. 1977. Termites et champignons. Les champignons termitophiles d´Afrique Noire et d´Asie méridionale. Société Nouvelle des Éditions Boubée, Paris.

Drawing on the right hand side based on a drawing by Roland Kirschner, used with permission.


C 4b hyphae with conidia of Moniliophthora roreri, Agaricales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Hyphae with conidia of Moniliophthora roreri, asexual stage of Agaricales Basidiomycota


C 5a ectomycorrhizae in their habitat, Boletales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Ectomycorrhizae in their habitat, Boletales Basidiomycota (left hand side) and Tuberales Ascomycota (right hand side)

In collaboration with Ingrid Kottke.


C 5b ectomycorrhiza anatomy, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Ectomycorrhiza anatomy, Basidiomycota

In collaboration with Ingrid Kottke.


C 6b Monotropa uniflora, mycoheterotrophic (erroneously called saprotrophic) plant with its fungus in the habitat (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Monotropa uniflora, mycoheterotrophic (erroneously called saprotrophic) plant with its fungus in the habitat

In collaboration with Ingrid Kottke.


Types of hymenophores of Polyporales, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of hymenophores of Polyporales, Basidiomycota


Skeletal hyphae of Lentinus sp., Polyporales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Skeletal hyphae of Lentinus sp., Polyporales Basidiomycota


Hypha with conidia of Allescheriella crocea, asexual form of Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Hypha with conidia of Allescheriella crocea, asexual form of Basidiomycota


Types of fruiting bodies of gasteromycetes, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of fruiting bodies of gasteromycetes, Basidiomycota


Types of basidia of gasteromycetes, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of basidia of gasteromycetes, Basidiomycota


Fruiting bodies of Geastraceae, gasteromycetes, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Geastraceae, gasteromycetes, Basidiomycota


Fruiting bodies of Phallales, gasteromycetes, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Phallales, gasteromycetes, Basidiomycota


Classification of Auriculariales and Tremellales, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Classification of Auriculariales and Tremellales, Basidiomycota


Hymenium with basidium and basidiospores of Exidiopsis laccata, Auriculariales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Hymenium with basidium and basidiospores of Exidiopsis laccata, Auriculariales Basidiomycota


Phylogeny of smut fungi (black, bold) and closely related groups, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Phylogeny of smut fungi (black, bold) and closely related groups, Basidiomycota


Basidia of smut fungi, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Basidia of smut fungi, Basidiomycota


Homothallic basidia of smut fungi, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Homothallic basidia of smut fungi, Basidiomycota


Sori of smut fungi, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Sori of smut fungi, Basidiomycota


Life cycle of Ustilago maydis on corn, Ustilaginales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Ustilago maydis on corn, Ustilaginales Basidiomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Life cycle of Tilletia ayresii on Panicum maximum, Tilletiales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Tilletia ayresii on Panicum maximum, Tilletiales Basidiomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Teliospore ball of Narasimhania alismatis in a leaf of Sagittaria guyanensis, Doassansiales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Teliospore ball of Narasimhania alismatis in a leaf of Sagittaria guyanensis, Doassansiales Basidiomycota


Teliospores, a basidium, and dikaryotic cells of Entyloma sp. in a leaf, Entylomatales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Teliospores, a basidium, and dikaryotic cells of Entyloma sp. in a leaf, Entylomatales Basidiomycota


Fruiting body with elaters and basidia of Graphiola spp., Exobasidiales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting body with elaters and basidia of Graphiola spp., Exobasidiales Basidiomycota


Life cycle of Graphiola phoenicis, Exobasidiales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Graphiola phoenicis, Exobasidiales Basidiomycota

Based on Cole (1983) and Oberwinkler et al. (1982).

Cole, G.T. 1983. Graphiola phoenicis: a taxonomic enigma. Mycologia 75: 93-116.

Oberwinkler, F., R.J. Bandoni, P. Blanz, G. Deml & L. Kisimova-Horovitz. 1982. Graphiolales: Basidiomycetes parasitic on palms. Pl. Syst. Evol. 140: 251-277.

