Selenops candidus

From Species-ID
Jump to: navigation, search
Notice: This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see page history). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.

If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.

This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Crews S (2011) A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. ZooKeys 105 : 1–182, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2011-06-14, version 11051, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Selenops_candidus&oldid=11051 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Crews2011ZooKeys105,
author = {Crews, Sarah C.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean},
year = {2011},
volume = {105},
issue = {},
pages = {1--182},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.105.724},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/724/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2011-06-14, version 11051, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Selenops_candidus&oldid=11051 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean
A1 - Crews S
Y1 - 2011
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 105
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.105.724
SP - 1
EP - 182
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2011-06-14, version 11051, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Selenops_candidus&oldid=11051 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.105.724

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Crews2011ZooKeys105">{{Citation
| author = Crews S
| title = A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2011
| volume = 105
| issue =
| pages = 1--182
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.105.724
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/724/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-20

}} Versioned wiki page: 2011-06-14, version 11051, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Selenops_candidus&oldid=11051 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Selenopidae
Genus: Selenops

Name

Selenops candidus Muma, 1953Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Selenops aissus Petrunkevitch 1925[1]: 134, Figs 53–54 (♀, misidentified).
  • Selenops candidus Muma 1953[2]: 29, Figs 51–52 (♂, examined).
  • Selenops lunatus Muma 1953[2]: 31, Fig. 56 (♀, examined) syn. n.Selenops candidus: Alayón-García 2003[3]: 118, Figs 3–6 (♂, ♀).
  • Selenops lunatus: Alayón-García 2003[3]: 118, Figs 1–2 (♀).

Type material

Male holotype: Jamaica, 1935, L. Perkins (MCZ, examined).

Notes

The female holotype of Selenops lunatus Muma, 1953 retained in the MCZ (examined) is in every way identical to the females collected with the males of Selenops candidus Muma 1953[2], and thus both species names are to be synonymised.

Other material examined

JAMAICA: 1934, L. Perkins (holotype of Selenops lunatus) (MCZ);Clarendon Parish: on gravel road off road to Lluidasvale, 18°07'50.8"N, 77°10'05.0"W, ~454 m, 31.V.2006, S. Crews, E. Morrison, L. Wright, under bark of Bursera, 1♂, 1 p♀ (IJNHM. sel_363-364); St. Andrew Parish: Castleton Botanic Garden, 18°10'20.3"N, 76°49'27.6"W, ~157 m, 27.V.2006, S. Crews, I. Wilmot, under bark in garden, 1 p♂, 1 imm. (EME. sel_350-351); Hermitage Dam Road, 2.6 km from junction with Stony Hill, 18°04'25.4"N, 76°47'01.3"W ~368 m, 5.VI.2006, S. Crews, I. Wilmot, under bark of Bursera, 1 ♀ (IJNHM sel_385). St. Ann Parish: North Coast Highway between Discovery Bay and Rio Bueno, 18°28'31.3", N 77°25'49.0" W, ~25 m, 28.V.2006, S. Crews, I. Wilmot, under bark on limestone ridge, 2 ♂, 2 imm. (IJNHM. sel_357-360). St. Mary Parish: near Mango Valley at football field, 1.6 km off of North Coast Hwy., 18°24'23.4"N, 77°02'37.5"W, ~156 m, 28.V.2006, S. Crews, I. Wilmot, under bark, 5 imm. (EME sel_352-356); Strawberry Fields near Robin's Bay and Green Castle, campground, 22.III.1972, H. & F. Levi, 1 ♀ (MCZ). Westmoreland Parish: near New Hope, on road to Savanna-la-Mar, 18°14'55.4"N, 78°14'41.0"W, ~40 m, 29.V.2006, S. Crews & I. Wilmot, under fence post (no voucher, spiderling, used in molecular analysis, sel_362). Manchester Parish: Mandeville, 14.II.1946, B. Heineman, 1 ♀ (AMNH).

Diagnosis

Males can be separated from all other species by the palpus, which is similar to that of other Jamaican species in having a two-pronged embolus and a tibial apophysis with 3 branches instead of two, however, the dorsal branch of the RTA is wider distally, and the base of the MA is more quadrangular (Figs 97–98). Females can be distinguished from other species by the quadrangular to round median field (Figs 99–100).

