|Notice:||This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see
). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.
If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.
This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Citation formats to copy and paste
TY - JOUR
See also the citation download page at the journal.
Male holotype (AP411) and male paratype (AP411) from California, Mendocino County, Hopland Field Station, 39.0016, -123.08553, 253m, coll. M. Bentzien 29.viii.1973, 21.xii.1972; deposited in AMNH. Male paratype (MY3805) from California, Tehama County, Cottonwood, 40.31677, -122.349981, 183m, coll. C. Will 15.x.2009; female paratype (MY3158) from California, Mendocino County, County Rd 201, 6.8km N of JCT w/ Hwy 175, 39.02832, -123.130343, coll. A. Stockman 18.v.2005; deposited in AUMNH.
The specific epithet is a patronym in honor of Barack Obama, first African American President of the United State and reputed fan of spiders.
Aptostichus barackobamai males (Fig. 174) can be distinguished from all other Aptostichus species on the basis of a unique TSrd spination pattern which comprise numerous spines offset proximally (similar to Aptostichus isabella) in combination with a triangular shaped metatarsal mating apophysis (Figs 175-178); male Aptostichus isabella specimens have a similar TSrd pattern but have a rectangular mating apophysis. Females can be distinguished from all other known Aptostichus species by having a medial auxiliary spermathecal bulb (Figs 181, 182).
Description of male holotype
Specimen preparation and condition. Specimen collected live, preserved in 70% EtOH. Coloration presumed faded. Pedipalp, leg I left side removed, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration. Carapace, chelicerae, legs dark red 2.5YR 3/6. Abdomen reddish brown 5YR 4/4, distinct mottled striping dorsally Figs 174, 183, 184, 186, 187). Cephalothorax. Carapace 5.94 long, 5.06 wide, covered in thin white setae, stout black bristles along fringe; surface smooth, pars cephalica elevated. Fringe, posterior margin with few black bristles. Narrow foveal groove deep, slightly procurved. Eyes on low mound. AER slightly procurved, PER slightly recurved. PME, AME subequal diameter. Sternum moderately setose, STRl 3.16, STRw 2.64. Posterior sternal sigilla moderate in size, positioned towards margin, not contiguous, anterior sigilla pairs small, oval, marginal. Chelicerae with distinct anterior tooth row comprising 6 teeth, posterior margin with single row of small denticles. Palpal endites with single cuspules on proximal, inner margin, labium lacks cuspules, LBw 0.94, LBl 0.53. Rastellum consists of 6 stout spines not on mound. Abdomen. Setose, heavy black setae intermingled with fine black setae. Legs. Leg I: 5.45, 4.05, 3.80, 2.79, 2.00; leg IV: 5.69, 3.20. Heavy to moderate scopulae on tarsus, metatarsus legs I, II; light scopulae on tarsus legs III, IV. Tarsus I with single, slightly staggered row of 12 trichobothria. Leg I spination pattern illustrated in Figures 175-178; TSp 4, TSr 6, TSrd 7. Pedipalp. Articles slender, lacking distinct spines (Fig. 179). PTw 0.75, PTl 2.55, Bl 1.29. Embolus broad, tapering sharply towards very thin tip, curved distally, lacking serrations (Fig. 179).
Variation (4). Cl 5.00-6.25, 5.81±0.28; Cw 4.08-5.06, 4.79±0.24; STRl 2.75-3.47, 3.14±0.15; STRw 2.23-2.79, 2.58±0.12; LBw 0.78-0.94, 0.9±0.04; LBl 0.43-0.60, 0.54±0.04; leg I: 4.55-6.13, 5.53±0.36; 3.26-4.45, 4.02±0.27; 3.04-4.00, 3.66±0.21; 2.13-2.79, 2.62±0.16; 1.70-2.17, 1.97±0.1; leg IV: 5.00-6.38, 5.83±0.31; 2.52-3.20, 3.01±0.16; PTl 2.18-2.95, 2.62±0.17; PTw 0.60-0.77, 0.72±0.04; Bl 1.07-1.33, 1.25±0.06; TSp 4-4, 4.00±0; TSr 1-6, 3.25±1.11; TSrd 5-9, 7.00±0.82.