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Teliospores of rust fungi, Pucciniales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Teliospores of rust fungi, Pucciniales Basidiomycota


Column of germinating teliospores of Cionothrix praelonga, Pucciniales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Column of germinating teliospores of Cionothrix praelonga, Pucciniales Basidiomycota


Life cycle of Puccinia graminis on a grass, Pucciniales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Puccinia graminis on a grass, Pucciniales Basidiomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Life cycle of Septobasidium sp. on scale insects on bark of a living tree, Septobasidiales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Septobasidium sp. on scale insects on bark of a living tree, Septobasidiales Basidiomycota


Fruiting body with basidia of Atractiella delectans, Atractiellales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting body with basidia of Atractiella delectans, Atractiellales Basidiomycota


Hypha with a conidiogenous cell and a conidium of Hobsonia mirabilis, asexual Atractiellales Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Hypha with a conidiogenous cell and a conidium of Hobsonia mirabilis, asexual form of Atractiellales Basidiomycota

Ascomycota

Phylogeny subphyla of Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Phylogeny, subphyla of Ascomycota


Life cycle Ascomycota, ascus (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Ascomycota, ascus

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Morphological groups, asexual fungi, imperfect fungi (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Morphological groups, asexual fungi, imperfect fungi


Types of conidia, asexual fungi, imperfect fungi (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of conidia, asexual fungi, imperfect fungi


Types of conidiogenesis, asexual fungi, imperfect fungi (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of conidiogenesis, asexual fungi, imperfect fungi


Conidia, Ingoldian Hyphomycetes, staurospores, asexual fungi, imperfect fungi (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Conidia, Ingoldian Hyphomycetes, staurospores, asexual fungi, imperfect fungi


Phylogeny, Pezizomycotina (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Phylogeny of Pezizomycotina


Fruiting bodies, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Ascomycota


Stilboid fungus, Helotiales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Stilboid fungus, Helotiales, Ascomycota


Types of asci, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of asci, Ascomycota


Morphological groups, orders, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Morphological groups, orders, Ascomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Ascospores, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Ascospores, Ascomycota


Life cycle, Pezizales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Pezizales, Ascomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Fruiting bodies, Pezizales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Pezizales, Ascomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Arthrobotrys superba, asexual, nematode trapping, Orbiliales, Ascomycota (R. Kirschner) (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Arthrobotrys superba, asexual, nematode trapping, Orbiliales, Ascomycota (drawing by R. Kirschner)


Fruiting bodies, Cyttariales, Helotiales, Leotiales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies, Cyttariales, Helotiales, Leotiales, Ascomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Fruiting bodies, Rhytismatales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies, Rhytismatales, Ascomycota


Life cycle, Rhytisma acerinum, Rhytismatales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Rhytisma acerinum with its asexual form Melasmia acerina, Rhytismatales, Ascomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Hou Cheng-Lin; with permission.


Brasiliomyces malachrae, chasmothecium, Erysiphales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Brasiliomyces malachrae, chasmothecium, Erysiphales, Ascomycota


Life cycle, Erysiphales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Erysiphales with its asexual form Oidium sp., Ascomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Conidiophores, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Eurotiales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Conidiophores of Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Eurotiales, Ascomycota


Life cycle, Neurospora sp., Sordariales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Neurospora sp. with its asexual form Chrysonilia sp., Sordariales, Ascomycota

Based on Webster & Weber (2007), simplified.

Webster, J. & R.W.S. Weber. 2007. Introduction to fungi. Cambridge University Press.


Classification Hypocreales, Clavicipitales, Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Classification of Hypocreales, Clavicipitales, Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota


Fruiting bodies, Hypocreales (without Clavicipitaceae), Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Hypocreales (without Clavicipitaceae), Ascomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Life cycle, Hypocrea sp., Hypocreales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Hypocrea sp. with its asexual form Trichoderma sp., Hypocreales, Ascomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Fruiting bodies, Clavicipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Clavicipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota


Life cycle, Claviceps purpurea, Clavicipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Claviceps purpurea with its asexual form Sphacelia sp., Clavicipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


C 16b fungi hyperparasitic on insects on plants, Hypocreales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fungi hyperparasitic on insects on plants, Hypocreales, Ascomycota


Fruiting bodies, Xylariales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Xylariales, Ascomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Fruiting bodies, Xylariales, Boliniales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Xylariales, Boliniales, Ascomycota


Fruiting bodies, ascospores, asexual forms, Xylariales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies, ascospores, asexual forms, Xylariales, Ascomycota


Fruiting bodies, Meliolales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Meliolales, Ascomycota


Life cycle, Meliolales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Meliolales, Ascomycota

Based on Rodríguez Justavino (2006).