Remarks

The female of this species was described by Petrunkevitch (1925)[1] as Selenops aissus based on a description only, and without viewing Walckenaer's (1837) specimen. Muma (1953)[2] described the female of Selenops lunatus, designating a new type. Muma also described the male as Selenops candidus and noted that, based on their overall appearance, Selenops candidus and Selenops lunatus might be the same species (these specimens were apparently not collected together, and the precise collection localities are unknown). Alayón-García (2003)[3] re-described Petrunkevitch's (1925) specimens of Selenops aissus from the Peabody Museum as two different species, one as Selenops lunatus and one as the female of Selenops candidus. Muma (1953)[2] noted that the two specimens designated as Selenops aissus by Petrunkevitch (1925)[1] may demonstrate genitalic variation. In my extensive collecting, several males identified as Selenops candidus were collected, and one female from a second locality that was identified as Selenops lunatus. However, molecular analyses (Crews and Gillespie 2010[4]) indicate that the female specimen described as Selenops lunatus is the same species as those specimens described as Selenops candidus. Therefore, it would seem the female previously described as Selenops lunatus by Alayón-García (2003)[3] is a variant of Selenops candidus. Therefore, this species' name has been synonymised. Despite that Petrunkevitch's specimens were viewed recently (Alayón-García 2003[3]), and should be in the PM, they cannot be located now. Female specimens show genitalic variation in the shape of the median field. It can be very square or roundish, and wide or narrow.

Description

Holotype male: Color: Carapace (holotype) orange and transparent (recent) brown-yellow with darker marks laterally and lateromedially, white setae prominent around the lateral margins of the carpace and the eyes; sternum pale yellow, darker around border; chelicerae (holotype) dark red-brown (recent) light reddish-brown with indistinct dusky marks on the anterior faces; maxillae yellow, lightening distally; labium dusky yellow, lightening distally; abdomen (holotype) orange-tan with the two pairs of dark median spots and festoon visible (recent) tan-grey, lighter anteromedially, darkening laterally and caudally, with 2 median dark spots, and festoon pattern visible; ventrally light yellow; legs (holotype) orange-yellow with leg bands very indistinct (recent) brown-yellow darkening distally, especially in legs III and IV, with leg bands indistinct. Carapace: 0.83 times longer than broad. Eyes: AER nearly straight; PER recurved; AME slightly larger than PME, PLE largest, ALE smallest; eye diameters, AME 0.35, ALE 0.10, PME 0.25, PLE 0.38; interdistances AME-PME 0.10, PME-ALE 0.13, ALE-PLE 0.38. PME-PME 1.36. ALE-ALE 2.15; ocular quadrangle AME-AME 0.55, PLE-PLE 2.20; clypeus 0.09 high. Mouthparts: Chelicerae with stout setae medially and anteriorly; maxillae longer than broad, with tuft of conspicuous setae distally; labium distally rounded. Sternum: 1.38 times longer than broad, posteriorly indented. Legs: Leg I only slightly shorter than II and III; leg formula 2314; scopulae present on distal end of all 4 tarsi; tarsi I-IV with strong claw tufts; pr claw per foot slightly toothed; spination: leg I, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti d 1–1–0, pr 1–1–0, rl 1–1–0, v 2–2–2–2; Mt pr 1–0–0, v 2–2–0, rl 1–1–0; leg II, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–1–0, d 1–1–0, rl 1–1–0, v 2–2–2–2; Mt pr 1–1–0, v 2–2, rl 1–0–0; leg III, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–1–0, d 0, rl 1–1–0, v 2–2–2; Mt pr 1–0–0, rl 1–0–0, v 2–2; leg IV, Fm pr 1–1–0, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–0–1, v 2–2–0, rl 1–0–1; Mt pr 1–1–0, rl 1–0–0, v 2–2–0. Abdomen: Without terminal setal tufts. Pedipalp: Femur, spination d 0–1–3; cymbium oval in ventral view, truncate posterolaterally; conductor large, arising from short, slightly curved stalk near distal portion of bulb, pointed laterally toward 2 o'clock position, and not extending beyond the edge of cymbium, curving around retrolateral side and reconnecting to bulb near center, forming circular space between the connections; embolus two-pronged, one prong long, slender, curving around edge of cymbium ending at 1 o'clock, more ventral prong arises from large rounded base, tapering abruptly, beginning at 6 o'clock and terminating at 9 o'clock; MA located between 3 and 4 o'clock, directed distally, with stout, squarish base that tapers abruptly to slender, curved single hook; tibial apophyses extend at least ¼ way up length of cymbium in ventral view; three tibial apophyses; ventral apophysis slender, widening, flattened at tip; MA is very small, pointed, conical structure; dorsal tibial apophysis longest, curving dorsally, then ventrally, widening toward apex, truncate (Figs 97–98). Dimensions: Total length 8.73. Carapace length 4.50, width 5.40. Sternum length 2.75, width 2.00. Abdomen length 4.23, width 3.60. Pedipalp: Fm 1.50, Pt 0.50, Ti 0.75, Ta 1.25, total 3.90. Leg I: Fm 5.80, Pt 2.00, Ti 5.75, Mt 5.75, Ta 2.20, total 21.5. Leg II: Fm 7.25, Pt 2.00, Ti 6.50, Mt 6.00, Ta 2.40, total 24.15. Leg III: Fm 6.75, Pt 1.90, Ti 6.00, Mt 5.90, Ta 2, total 22.55. Leg IV: Fm 6.00, Pt 1.80, Ti 5.00, Mt 5.00, Ta 1.90, total 19.70.
