Stylaster trachystomus

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Cairns S, Lindner A (2011) A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters. ZooKeys 158 : 1–88, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2011-12-22, version 20117, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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author = {Cairns, Stephen D. AND Lindner, Alberto},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters},
year = {2011},
volume = {158},
issue = {},
pages = {1--88},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.158.1910},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2011-12-22, version 20117, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters
A1 - Cairns S
A1 - Lindner A
Y1 - 2011
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 158
IS -
UR -
SP - 1
EP - 88
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2011-12-22, version 20117, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.158.1910

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Cairns2011ZooKeys158">{{Citation
| author = Cairns S, Lindner A
| title = A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2011
| volume = 158
| issue =
| pages = 1--88
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.158.1910
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-11-14

}} Versioned wiki page: 2011-12-22, version 20117, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Filifera
Familia: Stylasteridae
Genus: Stylaster


Stylaster trachystomus (Fisher, 1938) new rankWikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Allopora campyleca trachystoma Fisher, 1938: 510-511, pl. 45, fig. 2, pl. 46, pl. 54, figs 1–1b.—?Naumov 1960[1]: 579.—Lowenstam 1964[2]: 382 (mineralogy).
  • Stylaster campylecus trachystomus.—Cairns 1983b[3]: 430.—Cairns and Macintrye 1992[4]: 100-101 (mineralogy).—Wing and Barnard 2004[5]: 27.—Heifetz et al. 2005[6]: 134 (listed).—Stone and Shotwell 2007[7]: 108 (listed).—Jameison et al. 2007: 224 (listed).

Type material

Holotype: Alb-4784, 1 dry female colony 9 cm in height, and SEM stubs 1516, 1541, USNM 43265 (Fig. 17H). Paratypes: Alb-4784, 2 female, 2 male, 1 indet. colonies, and SEM stub 1517–18, dry, USNM 76811. Type locality. Alb-4784: 52°55'40"N, 173°26'E (off East Cape, Attu Island, Aleutians), 247 m.

Material examined

Types; Delta 5999–8E-3, 51°21.042'N, 179°30.483'W, 115 m, 4 Jul 2003, 1 male, AB10–0001; Delta 6230–20–18, 52°28.142'N, 173°35.882'W, 190 m, 8 Jul 2004, 5 male branch fragments in alcohol, AB10–0004; Shishaldin, 54°54.09'N, 178°37.27'E, 366 m, 11 Feb 2000, 1 female, 2 male, AB00–45.


Corallum uniplanar, occasionally with short side branches oriented perpendicular to flabellum; branch anastomosis occurs only in large-diameter basal branches. Largest colony (paratype) 12 cm tall and 8 cm wide, with a basal branch diameter of 3 × 1.5 cm. Distal branches circular to slightly flattened in cross section. Commensal spionid worm tubes common. Coenosteum reticulate-granular in texture, the coenosteal strips 70–80 µm wide, the slits discontinuous and about 10-15 µm wide, the small granules producing a rough texture. On exsert cyclosystems, coenosteal strips are parallel and straight. Most coralla bear some short coenosteal ridges, called “spinous outgrowths” by Fisher (1938[8]: 511), these thin ridges aligned with the branch (up to 1 mm long, 1 mm tall, and only 0.1 mm in width) or aligned with some of the pseudosepta on exterior wall of a cyclosystem (Fig. 20G–H). Coenosteum pale pink-orange.
Cyclosystems arranged uniformly on branches, not linearly, but fewer in number on posterior face. Cyclosystems rarely circular in shape, rather elliptical or asymmetrical, the longer axis of the ellipse up to 1.8 mm. Gastropore tubes cylindrical, slightly curved, and quite deep (up to 3 mm); a well-developed ring palisade present near gastrostyle tip, composed of squat elements about 50 µm in height and width. Gastrostyles lanceolate, up to 0.67 mm, having a H:D of about 3.1, and occupying lower quarter of gastropore tube. Because of curvature of the long gastropore tube, the short gastrostyle, and the wide pseudosepta, the gastrostyle tip is rarely seen when viewed from above.
Dactylotomes 0.085–0.10 mm in width, supernumerary dactylopores being quite rare, usually associated with pseudosepta. Dactylostyle inconspicuous (Fig. 20J). Range of dactylopores per cyclosystem 8–18 (n = 50, average = 11.82 (σ = 2.15), and mode = 11). Pseudosepta slender (0.07–0.21 mm wide), adcauline diastemas twice that width sometimes present; surface of pseudosepta quite porous (Fig. 20F).
Female ampullae (Fig. 20D, G, K–L) superficial hemispheres 1.0–1.3 mm in diameter, having a knobby or papillose surface; efferent pores not evident in material at hand. Male ampullae (Fig. 20M) also superficial swellings 0.50–0.55 mm in diameter. Both types of ampullae clustered on anterior and posterior branch faces.


Fisher (1938)[8] described this taxon as a subspecies of Stylaster campylecus, distinguishing it from the nominate subspecies by having spongy pseudosepta (Fig. 20F), decurrent pseudoseptal ridges on the inside of the gastropore tube (Fig. 20C), and spiny coenosteal outgrowths (Fig. 20G–H). Stylaster trachystomus is otherwise similar to typical Stylaster campylecus in gastropore tube and gastrostyle shape and number of dactylopores per cyclosystem, but is also similar to Stylaster brochi in arrangement of cyclosystems and in hosting commensal spionid polychaetes; it also has unique characteristics as mentioned above (see also Table 2). Although few colonies are known of this species, because it does present a unique set of characteristics, it is considered valid and herein elevated to species rank. The corallum was found to be 100% aragonitic according to Cairns and Macintrye (1992)[4].


Aleutian Islands: from off Attu Island and north of Amalia Island (Andreanof Islands), including Bowers Bank; 115–366 m.

Taxon Treatment

  • Cairns, S; Lindner, A; 2011: A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters ZooKeys, 158: 1-88. doi

Other References

  1. Naumov D (1960) Hydroids and Hydromedusae of the USSR. Keys to the fauna of the USSR published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR 70: 1-660.
  2. Lowenstam H (1964) Coexisting calcites and aragonites from skeletal carbonates of marine organisms and their strontium and magnesium contents. In: Miyake Y Koyama T (Eds). Recent Researches in the Fields of Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, and Nuclear Geochemistry, Maruzen C. , Ltd, Tokyo: 373-403.
  3. Cairns S (1983b) A generic revision of the Stylasterina (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Part 1. Description of the genera. Bulletin of Marine Science 33 (2): 427-508.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Cairns S, Macintrye I (1992) Phylogenetic implications of the calcium carbonate mineralogy in the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Palaios 7: 96-107. doi: 10.2307/3514799
  5. Wing G, Barnard D (2004) A field guide to Alaskan Corals. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-146, NOAA, US Dept of Commerce, 67 pp.
  6. Heifetz J, Wing B, Stone R, Malecha P, Courtney D (2005) Corals of the Aleutian Islands. Fisheries Oceanography 14: 131-138. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2005.00371.x
  7. Stone R, Shotwell S (2007) State of deep coral ecosystems in the Alaskan region: Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands. In: Hourigan TF et al. (Eds) The State of Deep Coral Ecosystems of the United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP-3, NOAA, Silver Spring, 65–108.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Fisher W (1938) Hydrocorals of the North Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 84 (3024): 493-554. doi: 10.5479/si.00963801.84-3024.493