Psammoecus trimaculatus

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Yoshida T, Hirowatari T (2014) A revision of Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera, Silvanidae). ZooKeys 403 : 15–45, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2014-04-17, version 49487, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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author = {Yoshida, Takahiro AND Hirowatari, Toshiya},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A revision of Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera, Silvanidae)},
year = {2014},
volume = {403},
issue = {},
pages = {15--45},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.403.7145},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2014-04-17, version 49487, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - A revision of Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera, Silvanidae)
A1 - Yoshida T
A1 - Hirowatari T
Y1 - 2014
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 403
IS -
UR -
SP - 15
EP - 45
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2014-04-17, version 49487, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.403.7145

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Yoshida2014ZooKeys403">{{Citation
| author = Yoshida T, Hirowatari T
| title = A revision of Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera, Silvanidae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2014
| volume = 403
| issue =
| pages = 15--45
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.403.7145
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2023-01-28

}} Versioned wiki page: 2014-04-17, version 49487, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Coleoptera
Familia: Silvanidae
Genus: Psammoecus


Psammoecus trimaculatus Motschulsky, 1858Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Psammaechus [sic.] trimaculatus Motschulsky, 1858: Etud. Ent. 7: 45. Type locality: Sri Lanka; Type deposition: Zoological Museum, Moscow Lomonosov. (referring to Hetschko (1930)[1])
  • Psammoecus trimaculatus: Waterhouse 1876[2]: 124. – Reitter 1879[3]: 509. – Grouvelle 1906[4]: 125. – Grouvelle 1908[5]: 476. – Hetschko 1930[1]: 81. (catalogue) – Hisamatsu 1977[6]: 21. – Hisamatsu 1982[7]: 16. – Pal 1985[8]: 41, Figs 15–29. – Sato 1989[9]: 377. – Sasaki et al. 2002[10]: 224. – Halstead et al. 2007[11] – Hirano 2009[12]: 66. – Hirano 2010[13]: 15. – Karner 2012[14]: 24.
  • Psammoecus triguttatus: Hirano 2009[12]: 64, 65, 66. – Hirano 2010[13]: 12, 14. (misidentification)


This species is closely similar to Psammoecus triguttatus and Psammoecus labyrinthicus sp. n. but it can be distinguished from the former by the larger basal parameres and the broader distance between the posterior margin of the phallobase and the deepest point of incision of the anterior margin of the phallobase, and from the latter by the larger bases of parameres and the wider protuberances on the inner margins of the branches of the anterior phallobase. The rows of punctures on the elytra of Psammoecus trimaculatus (Fig. 5E) are comparatively narrower than in these two closely similar species. However, their external characters, especially their coloration, are variable. These features may cause misidentification.


Body length. 2.32–2.96 mm (n=38).
9th abdominal sternite (Fig. 13G). Strut Y-shaped, elongate, cut at anterior 3/8, diverging in posterior 1/5, branches relatively wide, narrowed gradually toward apex, ends of each branch curved inward. Lateral sclerites elongate, membranous.
Aedeagus (Fig. 13H, I). Parameres hatchet-shaped, inner margin around bases pointed, punctuated sparsely on stick-shaped portions, densely on anterior portions, a long seta at each apex, numerous short setae on stick-shaped portions and around inner margins of anterior parts. Posterior margin of phallobase rounded, phallobase roundly hollowed, its anterior branches markedly protruding inward. Penis gradually narrowed toward apex, posterior 1/9 flattened, punctuated sparsely on posterior 1/9.

Specimens examined

India: [Andhra Pradesh State] 1 ex., Hyderabad, 18–X–1969, T. Ishihara leg. (EUMJ). JAPAN: [Hokkaido Pref.] 1 male, Suehiro, Asahikawa City, 18–IX–2013, T. Yoshida leg. (ELKU); 1 male, Aizankei, Kamikawa Town, 2–IX–1977, A. Oda leg. (EUMJ); 1 ex., Sôunkyo, Kamikawa Town, 4–IX–1977, A. Oda leg. (EUMJ); 1 ex., Chûbisei, Memuro Town, 25–VIII–1995, S. Hisamatsu leg. (EUMJ); 2 exs., Fushimi Marsh, Memuro Town, 25–VIII–1995, S. Hisamatsu leg. (EUMJ). [Aomori Pref.] 1 male, Namioka Ôaza Yoshinoda, Aomori City, 16–IX–2012, K. Ikeuchi leg. (ELKU). [Gifu Pref.] 1 male, Tentoku, Mizunami City, 31–VII–2009, K. Itô leg. (ELKU). [Hyogo Pref.] 1 male, Mt. Mikusa-yama, Inagawa Town, 27–VI–1991, K. Ikeuchi leg. (ELKU). [Wakayama Pref.] 2 males, 3 females & 7 exs., Biwadani, Kinokawa City, 25–IV–2012, T. Yoshida leg. (ELKU). [Kagawa Pref.] 1 male, Yoshima Island, Sakaide City, 10–12–IX–1973, S. Kinoshita leg. (EUMJ). [Tokushima Pref.] 2 males, 2 females & 4 exs., Kamojima-chô, Yoshinogawa City, 4–III–2012, T. Yoshida leg. (ELKU). [Kochi Pref.] 1 male, Godaisan-Park, Kochi City, 21–V–1983, K. Ishida leg. (EUMJ). [Fukuoka Pref.] 1 male, Kitano-chô, Kurume City, 1–VII–2013, T. Yoshida leg. (ELKU). [Kagoshima Pref.] 1 male, Kotoku-gawa, Amami-Ôshima Island, 14–III–1988, M. Satô leg. (EUMJ). [Okinawa Pref.] 1 male, Yona, Kunigami Village, Okinawa Island, 17–VII–1965, Y. Hori leg. (EUMJ); 1 male, same locality, 19–X–1987, M. Sakai leg. (EUMJ); 1 male & 1 ex., Inaba, Iriomote Island, 9–VIII–1962, M. Satô & Y. Arita leg. (EUMJ).


