|Notice:||This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see
). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.
If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.
This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Citation formats to copy and paste
TY - JOUR
See also the citation download page at the journal.
- Tungurahuala Kramer 1965: 68. Type species Tungurahuala basiliscus Kramer by original designation. New placement.
Elongate, strongly depressed, leafhoppers (Figs 1–3, 11). Coloration dark brown to black; face with dull yellow band extended from lora across base of clypellus and apex of clypeus. Crown unevenly convex, coarsely granulose and densely clothed with minute setae, pentagonal in dorsal view; marginal carina present apically, becoming obsolete posterolaterally; median longitudinal carina weakly delimited; ocelli on crown anterad of eyes, slightly closer to lateral margin than to midline; antennal ledge broad, depressed, coincident with lateral margin of crown; flagellum slightly shorter than crown width; mesal margin of eye entire; lateral frontal suture absent dorsad of antennal ledge; frontoclypeus (Fig. 31) rugulose medially with well developed muscle scars laterally, oblique anteroventral section separated from nearly horizontal posteroventral section by transverse ridge; transclypeal suture indistinct; anteclypeus tapered, weakly convex, apex wider than lorum; lorum well separated from ventral genal margin; gena angulately produced, largely concealing proepisternum. Pronotum depressed, rugulose and minutely setose, narrower than head, lateral margins strongly carinate, carina even with eye, margins subparallel in dorsal view; exposed part of mesonotum and scutellum together wider than long. Forewing (Fig. 27) opaque basally, gradually becoming translucent distally; veins raised and well delimited, with marginal setae; costal flange well developed basally; R three-branched (rarely with 1–2 supranumerary branches), branches not reflexed; crossvein s absent (outer anteapical cell open distally); two r-m and three m-cu crossveins present; inner apical cell narrow; appendix absent. Hind wing (Fig. 28) with cell distad of r-m crossvein broadened distally. Prothoracic femur (Fig. 33) stout, AM1 and AV1 well developed, intercalary row with ~13 close-set preapical setae; tibia short, weakly expanded distally, dorsal rows with few indistinct, widely spaced setae, AV well developed, PV with few scattered setae. Mesothoracic femur longer and wider than prothoracic femur, compressed, AV and PV each with several irregular setae, tibial rows with numerous poorly differentiated setae. Metathoracic tibia row AV with setae evenly spaced from base to apex; tarsomere I with several scattered plantar setae. Male sternum III apodemes well developed; pygofer (Fig. 37) short with scattered macrosetae dorsolaterally, with long, slender process densely clothed with minute spicules arising from ventrolateral margin and extending mesad into genital capsule, then dorsad; anal tube well sclerotized, broader than long in dorsal view, venter flat; valve (Fig. 38) short, straplike, narrowly fused to pygofer; plates triangular, depressed, extended well beyond posterior margin of pygofer, with lateral band and irregular submedial row of macrosetae, dorsolateral margin weakly sinuate in lateral view, base weakly constricted in ventral view; aedeagus (Figs 46–52) in lateral view with shaft split into dorsal gonopore-bearing section and tapered ventral process; connective (Figs 47–51) trilobed basally; style with large preapical lobe and attenuated, hooked apex. Female sternite VII (Fig. 65) subtruncate, concealing base of ovipositor; first valvulae (Fig. 69) slender, with dorsal and ventral preapical sculpturing irregularly strigate; second valvulae (Fig. 71) with basal fused area short, distal blades large, dorsal margin ascending in straight line, then gradually descending toward apex, declivous portion with ~7 widely spaced conical teeth and intervening serrations, apical fourth serrate, without teeth; third valvulae without macrosetae. Nymph unknown.
Kramer (1965) described Tungurahuala based on a single male specimen of Tungurahuala basiliscus Kramer from Baños, Tungurahua, Ecuador, placing it in Nirvaninae but noting that it is “vastly different from any previously described" genus. Recent Malaise trap sampling in Colombia has yielded additional specimens of the type species and a new, closely related species, including the first known female specimen of the genus. The genus may be distinguished from its only known relative, Ilyapa,by the characters noted in the key.
Key to species of Tungurahuala (males)
- Dietrich, C; 2011: Tungurahualini, a new tribe of Neotropical leafhoppers, with notes on the subfamily Mileewinae (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) ZooKeys, 124: 19-39. doi
- Kramer J (1965) Studies of Neotropical leafhoppers. I. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 67: 65-74.