Plectostoma retrovertens

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Liew T, Vermeulen J, Marzuki M, Schilthuizen M (2014) A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina. ZooKeys 393 : 1–107, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2014-03-25, version 43818, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Plectostoma_retrovertens&oldid=43818 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Liew2014ZooKeys393,
author = {Liew, Thor-Seng, Vermeulen, Jaap Jan, Marzuki, Mohammad Effendi bin AND Schilthuizen, Menno},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina},
year = {2014},
volume = {393},
issue = {},
pages = {1--107},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.393.6717},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/6717/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2014-03-25, version 43818, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Plectostoma_retrovertens&oldid=43818 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina
A1 - Liew T, Vermeulen J, Marzuki M
A1 - Schilthuizen M
Y1 - 2014
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 393
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.393.6717
SP - 1
EP - 107
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2014-03-25, version 43818, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Plectostoma_retrovertens&oldid=43818 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.393.6717

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Liew2014ZooKeys393">{{Citation
| author = Liew T, Vermeulen J, Marzuki M, Schilthuizen M
| title = A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2014
| volume = 393
| issue =
| pages = 1--107
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.393.6717
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/6717/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-11-12

}} Versioned wiki page: 2014-03-25, version 43818, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Plectostoma_retrovertens&oldid=43818 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Architaenioglossa
Familia: Diplommatinidae
Genus: Plectostoma

Name

Plectostoma retrovertens (Tomlin, 1938)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Type material

Holotype: BMNH 1938.10.25.2(1) (Seen). Paratype: ZMA 136044(>10) (Seen).

Other examined materials

RMNH 244699(1), RMNH 44725(8), ZMA 162133(>10), ZMA 162148(8), BOR 5559(3), BOR 5621(9), V 5124(9).

Diagnosis

Shares with Plectostoma palinhelix the spire and tuba form, but differs by having spire height between 2.3–2.6 mm.

Description

Apex. Shape: moderately convex.
Spire. Height: 2.3–2.6 mm. Width: 1.5–1.7 mm. Number of whorls: 4 5/8–5. Apical spire shape: depressed conical. Basal spire shape: ovoid. Whorl periphery: distinctly convex. Umbilicus: partially or completely closed by tuba.
Constriction. Parietal teeth: two. Basal teeth: none.
Tuba. Coiling direction: type 2 and aperture visible between right lateral and back view; the tuba coils upward until the first teleconch whorl of the spire. Tuba whorl length similar to the length of the last whorl of the spire. Proportion of tuba that attaches to spire: whole.
Aperture and peristome. Peristome: double peristomes. Outer peristome shape: similer to inner peristome, projected all around, except the posterior part, where two lateral sides are slightly more projected than the anterior side.
Spiral lines. Thick lines: present. Thin lines: present.
Radial ribs. Rib density: 7–9 ribs per mm. Rib intensity: thin. Shape: straight. Inclination: orthoclin.

Distribution

Type locality. Bukit Chintamanis, Pahang (3°26'45"N, 102°0'51"E).
Distribution range. Endemic to the type locality (Figure 18C).

Conservation status

Critically Endangered (B2ab(iii)+C2a(i) ver. 10.1). This species is endemic to a single limestone hill–Bukit Chintamanis. Most of the western part of this hill is gone due to the quarry activity in the past and this part is now covered by secondary vegetation. The rest of the outcrop is surrounded by plantation, which is subjected to periodic clearing and replanting. According to Berry (1961)[2], live individuals can only be found at the rock surface (Site A in Berry 1961[2]). Berry (1962)[3] reports finding several thousand individuals at Site A.
A recent intensive survey for Plectostoma retrovertens was done at the type locality in August 2010 and May 2011. Site A is a rock surface smaller than 20 m2. It appears that the vegetation cover and habitat structure of Site A has not changed as compared to the assessment done by Berry (1962[3], 1964[5]). However, only three live individuals were found during the survey in Aug. 2010. Furthermore, the surrounding of Bukit Chintamanis has been cleared in 2011. Judging by the population trends and habitat conditions together, this species is at the brink of extinction. The status of this species in a previous assessment (IUCN redlist) was: vulnerable D2 ver. 3.1 (Clements 2009c[12]).

Discussion

Plectostoma retrovertens and Plectostoma palinhelix are very distinct from other Plectostoma by having a very long tuba in relation to their spire. In fact, a preliminary phylogenetic analysis suggests that these two are basal species for all Peninsular Malaysia’s Plectostoma. These two species are located more 40 km apart on outcrops that belong to the same limestone facies (Figure 18C). The two species are very similar in their shell shape, but Plectostoma retrovertens is about one-third larger than Plectostoma palinhelix. Furthermore, the genetic divergence between the two species is 10%.

Taxon Treatment

  • Liew, T; Vermeulen, J; Marzuki, M; Schilthuizen, M; 2014: A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina ZooKeys, 393: 1-107. doi

Other References

  1. van Benthem Jutting W (1952) The Malayan species of Opisthostoma (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Cyclophoridae), with a catalogue of all the species hitherto described. The Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 24(5): 5–61. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/24/24brm005-062.pdf
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Berry A (1961) The habitats of some minute cyclophorids, hydrocenids and vertiginids on a Malayan limestone hill. The Bulletin of the National Museum 30: 101–105. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/30/30bnm101-105.pdf
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Berry A (1962) The growth of Opisthostoma (Plectostoma) retrovertens Tomlin, a minute cyclophorid from a Malayan limestone hill. Journal of Molluscan Studies 35: 46–49. http://mollus.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/1/46.full.pdf
  4. Berry A (1963) Growth and variation of the shell in certain Malayan limestone hill snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies 35: 203–206. http://mollus.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/5/203.full.pdf
  5. 5.0 5.1 Berry A (1964) The reproduction of the minute cyclophorid snail Opisthostoma (Plectostoma) retrovertens from a Malayan limestone hill. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 142: 655–664. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1964.tb04633.x
  6. Berry A (1966) Population structure and fluctuations in the snail fauna of a Malayan limestone hill. Journal of Zoology 150: 11–27. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1966.tb02996.x
  7. Solem A (1966) Sacks of exotic dirt. Bulletin Field Museum of Natural History 37(6): 3–4. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4188033#page/36/mode/1up
  8. Illert C (1987) Formulation and solution of the classical seashell problem. II Nuovo Cimento D. 9: 791–814. doi: 10.1007/BF02453750
  9. Solem A, Solem B (1976) Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Fieldiana. Zoology. Special Publications. Part 1: 536. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20377#page/49/mode/1up
  10. Heller J (2001) Life History Strategies. In: Barker G (Ed) The Biology of Terrestrial Molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 413–445. doi: 10.1079/9780851993188.0413
  11. Clements G (2007) Conservation biogeography of terrestrial molluscs on tropical limestone karsts. MSC thesis. National University of Singapore.
  12. Clements R (2009c) Opisthostoma retrovertens. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org [accessed on 26 November 2013]

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