Rodríguez Justavino, D. 2006. Meliolaceae aus Panama. Ph.D. thesis, University of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Fruiting bodies, Phyllachorales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Phyllachorales, Ascomycota

In collaboration with Tanja Trampe.


Life cycle, Phyllachorales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Phyllachorales, Ascomycota

Based on Trampe (2009).

Trampe, T. 2009. Neotropical tarspot fungi – exploration of Phyllachorales in Panama. Ph.D. thesis, University of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Fruiting bodies, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies of Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota


Types of hamathecia, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of hamathecia, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota

Based on Eriksson (1981).

Eriksson, O. 1981. The families of bitunicate ascomycetes. Opera Botanica 60: 1-209.


Asexual forms, Mycosphaerella, Mycosphaerellales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Asexual forms, Mycosphaerella, Mycosphaerellales, Ascomycota


Life cycle, Mycosphaerella, Mycosphaerellales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Mycosphaerella sp. with its asexual form Pseudocercospora sp., Mycosphaerellales, Ascomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Fruiting body, ascus, ascospore, Myriangium sp., Myriangiales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting body, ascus, ascospore, Myriangium sp., Myriangiales, Ascomycota


Asexual forms, Hyphomycetes, Pleosporales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Asexual forms, Hyphomycetes, Pleosporales, Ascomycota


Asexual forms, Coelomycetes, Pleosporales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Asexual forms, Coelomycetes, Pleosporales, Ascomycota


Fruiting bodies, Asterinaceae, Microthyriales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting bodies, Asterinaceae, Microthyriales, Ascomycota

Based on Hofmann (2009).

Hofmann, T.A. 2009. Plant parasitic Asterinaceae and Microthyriaceae from the Neotropics (Panama). Ph.D. thesis, University of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.


C 18a proliferation of ascogenous hyphae, normal development, ascus, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Poliferation of ascogenous hypha, ascus, Ascomycota


Fruiting body, Antoniomyces loranthicola, Parmulariaceae, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Fruiting body, Antoniomyces loranthicola, Parmulariaceae, Ascomycota

Based on Inácio et al. (2012).

Inácio, C., K. Araúz & M. Piepenbring. 2012. A new genus of Parmulariaceae from Panama. Mycological Progress (published online 2011)


Life cycle, Laboulbenia sp., Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Laboulbenia sp., Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota

Based on Scheloske (1969).

Scheloske, H.-W. 1969. Beiträge zur Biologie, Ökologie und Systematik der Laboulbeniales (Ascomycetes). Parasitologische Schriftenreihe 19: 1-176.

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Systematic groups including yeasts (written in red), Ascomycota, Basidiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Systematic groups including yeasts (written in red), Ascomycota, Basidiomycota


Life cycles of yeasts, Saccharomycetales, Schizosaccharomycetales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycles of yeasts, Saccharomycetales, Schizosaccharomycetales, Ascomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Life cycle, Taphrina deformans, Taphrinales, Ascomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Taphrina deformans, Taphrinales, Ascomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.

Lichens

Interactions green alga (green), fungal hypha, lichen, Lichenes (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Interactions, green alga (green), fungal hypha, lichen, Lichenes


Systematic position of lichenized Ascomycota (written in green), Lichenes (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Systematic position of lichenized Ascomycota (written in green), Lichenes

Phylogenetic position of lichenized species among Ascomycota (simplified). Names written in green indicate groups of lichens. Names written with green and black letters refer to groups which include lichenized and non-lichenized species.


