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- Pilophoropsis Poppius, 1914: 249 (orig. descrip.); Carvalho 1952: 82 (cat.); 1955a: 80 (key); Carvalho 1955b: 227 (note); 1958: 141 (cat.); Knight 1968: 158 (key); Carvalho et al. 1983: 3 (note); Henry and Wheeler 1988: 399 (cat.); Henry 1994: 702 (note); Schuh 1995: 181 (cat.). Type species: Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, 1914. Original designation.
- Renodaella Knight, 1927: 306 (orig. descrip.); Carvalho 1952: 83 (cat.); 1955b: 227 (note, syn.). Synonymized by Carvalho 1955b: 227. Type species: Renodaella nicholi Knight, 1927. Original designation.
Characterized by the recessed labial segment I that does not extend beyond the gular sulcus (Fig. 121); the shiny, strongly convex pronotum that narrows anteriorly and has the lateral margins sulcate, with the disc and calli evenly rounded; the mostly dull or satiny hemelytron having only the cuneus, embolium, and basal area of the membrane polished, distinct bands and patches of tightly arranged, silvery scale-like setae, and stout, erect, black, bristle-like setae on the clavus and corium. Males are fully macropterous. Females are always brachypterous, with the apex of the cuneus and membrane greatly abbreviated, and the hemelytral setal pattern modified; and the pronotum is more quadrate, with the convexity of disc sulcate through the middle.
Myrmecomorphic. Males macropterous; females brachypterous. Length of males 2.80–3.52 mm; length of females 2.36–3.12 mm. Head broader than long; posterior margin truncate, distinctly carinate, posterior margins of eyes level with base of vertex; eyes large, elongate oval, occupying more than half of dorsal head width, laterally occupying nearly three fourths of height; front broadly rounded at level from eye to eye, clypeus moderately acute, partially visible from dorsal aspect; segment I of labium arising from and completely enclosed within oval gular sulcus, segment not or hardly visible below buccula in lateral aspect; labium extending to middle or hind coxae. Antenna with segment I shortest, II longest, most slender on basal half, gradually enlarging to apex that is subequal to diameter of segment I, sometimes swollen or clavate apically; segments III and IV thickest, usually fusiform, III sometimes more slender on basal half. Pronotum trapeziform, lateral margins weakly sulcate, narrowing anteriorly to obscure narrow, transverse, collar-like area, posterior angles often broadly flared, posterior margin weakly rounded; mesoscutum covered by base of pronotum, scutellum equilateral, base sometimes covered by base of pronotum. Hemelytron dull or satiny, with cuneus, embolium, and basal area of membrane polished, lateral margins shallowly constricted between bases of cuneus and corium; with distinct patches and bands of tightly arranged silvery scale-like setae; intermixed on clavus and corium with stout, erect, black, bristle-like setae. Cuneus and membrane fully developed in males; claval suture absent and apex of membrane at that level across cuneus usually abbreviated in females, exposing apical 3 or 4 abdominal segments. Ventral surface shiny; ostiolar area white, without raised knob at end of scent channel; second visible abdominal segment with a dull or glaucous, quadrate patch ventrally. Legs unmodified; parempodia fleshy, convergent apically. Male aperture large, open, unarmed; generalized left paramere elongate, with a subtriangular, beak-like, apical process, with variable processes arising basally to about the middle of the main trunk; right paramere roughly C-shaped, main stem stout, with a large recurving, sometimes bifurcate, lateral arm; phallotheca generally slender, with a distinct apical hook; endosoma unmodified.
I follow Steyskal (1973), who considered the suffix “opsis” feminine.
Prior to this study, only three species of Pilophoropsis were recognized. Strong sexual dimorphism in this genus makes it difficult to associate males and females when collected separately. As a consequence, the male of Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius (1914), previously known only from the brachypterous female, was described by Knight (1968) as Pilophoropsis balli. Polhemus and Polhemus (1985), however, showed that these two species are synonyms based on a series of males, females, and nymphs they collected together in Arizona, thus emphasizing the importance of male genitalic characters for separating species in the Ceratocapsini. Females can be identified only by their association with males at this time.
The following key relies primarily on male genitalic structures, nearly all of which may be viewed caudally without dissecting specimens.
Key to the males of Pilophoropsis
- Henry, T; 2015: Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae) ZooKeys, (490): 1-156. doi
- Carvalho J (1952) On the major classification of the Miridae (Hemiptera). (with keys to subfamilies and tribes and a catalogue of the world genera). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 24: 31–110.
- Carvalho J (1955a) Keys to the genera of Miridae of the world (Hemiptera). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi 11(2): 1–151.
- Carvalho J (1955b) Analecta miridologica: Miscellaneous observations in some American museums and bibliography. Revista Chilena de Entomologia 4: 221–227.
- Carvalho J (1958) Catalogue of the Miridae of the World. Arquivos Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Part III. Orthotylinae 47: 1–161.
- Knight H (1968) Taxonomic Review: Miridae of the Nevada Test Site and the western United States. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 9(3): 1–282.
- Carvalho J, Fontes A, Henry T (1983) Taxonomy of the South American species of Ceratocapsus, with descriptions of 45 new species (Hemiptera: Miridae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1676: 1–58.
- Henry T, Wheeler A (1988) Family Miridae Hahn, 1833. In: Henry T Froeschner R (Eds) Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. Brill EJ, Leiden and New York, 251–507.
- Henry T (1994) Revision of the myrmecomorphic plant bug genus Schaffneria Knight (Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96: 701–712.
- Schuh R (1995) Plant Bugs of the World (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae). Systematic catalog, distributions, host list, and bibliography. New York Entomological Society, New York, 1329 pp.
- Steyskal G (1973) The grammar of names in the Catalogue of the Miridae (Heteroptera) of the World by Carvalho, 1957-1960. Studia Entomologia 16: 203–208.
- Poppius B (1914) Übersicht der Pilophorus-Arten nebst Beschreibung verwandter Gattungen (Hem. Het.). Annales de la Sociéte Entomologique de Belgique 58: 237–254.
- Polhemus D, Polhemus J (1985) Myrmecomorphic Miridae (Hemiptera) on mistletoe: Phoradendrepulus myrmecomorphus gen. n., sp. n., and a redescription of Pilophoropsis brachypterus Poppius. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 61: 26–31.