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For complete redescription and genitalia illustrations, see Spangler and Santiago-Fragoso 1992.
VENEZUELA: Amazonas State: “Venezuela Exp[edition].; Territ. Amazonas; Upper Cunucunuma; Julian Apr. 28, 1950” “J. Maldonado; Capriles Coll.” (2 specimens USNM). “Isla de las; Hormigas TFA; 22-VIII-51” “ExpFcoVen; Alto Orinoco” (2 specimens USNM). Barinas State: “VENEZUELA: Barinas State; 8°49.334'N, 70°11.993'W, 203 m; nr. Santa Barbara; 15.vii.2009; leg Short, Gustafson, Camacho; Garcia & Inciarte; along river; margins/snags; VZ09-0715-04A” (5 specimens SEMC). “VENEZUELA: Barinas State; 8°49.334'N, 70°11.993'W, 203 m; nr. Santa Barbara; 15.vii.2009; leg. W. Shepard; gross sample; VZ09-0715-04Z” (6 specimens SEMC). Bolívar State: “Venezuela; Bolívar; Rio Caura; Salto Para; Playon; 23-XI-1978” “B. Bechyne; lgt.” (15 specimens MIZA). “Venezuela –BO[Bolívar State]; Kanarakuni; Alto Caura, 450 m” “10–13.9.1964; F.F. Yepez &; J. Bechyne lgt.” (7 specimens MIZA). “Venezuela- Boli-; var [Bolívar State]. Guri rio; Caroni. 100m; 16-XI-1966” “J. & B. Bechyne; E. Osuna” (2 specimens MIZA). “Venezuela- Boli-; var [Bolívar State]. Guri rio; Caroni. 100m.; 11-IV-1968” “J. Salcedo; col.” (1 specimen MIZA). “Venezuela- Boli-; var [Bolívar State]. Guri rio; Caroni. 100m.; 10-IV-1968” “J. Salcedo; col.” (1 specimen MIZA). Mérida State: “VENEZUELA: Mérida State; 8°57.205'N, 71°17.620'W, 88 m; W. of Tucani; 21.vii.2009; Gross sample from river; leg. Shepard; VZ09-0721-04Z” (26 specimens SEMC). “VENEZUELA: Mérida State; 8°49.749'N, 71°25.579'W, 68m; ca. 4 km E. Santa Elena; 28.i.2012; leg. Short, Arias, & Gustafson; River Habitats; VZ12-0128-04A” (1 specimen SEMC). Monagas State: “VENEZUELA: Monagas State; 10°02.289'N, 63°46.623'W, 686m; 1.ii.2010, Rio Caripicual, btw.; San Antonio & Mundo Nuevo; leg. Short, Garcia, & Joly; in flow; /kicknetting; VZ10-0201-04B” (1 specimen SEMC). “VENEZUELA: Monagas State; 10°04.306'N, 63°33.561'W, 464 m; Rio Aragua, nr. Rio Chiquito; 1.ii.2010; leg. A. Short; in flow, kick netting; VZ10-0201-01B” (1 specimen SEMC). “VENEZUELA: Sucre State [locality in Monagas State]; 10°00.840'N, 63°08.548'W, 38 m; Rio Azagua; 31.i.2010; leg. L. Joly; general river; collecting; VZ10-0131-03C” (1 specimen SEMC). Táchira State: “VENEZUELA: Táchira State; 7°35.038'N, 72°10.340'W, 472 m; El Tama National Park; 16.vii.2009; leg. Short, Sites, Garcia, Inciarte, Gustafson & Camacho; HG-vapor light; VZ09-0716-07A” (2 specimens SEMC). Zulia State: “VENEZUELA: Zulia State; 10.86041°N, 72.32210°W, 95m; Quebrada Reincito; 30.xii.2008; leg. A. Short & M. Garcia; VZ08-1230-01A; in riffle area” (2 specimens SEMC).
Phanocerus clavicornis can be separated from all other species of Phanocerus by the shape of the pronotum (Fig. 68). The pronotum is narrow in Phanocerus clavicornis, with narrow anterolateral angles, which are not explanate. Additionally, the setose patch at the base of the mesotibia is short (Fig. 66).
This species varies a great deal in color and size, from 2.0–2.7 mm in size, and from dark brown to medium brown in color. Occasional specimens can have a reddish cast, but this is rare.
Distribution and habitat
The range of Phanocerus clavicornis is very large, and it is the most widely distributed laraine species in the Western Hemisphere. It occurs from Texas, in Southwestern United States, south to Amazonas State, Venezuela; it is also the most widely distributed in Venezuela, occurring throughout the country, excepting Los Llanos region in the central part of Venezuela (Fig. 6).That makes it the only species of laraine that crosses the Llanos and occurs on both the Guiana Shield and in the Northern Andes.
The habitat of Phanocerus clavicornis is similar to that of any other species of Phanocerus, it can be found in small to medium sized streams and rivers, in the leaf packs and on partially submerged detritus and woody debris.
Numerous species of aquatic Coleoptera have been collected with this common laraine elmid, however, they will not be listed here, since they are so widespread.
- Maier, C; 2013: A revision of the Larainae (Coleoptera, Elmidae) of Venezuela, with description of nine new species ZooKeys, 329: 33-91. doi
- Spangler P, Santiago-Fragoso S (1992) The Aquatic Beetle Subfamily Larainae (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology no. 528, 74 pp.