JAPAN: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Amami-Ôshima, Okinawa, and Iriomote Islands. (Madagascar recorded by Karner (2012)[14]; Nepal, India and Bhutan recorded by Pal (1980).)


This species was redescribed by Pal (1980) with a description of the larva. It is distributed worldwide except for Europe and North America and common at least in Japan and India (Hirano 2009[12]; Karner 2012[14]; Pal 1980).
Hirano (2009)[12] and Hirano (2010)[13] illustrated this species as Psammoecus triguttatus and suggested that the distribution of Psammoecus trimaculatus in Japan is doubtful. In this paper, it is regarded as Psammoecus trimaculatus on the basis of comparison of the male genital structure of the species illustrated by Pal (1985)[8].
Pal (1985)[8] gave as the distribution of this species Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Nepal, India, Malaysia, Burma, New Guinea, Australia and Japan, synonymizing the following species with Psammoecus trimaculatus: Telephanus cruciger Waterhouse, 1876 and Psammoecus cephalotes Grouvelle, 1919 from New Guinea, Cucujus incommodus Walker, 1859 from Sri Lanka and Psammoecus ypsilon Blackburn, 1903 from Australia (Walker 1859[15]; Waterhouse 1876[2]; Blackburn 1903[16]; Grouvelle 1919[17]). In addition, Thomas and Yamamoto (2007)[18] recorded this species from Brazil. However, in view of the evidence that at least two other closely similar species have been confused with this species, past records of this species should be reexamined. The specimen figured by Thomas and Yamamoto (2007)[18] seems to be another species. In this paper, records of this species from outside Japan are recognised from label data described by Pal (1980) and Karner (2012)[14], on the basis that they examined the male genital structure.

Taxon Treatment

  • Yoshida, T; Hirowatari, T; 2014: A revision of Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera, Silvanidae) ZooKeys, 403: 15-45. doi

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hetschko A (1930) Fam. Cucujidae. In: Coleopterorum Catalogus Pars 109. W. Junk, Berlin, 1–90.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Waterhouse C (1876) Descriptions of new Cucujidae and Cleridae. The Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 13: 118-126.
  3. Reitter E (1879) Beitrag zur Synonymie der Coleopteren. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 29, 507–512.
  4. Grouvelle A (1906) Contribution a l’étude des coléopteères de Madagascar Nitidulidae, Colydiidae, Cucujidae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Mycetophagidae, Dryopidae, Heteroceridae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 75: 67-144.
  5. Grouvelle A (1908) Coléoptères de la région Indienne. Rhysodidae, Trogositidae, Nitidulidae, Colydiidae, Cucujidae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 77: 315-495.
  6. Hisamatsu S (1977) Some notes of clavicorn beetles from Hiroshima Prefecture (Hiroshima-ken san kyuukakugun kochu note). Hiroshima Mushi-no-kai Kaiho 16: 207-209. [In Japanese]
  7. Hisamatsu S (1982) Some clavicorn beetles from Nepal (Coleoptera). Transaction of the Shikoku Entomological Society 16: 15-17.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Pal T (1985) A revision of Indian Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Records of the Zoological Survey of India 71: 1-54.
  9. Sato M (1989) Coleoptera. In: Hirashima Y (Ed) A Check List of Japanese Insects I. Entomological Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 197-538. [In Japanese]
  10. Sasaki T, Kimura M, Kawamura F (2002) Coleoptera. In: Azuma S (Ed) Check List of the Insect of the Ryukyu Islands (Second Edition). The Biological Society of Okinawa, Nishihara, 157-284. [In Japanese, with English title]
  11. Halstead D, Löbl I, Jelínek J (2007) Silvanidae. In: Löbl I Smetana A (Eds) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 4. Elateroidea – Derodontoidea – Bostrichoidea – Lymexyloidea – Cleroidea – Cucujoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 496-501.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Hirano Y (2009) Notes on Japanese Silvanidae (Nihonsan hosohiratamushi-ka ni tsuite). Kanagawa-chûhô 168: 57-83. [In Japanese]
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Hirano Y (2010) Cucujoidea of Japan Vol.2 Silvanidae, Byturidae, Biphyllidae. Roppon-Ashi Entomological Books, Tokyo, 61 pp. [In Japanese, with English title]
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Karner M (2012) A revision of African Psammoecus from the collection of the Musée royal de l’Afrique central. European Journal of Taxonomy 17: 1-31. doi: 10.5852/ejt.2012.17
  15. Walker F (1859) Characters of some apparently undescribed Ceylon Insects. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology, Botany, and Geology 3(3): 50-56.
  16. Blackburn T (1903) Further Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with Descriptions of New Genera and Species. Transactions and Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of South Australia (incorporated) 27: 91-181.
  17. Grouvelle A (1919) Descriptions d’espèces nouvelles du genre Psammoecus Latr. In: Mèmoires Entomologiques. Études sur les coléoptères. II. Société Entomologiques de France, Paris, 5–38.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Thomas M, Yamamoto P (2007) New records of Old World Silvanidae in the New World (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea). Coleopterists Bulletin 61: 612-613. doi: 10.1649/0010-065X(2007)61[612:NROOWS]2.0.CO;2