Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer

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This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Park J, Carlton C (2015) Pseudoexeirarthra, a new genus from New Zealand (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), with descriptions of seven new species. ZooKeys (491) : 95–118, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2015-03-26, version 70503, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Pseudoexeirarthra_spinifer&oldid=70503 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Park2015ZooKeys,
author = {Park, Jong-Seok AND Carlton, Christopher E.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Pseudoexeirarthra, a new genus from New Zealand (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), with descriptions of seven new species},
year = {2015},
volume = {},
issue = {491},
pages = {95--118},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.491.9164},
url = {http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4974},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2015-03-26, version 70503, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Pseudoexeirarthra_spinifer&oldid=70503 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Pseudoexeirarthra, a new genus from New Zealand (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), with descriptions of seven new species
A1 - Park J
A1 - Carlton C
Y1 - 2015
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL -
IS - 491
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.491.9164
SP - 95
EP - 118
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2015-03-26, version 70503, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Pseudoexeirarthra_spinifer&oldid=70503 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.491.9164

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Park2015ZooKeys">{{Citation
| author = Park J, Carlton C
| title = Pseudoexeirarthra, a new genus from New Zealand (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), with descriptions of seven new species
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2015
| volume =
| issue = 491
| pages = 95--118
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.491.9164
| url = http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4974
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2021-04-18

}} Versioned wiki page: 2015-03-26, version 70503, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Pseudoexeirarthra_spinifer&oldid=70503 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Coleoptera
Familia: Staphylinidae
Genus: Pseudoexeirarthra

Name

Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer (Broun)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Sagola spinifer Broun, 1895: 75. Hudson 1923[1]: 365; 1934[2]: 183. Raffray 1924[3]: 233. Newton and Thayer 2005[4]. Nomura and Leschen 2006[5]: 244.
  • Sagola dilucida Broun, 1914: 157. Hudson 1923[1]: 365; 1934[2]: 184. Newton and Thayer 2005[4]. Nomura and Leschen 2006[5]: 242. syn. n.
  • Sagola guinnessi Broun, 1911: 502. Hudson 1923[1]: 365; 1934[2]: 184. Raffray 1924[3]: 232. Newton and Thayer 2005[4]. Nomura and Leschen 2006[5]: 242. syn. n.
  • Sagola longicollis Broun, 1911: 498. Hudson 1923[1]: 365; 1934[2]: 183. Raffray 1924[3]: 232. Newton and Thayer 2005[4]. Nomura and Leschen 2006[5]: 243. syn. n.
  • Sagola longula Broun, 1912: 625. Hudson 1923[1]: 365; 1934[2]: 183. Raffray 1924[3]: 232. Newton and Thayer 2005[4]. Nomura and Leschen 2006[5]: 243. syn. n.
  • Sagola rectipennis Broun, 1921: 489. Hudson 1923[1]: 365; 1934[2]: 184. Newton and Thayer 2005[4]. Nomura and Leschen 2006[5]: 243. syn. n.