Description of female paratype
Specimen preparation and condition. Female collected live from burrow, prepared in same manner as male holotype. Genital plate removed, cleared in trypsin, stored in microvial with specimen. General coloration. Carapace, legs, chelicerae, dark reddish brown 2.5YR 2.5/4. Abdomen dark brown dorsally 10YR 3/3, distinct mottled chevron marking pattern. Cephalothorax. Carapace 8.00 long, 6.88 wide, lightly hirsute with fine black setae intermingled with white setae; generally smooth surface, pars cephalica moderately elevated. Fringe lacks setae. Foveal groove deep, slightly procurved. Eye group slightly elevated on low mound. AER slightly procurved, PER slightly recurved. PME-AME subequal diameter. Sternum widest at coxae II/III, moderately setose, STRl 4.56, STRw 3.76. Three pairs of sternal sigilla anterior pairs small in size, oval, marginal; posterior pair moderate in size, oval, positioned between margin, midpoint. Chelicerae anterior tooth row comprising 8 teeth with posterior margin denticle patch. Palpal endites with 12 cuspules concentrated at the inner promargin posterior heel; labium with 3 cuspules, LBw 1.39, LBl 1.02. Rastellum consists of 7 very stout spines not positioned on mound, forming a contiguous row; fringe of short spines along distal promargin extending upward from rastellum. Abdomen. Moderately setose. PLS all 3 segments with spigots. Terminal segment 1/2 length of medial segment, 2 enlarged spigots visible at tip. PMS single segment, with spigots, short with rounded terminus. Legs. Anterior two pairs noticeably more slender than posterior pairs. Leg I 17.25 long. Tarsus I with 12 trichobothria arranged in three staggered rows. Legs I, II with moderately heavy scopulae on tarsus, metatarsus; heavy scopulae distal most aspect tibia I, light scopulae on distal aspect tarsus legs III, IV. PTLs 17, TBs 3. Distinct preening comb on retrolateral distal surface, tarsus-metatarsus joint, of metatarsus III, IV. Spermathecae. 2 complex spermathecal bulbs with an elongate curved stalk, large basal extension, third medial bulb (Fig. 181, 182).
Variation (5). Cl 7.52-8.56, 8.05±0.19; Cw 6.31-7.52, 6.90±0.20; STRl 4.56-5.35, 4.88±0.16; STRw 3.72-4.40, 3.87±0.13; LBw 1.36-1.65, 1.43±0.06; LBl 0.82-1.11, 0.97±0.05; Leg I: 16.04-19.55, 17.66±0.63; ANTd 8-10, 8.60±0.40; PTLs 13-19, 17.00±1.41; TBs 2-5, 3.50±0.65.
United States: California: Mendocino Co.: Hopland Field Station, 39.0016, -123.08553, 253m, M Bentzien 21.xii.1972 [AP410, 1♂, AMNH], 29.viii.1973 [AP411, 1♂, AMNH], 6.x.1972 [AP525, 1juv, AMNH], 7.iv.1972 [AP526, 1♀, AMNH], 27.ix.1972 [AP527, 1♂, AMNH], 10.x.1972 [AP528, 1♀, AMNH]; Hwy 253, SW Ukiah, 10.8km W jct W/Hwy 101, 39.0552, -123.2451, 600m, M Hedin, J. Starrett, D Leavitt 20.xii.2007 [MY3625, 1♀, AUMNH]; Co Rd 201, 6.8km N jct w/hwy 175, 39.0283, -123.13031, 175m, A Stockman 18.v.2005 [MY3158, 1♀, AUMNH]; Orr Springs Rd, Ackerman Creek- 1st stream crossing W hwy 101, 39.1807, -123.2331, 211m, J Bond 14.iii.2005 [MY3025, 1♀, AUMNH]; Orr Springs Rd, 3.8km W bridge, 39.1924, -123.26591, 543m, J Bond 14.iii.2005 [MY3026, 1♀, AMNH]; Orr Springs Rd, W of Hwy 101, 13.4km W 1st bridge, 39.2293, -123.34261, 571m, J Bond 14.iii.2005 [MY3027, 1♀, FMNH], [MY3028, 1juv, AUMNH]; Orr Springs Rd, 19.5km W Ackerman Creek, 39.2352, -123.39411, 225m, J Bond 14.iii.2005 [MY3029, 1♀, AUMNH]; Orr Springs Rd, 38.8km W Ackerman Creek, 39.2609, -123.54851, 246m, J