Growth forms of lichens, Lichenes (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Growth forms of lichens, Lichenes


Anatomy of the thallus, green alga, cyanobacterium, lichen, Lichenes (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Anatomy of the thallus, green alga, cyanobacterium, lichen, Lichenes


Anatomy of the thallus, details, lichens, Lichenes (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Anatomy of the thallus, details, lichens, Lichenes


Asci and ascospores of lichens, Lichenes (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Asci and ascospores of lichens, Lichenes

Glomeromycota

Chlamydospores and siphonal hyphae of a sporocarp, Glomeromycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Chlamydospores and siphonal hyphae of a sporocarp, Glomeromycota


C 19a arbuscular mycorrhiza, Glomeromycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Glomeromycota

In collaboration with Ingrid Kottke.

Zygomycota

Sporangiophores, sporangia, conidia, liberation of spores, Mucorales, Zygomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Sporangiophores, sporangia, conidia, liberation of spores, Mucorales, Zygomycota


Zygospores, Mucorales, Zygomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Zygospores of Mucorales, Zygomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Life cycle, Mucor sp., Mucorales, Zygomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Mucor sp., Mucorales, Zygomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Conidiogenous cells, conidia, Conidiobolus sp., Zygomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Conidiogenous cells and conidia of Conidiobolus sp., Zygomycota

Chytridiomycota

Types of thalli, Chytridiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Types of thalli of Chytridiomycota


Life cycle, Synchytrium endobioticum on potato, Chytridiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Synchytrium endobioticum on potato, Chytridiomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Life cycle, asexual, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Chytridiomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, asexual, Chytridiomycota

Based on Longcore et al. (1999).

Longcore, J.E., A.P. Pessier & D.K. Nichols. 1999. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis gen. et sp. nov., a chytrid pathogenic to amphibians. Mycologia 91: 219-227.

Oomycetes

Phylogeny, simplified, Oomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Phylogeny, simplified, Oomycota


Asexual structures, Saprolegniales, Oomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Asexual structures of Saprolegniales, Oomycota

Based on Gäumann (1964).

Gäumann, E. 1964. Die Pilze, Grundzüge ihrer Entwicklungsgeschichte und Morphologie, 2nd edition. Birkhäuser, Basel, Stuttgart.


Life cycle, Saprolegnia sp., Saprolegniales, Oomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Saprolegnia sp., Saprolegniales, Oomycota


Sporangiophores, Phytophthora, Pseudoperonospora, Peronosporales, Oomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Sporangiophores of Phytophthora infestans and Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Peronosporales, Oomycota


Asexual structures, Saprolegniales, Albuginales, Peronosporales, Oomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Asexual structures of Saprolegniales, Albuginales, Peronosporales, Oomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Life cycle, Phytophthora infestans on potato, Peronosporales, Oomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Phytophthora infestans on potato, Peronosporales, Oomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.

Protistean fungi

Phylogeny, protistean fungi, slime molds, Myxomycota and other groups (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Phylogeny of protistean fungi, slime molds, Myxomycota and other groups

Groups of mucilaginous fungi classified among protists. For orders, only the mycological names are cited. For classes and divisions, zoological names are cited first, and mycological names are added in quotation marks.


Morphological concepts, orders of Myxomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Morphological concepts, orders of Myxomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.


Life cycle, Stemonitis sp., Stemonitales, Myxomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Stemonitis sp., Stemonitales, Myxomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Life cycle, asexual, Dictyostelium sp., Dictyosteliales, Myxomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Dictyostelium sp., asexual, Dictyosteliales, Myxomycota

Modified after unpublished diagrams by Franz Oberwinkler; with permission.

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Life cycle, sexual, Dictyostelium sp., Dictyosteliales, Myxomycota (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Dictyostelium sp., sexual, Dictyosteliales, Myxomycota

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.


Life cycle, Plasmodiophora brassicae in cabbage, Plasmodiophoromycetes (diagram by M. Piepenbring)

Life cycle of Plasmodiophora brassicae in cabbage, Plasmodiophoromycetes

Abbreviations: 1n = haploid, P! = plasmogamy, n+n = dikaryotic, K! = karyogamy, 2n = diploid, M! = meiosis

Red and blue circles represent haploid nuclei of different mating types, circles of both colors represent diploid nuclei.