Type material

Lectotype. New Zealand: Waikato (WO): 1♂ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “2723.” [white label, handwritten]; “Mount. Pirongia” [white label, printed]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “Sagola spinifer” [white label, handwritten]; “LECTOTYPE Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer (Broun) Desig. Park and Carlton 2013” [red label, printed]. *The lectotype designation is required because Broun did not explicitly designate a type specimen, and his comments suggest that three specimens were examined (Broun, 1875: 75). This designation will fix the identity of the species and facilitate its recognition by future workers. Paralectotypes (1 male, 1 female). New Zealand: Waikato (WO): 1♀ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “Type” [red label, printed]; “2723.” [white label, handwritten]; “Pirongia” [white label, printed]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “Sagola spinifer” [white label, handwritten]; “PARALECTOTYPE Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer (Broun) Desig. Park and Carlton 2013” [yellow label, printed]. 1♂ (NZAC), glued on rectangular card, “Pirongia” [white label, printed]; “var. 2723.” [white label, handwritten]; “Sagola spinifer antennae.” [white label, handwritten]; “Broun” [white label, handwritten]; “ N.Z. Arthropod Collection, NZAC Private Bag 92710 New Zealand” [yellow label, printed]; “PARALECTOTYPE Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer (Broun) Desig. Park and Carlton 2013” [yellow label, printed].
Holotype of Sagola dilucida: New Zealand: Auckland (AK): 1♀ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “Type” [red label, printed]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “Epsom. Jany.1912.” [white label, handwritten]; “3520.♂” [white label, handwritten]; “Sagola dilucida” [white label, handwritten]. The original label indicates the specimen is male, but it is female.
Holotype of Sagola guinnessi: New Zealand: Taupo (TO): 1♂ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “Type” [red label, printed]; “3373.” [white label, handwritten]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “Erua. 5.3.1912.” [white label, handwritten]; “Sagola guinnessi.” [white label, handwritten]. The original label indicates the specimen is female, but it is male.
Holotype of Sagola longicollis: New Zealand: Taupo (TO): 1♀ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “Type” [red label, printed]; “3369” [white label, handwritten]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “Mahuia. Jany.1911.” [white label, handwritten]; “Sagola longicollis.” [white label, handwritten].
Holotype of Sagola longula: New Zealand: Auckland (AK): 1♀ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “Type” [red label, printed]; “15.” [white label, handwritten]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “auckland. N.Z. Lawson” [white label, handwritten]; “Sharp Coll. 1905-313.” [white label, printed]; “Sagola longula.” [white label, handwritten].
Syntype of Sagola rectipennis: New Zealand: Otago Lakes (OL): 1♂ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “3997.♂” [white label, handwritten]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “Mt. Alfred. 9.2.1914” [white label, handwritten]; “Sagola ♂. rectipennis” [white label, handwritten]. 1♂ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “3997.♂” [white label, handwritten]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “Mt. Alfred. 9.2.1914” [white label, handwritten]; “Sagola rectipennis” [white label, handwritten]. 1♂ (BMNH), glued on rectangular card, “3997.♂” [white label, handwritten]; “New Zealand Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” [white label, printed]; “Mt. Alfred. 9.2.1914” [white label, handwritten].