Bond 14.iii.2005 [MY3038, 1♀, AUMNH]; Napa Co.: Berryessa Knoxville Rd, 38.7235, -122.26561, 195m, A Stockman 16.v.2005 [MY3138, 1♀, AUMNH]; Shasta Co.: Rock Creek Rd, crossing Rock Creek, E Manton, 40.4591, -121.78281, 970m, M Hedin, J Starrett, D Leavitt 19.xii.2007 [MY3629, 1♀, AUMNH]; hwy 44, intersection hwy and Bear Creek, 32.2km E Redding, 6.4km E Millville, 40.5333, -122.12025, 252m, W Icenogle 7.xi.1972 [AP518, 1♀, AMNH]; Platina Rd, 4.7km NE Hwy 36, 40.3656, -122.8581, 724m, A Stockman 22.v.2005 [MY3173, 1juv, AUMNH]; Lower Springs Rd, 0.8km S Hwy 299, 40.5807, -122.45011, 225m, A Stockman 23.v.2005 [MY3175, 1♀, FMNH], [MY3176, 1juv, AUMNH]; Sutter Co.: Sutter Buttes, Moore Canyon, 39.2085, -121.79933, 61m, W Icenogle 19.vii.1974 [AP285, 1♀, CAS]; Sutter Buttes, Dean Place, 39.223, -121.78121, 259m, M. Hedin, P Paquin, J Starrett 4.iv.2003 [MY729, 1♀, AUMNH]; Sutter Buttes, Hough Canyon, Pete & Margit Sand Ranch, NW Mallot Rd, 39.2236, -121.78921, 239m, A Stockman 13.vi.2005 [MY3336, 3382, 1♀, 1juv, AUMNH]; Tehama Co.: Hwy32, S Deer Creek, 5.3km SW Potato Patch CG, 40.1599, -121.57041, 1100m, M Hedin, J Starrett, D Leavitt 19.xii.2007 [MY3622, 1♀, AUMNH]; Cottonwood, 40.3159, -122.34761, 183m, C Will 27.ix.2009 [MY3802, MY3804, 1♂, 1♀, AUMNH], 15.x.2009 [MY3803, MY3805, 1♀, 1♂, AUMNH].
Distribution and natural history
Distributed widely throughout north-central California with populations known from Mendocino, Napa, Shasta, Sutter, and Tehama Counties (Map 18). Aptostichus barackobamai has been collected in the Mayacamas Mountains in the west, Sutter Butte in the Central Valley, and the ridges to the north ringing the northernmost extension of the Central Valley. The DM (Map 19) indicates that the species is likely to be more widely distributed throughout the region and should occur further to the south along the Central Valley eastern ranges. The primary habitat type is mixed redwood and coniferous forest. Males have been collected in August, September, and December.
The conservation status of this species is likely to be secure due to its abundance and widespread distribution; however, may be locally vulnerable (e.g., Sutter Butte locality).
Species concept applied
Originally thought to be rare, only a few specimens were originally known from the Hopland Field Station locality, collecting efforts in recent years have recovered considerably more specimens and have significantly extended the known distribution of the species.
The Hesperus species group Included species.
Aptostichus hesperus Chamberlin, 1919
Aptostichus hedinorum Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus cahuilla Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus killerdana Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus serrano Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus aguacaliente Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus chemehuevi Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus sarlacc Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus derhamgiulianii Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus mikeradtkei Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus edwardabbeyi Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus anzaborrego Bond sp. n.
Aptostichus sinnombre Bond sp. n.
- Bond, J; 2012: Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae) ZooKeys, 252: 1-209. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.252.3588