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Holotype Male.“VENEZUELA: Aragua State; 10.35669°N, 67.60645°W; Henri Pittier N.P.: Rio Castaño; Regesiva del Diablo; 6.i.2009; Short, Miller, Camacho, Garcia; VZ09-0106-01X” Holotype deposited in MIZA. Paratypes (20): Same data as holotype (9 Specimens SEMC). “VENEZUELA: Aragua State; 10.35669°N, 67.60645°W; Henri Pittier N.P.: Rio Castaño; Regesiva del Diablo; 6.i.2009; leg. A.E.Z. Short; VZ09-0106-01C; stream leaf packs” (9 specimens SEMC). “VENEZUELA: Aragua State; 10.35669°N, 67.60645°W; Henri Pittier N.P.: Rio Castaño; Regesiva del Diablo; 6.i.2009; A.E.Z. Short; VZ09-0106-01A; log in stream” (2 specimens SEMC). Paratypes will be deposited in: 2 in MIZA, 2 in MALUZ, 2 in USNM, 14 in SEMC.
Phanocerus rufus can be distinguished from all other species of Phanocerus by the combination of its large size (2.7–3.5 mm), reddish coloration (Fig. 72), distinctive pronotal shape, that is 1.6x as wide as long (Fig. 75), and the presence of a short setose patch at base of mesotibia (Fig. 74).
Holotype male. Body elongate, sub-parallel, moderately convex (Fig. 72). Total length 2.7 mm, greatest width 1.2 mm. Cuticle light reddish-brown, maxillary palpus, basal antennomeres, and legs testaceous (Fig. 73). Dorsal surface with dense, erect golden setae and denser golden, recumbent setae. Surface microreticulate, with dense, fine punctures.
Head moderately coarsely, densely punctate; punctures separated by their diameter; cuticle microreticulate. Clypeus with anterior margin rounded. Fronto-clypeal suture deep and curved. Labrum with anterior margin entire and gently rounded, narrower than clypeus; angle on each side obtuse, covered with setae approximately twice as long as setae on head. Eyes protruding only slightly laterally; separated by a distance about 3x the eye-width; bordered by short dark brown curved setae (“eyelashes”) that arise near dorsal and ventral sides of eyes and extend toward middle of eye, setae not as prominent as in other genera. Antenna 11 segmented, densely pubescent, slightly clubbed; basal two antennomeres with dense, medium-brown, brushy setae, thicker in width than proceeding antennomeres, with dense recumbent setae and dense brushy light brown setae. Antennal club of six antennomeres, compact, wide, quite thickened towards apex. Antennae very short, just barely reaching transverse groove of pronotum. Apical five antennomeres reddish-brown, with dense recumbent setae. Apical antennomere rounded.
Pronotum overall smooth, 1.6x as wide as long; widest at basal third; anterior width roughly two thirds the posterior width; anterior margin strongly convex over base of head; base tri-sinuate (Fig. 74). Pronotum with a sublateral groove, which joins deep anterolateral fovea near the anterior margin; anterolateral margins explanate; base with two small foveae anterior to scutellum; lateral margins strongly sinuate, nearly at right angles at basal third, strongly gibbous (Fig. 74); surface similarly punctate to head. Hypomeron oblique. Scutellum flat, broader than long; posterior angle square. Prosternum long in front of procoxae. Anterior margin reflexed ventrally. Prosternal process narrowly triangular, broad at base and tapering to apex; disc with strong median carina, lateral margins reflexed; apex strongly acuminate (Fig. 73). Mesoventrite short, depressed, with a deep, narrow, U-shaped depression for reception of apex of prosternal process (Fig. 73). Metaventrite with disc inflated on posterior three-fourths, finely punctate behind mesocoxae; with deep, impressed longitudinal groove on midline of disc, groove deepest and broadest on posterior third of disc (Fig. 73); with short, dense pubescence; cuticular surface of metaventrite finely microreticulate.
Elytra more than 3.4x as long as pronotum; lateral margins slightly sinuate; humeri and base adjacent to scutellum slightly gibbous; lateral margins smooth; apex smoothly rounded. Each elytron with 10 coarse striae formed by a row of large, coarse punctures separated by more than three times their diameter; striae slightly impressed becoming narrower and more shallow towards the apex; strial punctures coarse basally, becoming progressively finer towards apex; striae 3 and 4 not converging sub-apically; intervals flat (Fig. 72). Elytral surface with dense, golden recumbent pubescence and dense, erect hair-like setae.
Legs thin and short. Pro-, meso- and metatibiae lacking fringe of tomentum. Protibia glabrous ventrally, tomentose dorsally. Mesotibia with short basal setose patch and short apical setose patch (Fig. 75). Metatibia tomentose. Apical tarsomere of all legs entirely pubescent.
Abdomen with five ventrites, all ventrites pubescent, covered with fine, golden setae (Fig. 73). First ventrite lacking longitudinal carina behind metacoxae; cuticle densely covered with short, recumbent setae. Ventrite 4 lacking V-shaped carina. Last ventrite subtruncate, medially with patch of dense, long, dark brown setae. Aedeagus slightly curved, with parameres nearly as long as aedeagus (Fig. 76). Internal sac quite visible in slide mount, densely lined with spicules (Fig. 76).
Female. Externally similar to male except slightly larger in size, protibiae slightly less curved than those of male. Metaventral disc not as deeply and less concave. Apical abdominal ventrite with less dense setae than male.
This species varies slightly in color, from dark reddish-brown to medium reddish-brown, length (2.7–3.5 mm), and degree of setation.
Distribution and habitat
This species has only been collected at the type locality at Rio Castaño, a small river in cloud forest on the interior slopes of Henri Pittier National Park, in Aragua State, Venezuela (Fig. 8). They were collected on logs in the stream and in leaf packs.
This species is named Phanocerus rufus, in reference to the slightly reddish cast of the cuticle.
Other material examined
(Not Assigned to species – all female, likely new species).
Population 1: VENEZUELA: Monagas State:“VENEZUELA: Monagas State; 10°10.322'N, 63°33.315'W; 1110m; Gauchero Cave National Park; 20.vii.2010; leg. Short, Tellez, Arias; along stream; VZ10-0720-02A” (2 specimens SEMC).
Population 2: Trujillo State: “VENEZUELA: Trujillo State; 9°11.935'N, 70°45.233'W, 1601m; ca. 6 km E Monte Carmelo; 22.vii.2009; leg. W. Shepard; VZ09-0722-03Z” (4 specimens SEMC).
Population 3: Aragua State: “VENEZUELA: Aragua; 19 km. N. Maracay; 2 July 1986; R.S. Miller colr” (1 specimen MAIC).
Population 4: Barinas State: “VENEZUELA: Barinas; nr. Alta Mira; 5 July 1986; R.S. Miller colr.; Riparian woodland” (1 specimen MAIC).
- Maier, C; 2013: A revision of the Larainae (Coleoptera, Elmidae) of Venezuela, with description of nine new species ZooKeys, 329: 33-91. doi
- Maier C, Short A (2013) A revision of the Lutrochidae (Coleoptera) of Venezuela, with description of six new species and key. Zootaxa 3637(3): 285-307. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3637.3.3