Additional material

(n = 198; 95 males, 103 females). New Zealand: Auckland (AK): 1♂ 1♀, Waitakere Ra, Cascade-Kauri Park, Up. Kauri tr, 170 m, 8 XII 1984–25 I 1985, kauri-podo-hdwd, A. Newton, M. Thayer 680, FIT&window trap (DSC); 1♂, Lynfield, Tropicana dr, 14 VIII 1976, G. Kuschel, litter (NZAC); 1♂ 1♀, Lynfield, 7 IX 1980, G. Kuschel, litter (NZAC); 2♀♀, Woodhill, 27 II 1976, C. F. Butcher, pit trap (NZAC); 1♂, Lynfield, 16 IV 1977, G. Kuschel (NZAC); Bay of Plenty (BP): 1♀, Orete Forest, Te Puia Hut, 230 m, 29 I 1993, R. M. Emberson, litter (NZAC); 1♂1♀, Lottin Pt Rd, Waenga Bush, 24 XI 1992–29 I 1993, R. C. Henderson, Malaise trap (NZAC); 1♂, Lottin Pt Rd, Waenga, 27 I 1993, R. C. Henderson, litter (NZAC); 1♂, Te Koau, Main Ridge, 220 m, 23 IX 1992, J. S. Dugdale, litter (NZAC); 1♂, Te Koau, Twin Puriri’s, 31 I–15 III 1993, R. C. Henderson, pit trap (NZAC); 1♂, Papatea, 13 X–23 XI 1992, G. Hall, pit trap (NZAC); 1♂, Mamaku Ra, 18 I 1972, G. W. Ramsay, litter (NZAC); 1♀, Te Koau, Bush Track, 23 IX 1992, J. S. Dugdale, litter (NZAC); 1♀, Mount Te Aroha, summit, 19 XI 2005, J. Nunn, moss (NZAC); 1♀, Kaimai-Mamaku Forest Park, Mt. Te Aroha summit rd, 450 m, 37°31.43'S, 175°44.01'E, 19 XI 2005, mixed broadleaf forest with many tree ferns, nikau palms, FMHD#2005-016, FIT, A. Newton, M. Thayer, ANMT site 1144 (FMNH); Buller (BR): 5♂♂ 6♀♀, Nelson Lakes NP, Mt. Robert, Speargrass tr, 875 m, 41°49.47'S, 172°48.31'E, 17 XII 2005, Nothofagus forest, FMHD#2005-110, litter, A. Solodovnikov, D. Clarke, ANMT site 1161 (FMNH); 22♂ 12♀♀, (1♂, slide-mounted), Lewis Pass NR, 11.9 km ese Spring Junction, 540 m, 17 XII 1984–21 I 1985, Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer, 715, window trap (FMNH); 8♂♂ 14♀♀, Nelson Lakes NP, Lake Rotoroa, Braeburn tr, 470 m, 16 XII 1984–7 I 1985, Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer 712, window trap (FMNH); 4♂♂ 8♀♀, Nelson Lakes NP, n slope Mt. Robert, Pinchgut tr, 950 m, 14 XII 1984–6 I 1985, Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer 707, window trap (FMNH&DSC); 2♀♀, Nelson Lakes NP, n slope Mt. Robert, Pinchgut tr, 950 m, 14 XII 1984–6 I 1985, Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer 707, litter (FMNH); 1♂2♀♀, Nelson Lakes NP, Lake Rotoiti, St. Arnaud tr, 645 m, 14 XII 1984–6 I 1985, Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer 705, window trap (FMNH); 1♂, Nelson Lakes NP, Mt. Robert Rd, 660 m, 26 XII 1984–6 I 1985, Leptospermum-Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer 722, FIT&window trap (DSC); 1♂, Lewis Pass NR, 13.2 km s Lewis Pass, 650 m, 17 XII 1984–21 I 1985, Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer 713, FIT&window trap (DSC); 2♂♂, Mt. Misery, Ecology Div Stn, 460 m, 24–26 I 1977, J. S. Dugdale, water trap (NZAC); 1♀, Greymouth, Boddytown, 8 II 1984, J.C. Watt, litter (NZAC); 2♂♂, Rd to Mt. Robert, 762 m, Lake Rotoiti, 3 V 1966, J. I. Townsend, moss (NZAC); Central Otago (CO): 1♂ 1♀, Waipori, 610 m, Stony Stream, 2 XI 1979, J. C. Watt, moss (NZAC); 1♀, Piano Flat, Waikaia Forest, 25 IV 2007, washed soil beech forest (JTN); Coromandel (CL): 2♀♀, Cuvier I, Northwest Ridge, 25 II–2 III 1982, G. Hall, malaise trap (NZAC); 1♂, Cuvier I, 25 II–2 III 1982, G. Hall, pit trap (NZAC); 1♂, Great Barrier I, Little Windy Hill, 100 m, 25 II–19 III 2003, K. Parsons, malaise trap (AMNZ); 1♂ 3♀♀, Great Barrier I, Little Windy Hill, 13 XII 2002–17 I 2003, P. Sutton, Malaise (AMNZ); 1♂ 1♀, Cuvier I, Ridge Tr, 100 m, 10–18 XI 1999, J. W. Early, S. E. Thorpe, malaise trap (AMNZ); 1♂, Great Barrier I, Little Windy Hill, 17 I–27 II 2003, K. Parsons, malaise trap (AMNZ); 1♂, Great Barrier I, Little Windy Hill, 220 m, 7 XI–11 XII 2001, P. Sutton, J. Gilbert, malaise trap (AMNZ); 3♀♀, Great Barrier I, Little Windy Hill, 220 m, 11 XII 2001–18 I 2002, P. Sutton (AMNZ); 1♀, Cuvier I, Pumphouse Stream, 120 m, 14 XI 1999, J. W. Early, S.E. Thorpe, litter (AMNZ); 1♀, Great Barrier I, Little Windy Hill, 220 m, 21 II 2001–26 III 2002, P. Sutton, malaise trap (AMNZ); 1♀, Great Barrier I, Little Windy Hill, 220 m, 18 I–21 II 2002, P. Sutton, malaise trap (AMNZ); Fiordland (FD): 2♂♂, Lake Hauroko, Southland, 2 II 1966, J. I. Townsend, moss (NZAC); 1♂, Secretary I, Gut Bay, 24 XI 1981, C.F. Butcher, beech litter and rotten wood (NZAC); 1♂, Fiordland NP, Monowai Lake, 4km sw Monowai, 11–14 III 2010, J. W. Early, yellow pan traps, Nothofagus solandri forest (DSC); 1♂ 1♀, Fiordland NP, Milford Sound rd, Smithy Creek Campground area, 400 m, 44°57.07'S 168°01.16'E, 9 XII 2005, Nothofagus fusca & Nothofagus menziesii open forest, FMHD#2005-089, litter, M. Thayer, A. Newton, ANMT site 1170 (FMNH); 1♀, Secretary I, 850 m, 30 XI 1981, C.F. Butcher, pit trap (NZAC); Gisborne (GB): 1♂, Urewera NP, Waikaremoana rd, s end Matanunui Ridge, 720 m, 38°44.40'S, 177°05.81'E, 22 XI–23 XII 2005, mixed broadleaf (incl. Nothofagus fusca)-podocarp, FMHD#2005-028, FIT, M. Thayer, A. Solodovnikov, ANMT site 1149 (FMNH); 1♀, Lake Waikaremoana, 17 I 1972, G. W. Ramsay, litter; 1♀, Urewera NP, at large, #021, 6–8 III 2000, C. Carlton, A. Weir (LSAM); 1♀, Urewera NP, Lake Waikremoana, nr Caravan Park, shoreline toetoe, FIT, 23 III 2000, C. Carlton, A. Weir, #078 (LSAM); Northland (ND): 1♀, Paihia Opua SF, 22 I 1981, G. Kuschel, litter and rotten wood (NZAC); 1♀, Waipoua SF, Waipoua Stm, 70 m, 16–21 III 1978, S. Peck, J. Peck, malaise trap (FMNH); Nelson (NN): 2♂♂ 1♀, 0.6 km e Gowanbridge, 330 m, 18 XII 1984–7 I 1985, Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer 717, FIT&window trap (DSC); 1♂, Kahurangi NP, Cobb Ridge, above Cobb Reservoir, 1050 m, 41°06.35'S, 172°41.66'E, 29 XI–18 XII 2005, Nothofagus forest, FMHD#2005-051, FIT, A. Newton, M. Thayer, A. Solodovnikov, ANMT site 1159 (FMNH); 1♂, Kahurangi NP, Arthur Range, above Flora Saddle, 1000 m, 41°11.35'S, 172°44.46'E, 29 XI–18 XII 2005, Nothofagus