Female (holotype of S. lunatus): Color:Carapace dark red-brown with white setae; sternum (holotype) rusty yellow (recent) orange-brown, darker around border; chelicerae (holotype) dark brown (recent) dark brown with white setae; maxillae (holotype) rusty yellow (recent) orange-brown, lightening distally; labium (holotype) rusty yellow (recent) orange-brown, lightening distally; abdomen dorsally (holotype) cream-colored, with a very slight indication of a medial stripe, festoon barely visible (recent) yellow-grey, lighter medially, greyer on sides, festoon prominent, 4 pairs of spots medially, caudal-most pair most prominent; ventrally (holotype) light yellow (recent) dusky yellow; legs (holotype) orange-brown (recent) yellow-brown, annulations visible. Carapace:0.93 times longer than broad. Eyes:AER nearly straight; PER slightly recurved; PME larger than AME, PME same as PLE, ALE smallest; eye diameters, AME 0.30, ALE 0.13, PME 0.35, PLE 0.35; interdistances AME-PME 0.08, PME-ALE 0.23, ALE-PLE 0.20. PME-PME 1.50. ALE-ALE 2.75; ocular quadrangle AME-AME 0.55, PLE-PLE 2.75; clypeus 0.08 high. Mouthparts:chelicerae with stout setae medially and anteriorly; maxillae longer than broad, with tuft of conspicuous setae distally; labium distally rounded. Sternum:1.09 times longer than broad, posteriorly indented. Legs:leg I only slightly shorter than legs II and III; leg formula 2314; scopulae present on all 4 tarsi, metatarsi and distally on tibiae I and II; tarsi I-IV with strong claw tufts; pr claw per foot slightly toothed; spination: leg I, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–0; Ti v 2–2–2; Mt v 2–2; leg II, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti v 2–2–2; Mt v 2–2; leg III, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–0; Ti v 2–2–0; Mt v 2–2; leg IV, Fm pr 1–1–0, d 1–1–1, rl 0–0–1; Ti v 2–2–0; Mt v 2–1. Abdomen:Without terminal setal tufts. Pedipalp:claw with 8 teeth. Epigyne:externally,lateral lobes widely separated medially, meeting caudally, forming quadrangular to rounded median field, genital openings lateral, with epigynal pockets present; left and right halves of internal copulatory organs distantly positioned on either side of the median field, internal copulatory organs large and rather amorphous, posterodorsal fold present, covers ¼ of internal copulatory organs (Figs 99–100). Dimensions: Total length 14.58. Carapace length 5.25, width 5.65. Sternum length 3.00, width 2.75. Abdomen length 9.33, width 7.35. Pedipalp: Fm 1.75, Pt 0.90, Ti 1.00, Ta 1.90, total 5.55. Leg I: Fm 6.00, Pt 2.50, Ti 5.00, Mt 4.75, Ta 1.80, total 20.05. Leg II: Fm 6.75, Pt 2.75, Ti 5.50, Mt 4.75, Ta 1.75, total 21.50. Leg III: Fm 6.75, Pt 2.75, Ti 5.65, Mt 4.75, Ta 1.75, total 21.65. Leg IV: Fm 6.00, Pt 1.75, Ti 4.75, Mt 4.75, Ta 1.60, total 18.85.

Natural history

This species has been collected in dry coastal limestone forests, as well as dry inland forests, from sea level to 500 m. It has been taken on Pandanus, under the loose bark of several trees including Pimento, Bursera, and Eucalyptus, on fence posts, and on bananas. Egg sacs are single, flat, white discs attached under bark and guarded by the female.

Distribution

Selenops candidus is endemic to the island of Jamaica, though historically has been occasionally shipped to the United States on bananas (Map 11).

Taxon Treatment

  • Crews, S; 2011: A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean ZooKeys, 105: 1-182. doi

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Petrunkevitch A (1925) Arachnida from Panamá. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 27:51-248.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Muma M (1953) A study of the spider family Selenopidae in North and Central America and the West Indies. American Museum Novitates 1619:1-55.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Alayón-García G (2003) La familia Selenopidae (Arachnida: Araneae) en Jamaica. Revista Ibérica Aracnología 8:117-122.
  4. Crews S, Gillespie R (2010) Molecular systematics of Selenops spiders (Araneae: Selenopidae) from North and Central America: implications for Caribbean biogeography. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 101:288-322. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01494.x

Images