forest, FMHD#2005-046, litter, A. Newton, M. Thayer, ANMT site 1156 (FMNH); 1♀, Cobb Ridge, east of Cobb Reservoir, 990 m, 2 I 1985, Nothofagus forest, A. Newton, M. Thayer 728, litter (DSC); 1♂ 1♀, Canaan Harwoods tr, 4 II 1965, L. P. Marchant, litter (NZAC); 1♂, Dovedale, 11 X 1963, J. I. Townsend, litter (NZAC); 2♀♀, Lake Rotoiti, 19 II 1965, L. P. Marchant, moss (NZAC); 1♀, Lake Rotoiti, 27 VII 1965, A. K. Walker, moss (NZAC); Otago Lakes (OL): 1♂ 1♀, 44.5 km nw Wanaka, 350m, Matukituki Valley, 44’29S 168’47E, #079, Nothofagus forest litter, 18 I 1998, C. Carlton, R. Leschen (LSAM); 1♂ 1♀, Makarora Bush, Makarora, 7–9 XI 1997, J. Nunn (JTN); 1♂ 1♀, Paradise, 2 II 1984, J. C. Watt, wood mould (NZAC); 1♂, Upper Makarora, 17 I 1968, F. A. Alack, litter (NZAC); 1♀, 10.5 km nw Glenorchy, Nothofagus forest, 44°47'S, 169°27'E, FIT #143, 19–24 I 1998, C. Carlton, R. Leschen (LSAM); Rangitikei (RI): 1♀, Ruahine Ra, Armstrong Saddle, 1370 m, 26 XII 1983, J. C. Watt, litter (NZAC); 1♀, Ruahine Ra, Triplex, 10 II 1980, C. F. Butcher, litter (NZAC); Marlborough Sounds (SD): 3♂♂ 2♀♀, Wairau V, Schroders Ck, 7 IX 1966, J. I. Townsend, litter 66/295 (NZAC); 1♀, Upper Wairau Valley, 731 m, 5 IX 1966, J. I. Townsend, moss (NZAC); 3♀♀, Head Fabians Valley, 23 X 1963, J. I. Townsend, litter (NZAC); 1♂, Rainbow SF, Connors Ck, 825 m, 21 XII 1981, J. W. Early, sweeping (NZAC); Southland (SL): 2♀♀, Catlins SF Park, 15 II 1982, C.F. Butcher, J. S. Dugdale, litter (NZAC); 1♀, Owaka Glenomaru Reserve, 18 I 1978, S. Peck, J. Peck, litter (FMNH); Taupo (TO): 1♂, Kaimanawa North Forest Park, 850m, 11 III 1978, J. S. Dugdale, moss (NZAC); 1♂, Kaimanawa N Forest Park Saddle, 20 II 1978, J. S. Dugdale, litter (NZAC); 1♀ (slide-mounted), Erua, 27 I 1982, C. F. Butcher, litter and moss (NZAC); 1♀, Erua, 16 XII 1961, G. Kuschel, litter (NZAC); Westland (WD): 1♂, Doughboy Creek, 6 km sw Mahitai, 5 II 1984, J. C. Watt, wood mould (NZAC); 1♀, Hokitika Gorge, 29 I 1978, S. Peck, litter (FMNH); 1♀, Jacksons Bay, 23 IX 1979, A. K. Walker, moss (NZAC); Wanganui (WI): 1♂ 1♀, nr Glow-worm Cave, Table Hill rd nr Apiti, 8 II 1997, J. Nunn (JTN); 1♂, Ashhurst Domain, Ashhurst, 23 X 1998, J. Nunn, litter (JTN); Wellington (WN): 3♂♂ 1♀, Mana Island, 4–6 II 1994, J. Nunn, decayed wood (JTN); 1♂, Tararua Ra, e Basin Logan, 1300 m, 6 XII 1984, R. C. Craw, turf plants (NZAC); 1♂, Pakuratahi Forks, 8 VII 1994, J. Nunn, litter (JTN); 1♀, Tararua Ra, Dundas Hut Ridge, 990 m, 13 II 1985, C. F. Butcher, litter (NZAC); 1♀, n Titahi Bay, Rocky Bay, 28 XII 1980, J. C. Watt, litter and humus (NZAC); 1♀, Tararua Forest Park, Waitewaewae tr, 220 m, 40°51.98'S, 175°15.319'E, 26 XI–21 XII 2005, broadleaf-podo forest, FMHD#2005-034, FIT, A. Newton, M. Thayer, ANMT site 1152 (FMNH); Waikato (WO): 1♂, Pirongia Forest Park, Mahaukura tr, 270 m, 37°58.22'S, 175°06.52'E, 18 XI–27 XII 2005, broadleaf forest, FMHD#2005-009, FIT, A. Newton, M. Thayer, et al., ANMT site 1142 (FMNH).

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished from the other species of this genus by the following combination of characters: body length 2.3–2.8 mm; eyes large, as long as temples (Fig. 1A); antennomeres 3–7 subquadrate, 8–10 weakly transverse; median lobe of male genitalia divided in apical third, broadest at base (Fig. 3A); parameres asymmetrical, left much broader basally than right (Fig. 3A).

Redescription

Length 2.3–2.8 mm. Body reddish brown, antennae, legs, maxillary palpi and elytra paler (Fig. 1A). Head bluntly rectangular, longer than wide, widest across eyes (Fig. 2A). Antennomere 1 approximately 1.5 times as long as wide, 2 longer than wide, 3–7 subquadrate, 8–10 weakly transverse. Eyes each large and prominent, as long as temple (Fig. 2A). Prosternum as long as wide, widest at apical one-third (Fig. 2B). Elytra longer than wide (Fig. 1A). Hind wings fully developed. Meso- metaventrites trapezoidal, longer than wide (Fig. 2C). Tergite IV with pair of transverse patches of microtrichia reaching middle. Median lobe of genitalia divided, broadest at base (Fig. 3A). Phallobase symmetrical and rounded (Fig. 3A). Parameres asymmetrical, left paramere much broader at middle than right (Fig. 3A).

Type locality

Mount Pirongia (WO), New Zealand.

Distribution

Auckland (AK), Bay of Plenty (BP), Buller (BR), Central Otago (CO), Coromandel (CL), Fiordland (FD), Gisborne (GB), Northland (ND), Nelson (NN), Otago Lakes (OL), Rangitikei (RI), Marlborough Sounds (SD), Southland (SL), Taupo (TO), Westland (WD), Wanganui (WI), Wellington (WN), Waikato (WO) (Fig. 4: black circles).

Habitat

Most specimens were collected using malaise, flight intercept, window traps, or by sifting leaf litter in broadleaf, podocarp, hardwood and Nothofagus forests.

Comments

Specimens of Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer can be separated from those of the other species by the large eyes, fully developed hind-wings, shapes of antennomeres, and genitalia. The type specimens of Sagola dilucida, Sagola guinnessi, Sagola longicollis, Sagola longula and Sagola rectipennis share these diagnostic characters. For these reasons, we have placed these names in synonymy with Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer.

Taxon Treatment

  • Park, J; Carlton, C; 2015: Pseudoexeirarthra, a new genus from New Zealand (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), with descriptions of seven new species ZooKeys, (491): 95-118. doi

Images

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Hudson G (1923) An index of New Zealand beetles. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 54 [1922]: 353–399.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Hudson G (1934) New Zealand beetles and their larvae: an elementary introduction to the study of our native Coleoptera. Ferguson & Osborne, Wellington, 236 pp.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Raffray A (1924) Etude sur la distribution geographique des coleopteres de la famille des Pselaphides. Extrait des Memorie della Pont. Accademia delle scienze nuovi Lincei vol. VI–VII, 220 pp.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Newton A, Thayer M (2005) Catalog of austral species of Staphylinidae and other Staphylinoidea [online]. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago [last updated 27 August 2005]. http://www.fieldmuseum.org/peet_staph/db_1b.html [accessed 18 July 2013]
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Nomura S, Leschen R (2006) Faunistic review on the pselaphine species known from New Zealand (Insecta, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). In: Tomida Y (Eds) Proceedings of the 7th and 8th Symposia on Collection Building and Natural History Studies in Asia and the Pacific Rim. Natural Science Museum Monographs 34: 239–272.